Glossary

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GLOSSARY INDEX

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C(505)
ABBREVIATION
DEFINITION
  • Centigrade (Degrees centigrade) 
  • C and/or J 
    China and/or Japan 
  • C of B 
    Centre of Buoyancy 
  • C ORE 7 
    Ore charter party 
  • C&F 
    Cost & Freight 
  • C&F FO 
    Cost & Freight Free Out 
  • C&F or CFR 
    Cost and Freight (named port of destination) Seller must pay the costs and freight to bring the goods to the port of destination. However, risk is transferred to the buyer once the goods are loaded on the vessel (this rule is new!). Maritime transport onl
  • C&F Terms of Sale, or INCOTERMS 
    Obsolete, although heavily used, term of sale meaning “cargo and freight” whereby Seller pays for cost of goods and freight charges up to destination port. In July, 1990 the International Chamber of Commerce replaced C&F with CFR. 
  • C.A.S. Number 
    Chemical Abstracts Service, a service of the American Chemical Society, identifies particular chemicals with a number. 
  • C.I.S 
    Commonwealth Independent States (ex Soviet Republics) 
  • C/C 
    sshinC/sshinC 
  • C/E/V 
    Communication/Entertainment/Victualling 
  • C/N 
    Credit Note 
  • C/P (CP) 
    charterparty 
  • C/S or CST 
    Centistokes 
  • C/V or CVS 
    Consecutive voyages 
  • C/V/E 
    Cable, victuals and entertainment 
  • C/X 
    sshinC / ssheX 
  • C–TPAT (Customs–Trade Partnership Against Terrorism) 
    A voluntary supply chain security partnership established by U.S. Customs and Border Protection in November 2001. Meeting the C–TPAT standards allows cargo owners faster processing through cus- toms formalities and inspections. 
  • C4 
    C4 derivatives are among the main olefin products coming from the steam cracker, along with ethylene and propylene. Butadiene is the most valuable product from the C4 fraction. 
  • CA 
    Condition of Authorities 
  • CABAF 
    Currency and Bunker Adjustment Factor 
  • Cable Layer 
    A vessel equipped to lay and repair underwater cables  
  • Cable Repair Ship 
    A vessel equipped for the retrieval and repair of underwater cables 
  • Cabotage 
    Refers to the coastal trades of a particular nation. Cabotage is often governed by statutes requiring that only ships flying the flag of the coastal state concerned may engage in the coastal trades between ports of that state, unless "waivers" are obtaine
  • Cabotage Fleet 
    see Fleet, Cabotage. 
  • Cadet 
    A student who is training to be a marine officer. 
  • CAF 
    Currency adjustment factor 
  • Calendar Day 
    CALENDAR DAY shall mean a period of twenty-four (24) consecutive hours running from 0000 hours to 2400 hours. Any part of a Calendar Day shall be counted pro-rata. 
  • Call 
    this denotes when a ship is coming to visit a port and berth 
  • Call Sign 
    Unique sequence of letters and numbers assigned to a ship for identification and communication purposes. 
  • CALM 
    Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring 
  • CALM Buoy 
    Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring Buoy - Simple system to which a tanker moors and then either loads or discharges its cargo. Buoy is moored by chains anchored to the seabed. 
  • CAN 
    Calcium ammonium nitrate (cargo) 
  • CANCL 
    Cancelling 
  • CAP 
    CAP (Condition Assessment Programme).- Independent and thorough scheme of inspections of the actual condition of a vessel. It is applicable as established in the present Rules and procedures and as defined in the Rules of the Classification Societies memb
  • Capesize 
    Capesize vessels are typically above 150,000 long tons deadweight (DWT). Capesize ships are cargo ships originally too large to transit the Suez Canal (i.e., larger than both Panamax and Suezmax vessels). To travel between oceans, such vessels used to hav
  • Capesize Vessel 
    A dry bulk vessel above 80,000dwt or whose beam precludes passage via the Panama Canal and thus forces them to pass around Cape Horn or the Cape of Good Hope. 
  • Caprolactam 
    One of the ingredients that are used to synthesize the most common nylon. Caprolactam is made from phenol. 
  • Caprolactam Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of caprolactam, a chemical used in the plastics industry for the production of polyamides 
  • Captain’s Protest 
    A document prepared by the captain of a vessel on arriving at port; shows conditions encountered during voyage, generally for the purpose of relieving ship owner of any loss to cargo and shifting responsibility for reimbursement to the insurance company. 
  • Car Carrier 
    A vehicles carrier for the carriage of new cars which are loaded via ramps 
  • CAR or CARIB 
    Caribbean Islands 
  • Car Park 
    A vessel used as a floating car park. 
  • Car Pooling 
    Use of individual carrier/rail equipment through a central agency for the benefit of carriers and ship- pers. 
  • Car Seal 
    Metal strip and lead fastener used for locking freight car or truck doors. Seals are numbered for record purposes. 
  • Carbohydrate 
    Any member of a very abundant and widespread class of natural organic substances, compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, that includes the sugars, starch, and cellulose. 
  • Carbon 
    An element forming a large number of compounds, many of which have important uses. Diamond and graphite are amongst the main forms of carbon. Coals are elemental carbon mixed with varying amounts of carbon compounds; coke and charcoal are nearly pure carb
  • Carbon residue 
    The solid, impure carbon deposits (coke) left behind by burned hydrocarbon fuels. The industry uses two tests, Conradson carbon (Con Carbon) and Ramsbottom carbon to measure oils' tendency to form such solids. 
  • Carcinogen 
    A substance or physical agent that is capable of causing cancer. For the purposes of classification by the GESAMP experts they are subdivided into the following three categories Animal Carcinogen- a substance that has been shown to cause cancer in laborat
  • Carfloat 
    A barge equipped with tracks on which up to approximately 12 railroad cars are moved in harbors or inland waterways. 
  • Cargo 
    Freight loaded into a ship. 
  • Cargo Manifest 
    A manifest that lists all cargo carried on a specific vessel voyage. 
  • Cargo NOS 
    Cargo Not Otherwise Specified. Usually the rate entry in a tariff that can apply to commodities not covered under a specific item or sub– item in the applicable tariff. 
  • Cargo Preference 
    Cargo reserved by a Nation’s laws for transportation only on vessels registered in that Nation.Typically the cargo is moving due to a direct or indirect support or activity of the Government. 
  • Cargo Tonnage 
    Most ocean freight is billed on the basis of weight or measurement tons (W/M). Weight tons can be expressed in short tons of 2000 pounds, long tons of 2240 pounds or metric tons of 1000 kilos (2204.62 pounds). Measurement tons are usually expressed as car
  • Caribbean Trading Area 
    is the area bounded by the east coasts of North, Central and South America; and a line from the east coast of the United States in latitude 32 o 30'N to a point 20oN: 60 o W, thence to a point 10oN : 50 oW , and thence south to the coast of South America.
  • Carload Rate 
    A rate applicable to a carload of goods. 
  • Carnet 
    A customs document permitting the holder to temporarily carry or send merchandise into certain for- eign countries (for display, demonstration or similar purposes) without paying duties or posting bonds. Any of various Customs documents required for cross
  • Carotene 
    A natural constituent which gives crude palm oil its bright orange-red colour and which is normally destroyed by the high temperatures in the refining and/or deodorisation processes. It is also partially destroyed by oxidation under adverse conditions of
  • Carrier 
    Any person or entity who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of carriage by rail, road, sea, air, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes. 
  • Carrier’s Certificate 
    A certificate required by U.S. Customs to release cargo properly to the correct party. 
  • Cartage 
    Usually refers to intra–city hauling on drays or trucks. Same as drayage. 
  • Cartment 
    Customs form permitting in–bond cargo to be moved from one location to another under Customs control, within the same Customs district. Usually in motor carrier’s possession while draying cargo. 
  • CAS 
    Condition Assessment Survey 
  • Cash Against Documents (CAD) 
    Method of payment for goods in which documents transferring title are given the buyer upon payment of cash to an intermediary acting for the seller, usually a commission house. 
  • Cash in Advance (CIA) 
    A method of payment for goods in which the buyer pays the seller in advance of the shipment of goods. Usually employed when the goods, such as specialized machinery, are built to order. 
  • Cash With Order (CWO) 
    A method of payment for goods in which cash is paid at the time of order and the transaction becomes binding on both buyer and seller. 
  • Casino, Stationary 
    A stationary vessel fitted out as a floating casino. 
  • Castor Oik 
    Oil from Ricinus communis produced mainly in India, Brazil and China. Castor oil differs from all other common oils in being rich (~90%) in the hydroxyl acid, ricinoleic. Castor oil is a source of several important oleochemicals including Turkey-red oil,
  • Cat gasoline 
    The motor fuel-blending component produced by catalytic cracking units. 
  • Cat naphtha 
    see CAT GASOLINE. Some refiners could, if their markets made it desirable, hydrotreat cat gasoline to make a naphtha suitable for some use other than motor fuel blending, such as steam cracker feedstock. 
  • Catalyst 
    A catalyst is a substance which, when added to the components of a chemical reaction, speeds up the rate of that reaction but does not itself become involved chemically. An example of such compounds in the edible oil context is nickel used in hydrogenatio
  • Catalytic cracker 
    These refinery units, also widely known as cat crackers and FCC's (for fluid catalytic crackers) or FCCU's, convert heavy distillate, most commonly vacuum gasoil, to lighter fractions. Refiners use them, basically, to break molecules which boil in the hea
  • Catalytic cracking 
    The process of breaking up heavier hydrocarbon molecules into lighter hydrocarbon fractions by use of heat and catalysts. See also cracking. 
  • Catfeed 
    The charge fed to a catalytic cracker. Common usage generally restricts this term to describing vacuum gasoils 
  • Cathode 
    Electrode at which the cathodic reaction predominates 
  • Cathodic Protection 
    Electrochemical protection achieved by decreasing the corrosion potential to a level at which the corrosion rate of the metal is significantly reduced 
  • Caustic 
    NaOH = Sodium hydroxide. A corrosive substance due to its high pH 
  • CB & H Cont. 
    (BH) Continent between Bordeaux and Hamburg 
  • CBFS 
    Carbon black feed stock 
  • CBFT 
    Cubic Feet 
  • CBFT or CF or CFT or CUFT or FT3 
    Cubic feet 
  • CBFT or CFT 
    Cubic Feet 
  • CBL 
    Cable 
  • CBM 
    Cubic meters 
  • CBM or CUM or M3 
    Cubic Meter 
  • CBS 
    Cyprus Bureau of Shipping 
  • CBT 
    Clean Ballast Tanks: Applies only to Pre-MARPOL vessels which adopted COW instead of converting to SBT when MARPOL 73/78 entered into Force. When operating as a "Products" tanker (typically with Fuel Oil), COW is not available so vessel adopts "CBT" mod 
  • CC 
    Condition of Class 
  • CC/HR 
    Cubic centimeter per hour 
  • CC/MIN 
    Cubic centimeter per minute 
  • CCC 
    Communist Controlled Countries or Customs Cooperation Council 
  • CCC Mark 
    A mark or label indicating the cargo conforms to standards required by China for certain products. 
  • CCP 
    Clean Petroleum Products 
  • CCR 
    Cargo Control Room 
  • CCTV 
    Closed Circuit Television 
  • CD 
    Chart Datum; Customary Despatch 
  • CDI 
    Chemical distribute Institute: A chemical industry ship inspection process and database. Managed through joint representation by charterers and ship managers. 
  • CE 
    Consumption Entry: The process of declaring the importation of foreign–made goods for use in the United States. 
  • CE Mark 
    A mark or label indicating the cargo conforms to standards required by the European Union for certain products. 
  • Ce Ta 
    Center Tank 
  • CEFIC 
    European Chemical Industry Council 
  • CEIBOIS 
    European Confederation of Wood Industries 
  • Cells 
    The construction system employed in container vessels; permits ship containers to be stowed in a vertical line with each container supporting the one above it 
  • Cement Carrier 
    A single deck cargo vessel fitted with pumping arrangements for the carriage of cement in bulk. There are no weather deck hatches. May be self discharging 
  • Cement Storage Barge, non propelled 
    A barge with pumping facilities for loading & discharging cement. 
  • CENSA 
    Council of European National Shipowners Associations 
  • Center of Gravity 
    The point of equilibrium of the total weight of a containership, truck, train or a piece of cargo. 
  • Centigrade degrees (C) 
    Also known as Celsius degrees. A temperature scale according to which water boils at 100 and freezes at 0. Centigrade, or Celsius, degrees convert to Fahrenheit degrees by the following formula: (C x 1.8) + 32=F. 
  • Centistoke 
    The unit, commonly abbreviated cSt, of kinematic viscosity which reports a liquid's resistance to flow in terms of its measured viscosity divided by its density. 
  • Centrifuging 
    Substances having different densities will separate by gravity. For example, oil is lighter than water and easily forms a separate upper layer. The effect of gravity can be accentuated by increasing the strength of the gravitational force, for example by
  • CEPE 
    European Council of the Paint, Printing Ink and Artists' Colors Industry, an association affiliated to Cefic. 
  • Certificate of Inspection 
    – A document certifying that merchandise (such as perishable goods) was in good condition immediately prior to its shipment. – The document issued by the U.S. Coast Guard certifying an American – Flag vessel’s compliance with applicable laws and regulatio
  • Certificate of Origin 
    A certified document showing the origin of goods; used in international commerce. 
  • CES 
    Centre Européen des Silicones 
  • Cetan rating 
    see CETANE NUMBER 
  • Cetane index (CI) 
    An estimated diesel fuel performance rating which relies on samples' API gravity and mid-point CI=-420.34 + 0.016G2 + 0192G log M + 65.01 (LOG M)2-0.0001809M2 where G= API gravity and M=mid-point in F 
  • Cetane number 
    A performance indicator for diesel fuel analogous to the octane rating applied to gasolines. The more paraffinic the gasoil, the higher its cetane number. 
  • CF 
    Cubic feet 
  • CF/H 
    Cubic feet per hour 
  • CFC 
    Chloro/Fluoro Compound 
  • CFG 
    Cubic feet of gas 
  • CFG 
    China Focus Group 
  • CFG/D 
    Cubic feet of gas per day 
  • CFG/H 
    Cubic feet of gas per hour 
  • CFG/M 
    Cubic feet of gas per minute 
  • CFR 
    Code of Federal Regulations (USCG) 
  • CFR 
    Cost and Freight (named port of destination) Seller must pay the costs and freight to bring the goods to the port of destination. However, risk is transferred to the buyer once the goods are loaded on the vessel (this rule is new!). Maritime transport onl
  • CFR (Cost and Freight) (...Named Port of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale where the seller pays the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destina- tion, Terms of Sale but the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as (continued) well as any additional costs due to events occurring a
  • CFS 
    Container freight station 
  • CFS 
    Cubic Feet per Second or Container Freight Station 
  • CGO 
    Cargo 
  • CH 
    Chain locker (OCIMF acronym) 
  • CH & H 
    Continent between Le Havre and Hamburg 
  • CHA 
    Customs house agent 
  • CHABE 
    Charterer’s agents both ends 
  • Chains 
    This terms has a chemical and commercial usage in the oil business. It describes the strands of carbon atoms (carbon chains) fundamental to hydrocarbon molecules. It also serves as a designation for the strings of transactions assembled to settle a 
  • Channel 
    a natural or man-made deeper course through a reef, bar, bay, or any shallow body of water, often used by ships. 
  • Charge 
    see Feedstock 
  • Charter Party 
    A written contract between the owner of a vessel and the person desiring to employ the vessel (char- terer); sets forth the terms of the arrangement, such as duration of agreement, freight rate and ports involved in the trip. 
  • Charter, Bareboat 
    A charter where the owner provides his ship to the Charterer who then provides his own officers and crew and operates the vessel as if it were a unit of his own fleet. Hire is usually paid on a daily rate, monthly in advance, and the owner retains rights 
  • Charter, Time 
    The chartering of a vessel for a fixed period of time with the vessel delivering and re-delivering at agreed dates and at agreed zones or places though usually with an option to the Charterer to extend the period of charter. It is really a contract for t 
  • Charter, Trip 
    A contract where the vessel has specific beginning and end ports but where the route and time taken may vary. 
  • Charterer 
    A person or firm who enters into a contract with a shipowner for the transportation of cargo or passengers for a stipulated period of time, i.e. a shipowner's customer 
  • Chartering 
    Commercial leasing of a vessel or space on a vessel. 
  • Chassis 
    A frame with wheels and container locking devices in order to secure the container for movement. 
  • ChE inhibitor 
    Cholinesterase inhibitor. A substance which produces inhibition of the cholinesterase group of enzymes, that play a vital role in nerve impulse transmission and other biological functions. Also known as anticholinesterase. 
  • Chem 
    Chemical 
  • Chemical Carrier 
    see PARCEL TANKER 
  • Chemical intermediate 
    A chemical intermediate is any substance generated by one step in a synthetic process and used for the succeeding step. 
  • Chemical oxygen demand 
    When organic materials are not easily degraded by microorganisms, strong oxidizing agents (e.g., potassium permanganate) are used to enhance oxidation. COD is thus measured instead of BOD (see BOD). COD values will be larger than BOD values. 
  • Chemical reaction 
    A chemical process in which substances are changed into different substances. Chemical reactions are manifested by the disappearance of properties characteristic of the starting materials and the appearance of new properties that distinguish the products.
  • Chemical Refining 
    Refers particularly to the removal of free fatty acids by alkali. The alkali used is usually sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) or sodium carbonate (soda ash), either singly or in combination. One novel chemical refining technique uses aqueous ammonia as the
  • Chemical Tank Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled tank barge for the carriage of chemicals 
  • Chemical Tanker 
    A tanker built to comply with either the International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IBC Code) or the Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (BCH Code)
  • Chemical Tanker Barge, propelled 
    An self propelled tanker barge for the bulk carriage of chemical cargoes, lube oils, vegetable/animal oils and other chemicals as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code 
  • Chemical Tanker, Inland Waterways 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of chemical cargoes, lube oils, vegetable/animal oils and other chemicals as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code which is not suitable for trading in open waters. Tanks are coated with suitable materials which ar
  • Chemical/Products Tank Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled tank barge for the carriage of chemicals or oil products 
  • Chemical/Products Tanker 
    A chemical tanker additionally capable of the carriage of clean petroleum products 
  • Chemical/Products Tanker Barge, propelled 
    An self propelled chemical tanker barge additionally capable of the carriage of clean petroleum products 
  • Chemical/Products Tanker, Inland Waterways 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of chemical cargoes, lube oils, vegetable/animal oils and other chemicals as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code or Petroleum Products which is not suitable for trading in open waters.  
  • CHINPO 
    China Sea, Indian and Pacific Oceans 
  • Chlorides 
    Chlorine-containing compounds. The oil trade pays most attention to these substances when discussing naphtha. Reformers need a specific amount of chloride on their catalyst to perform properly, any more or any less amounts to poison. Naphtha feedstock con
  • Chlorine 
    Chlorine, an inorganic chemical that can be obtained both naturally and synthetically, has a huge variety of uses, as a disinfectant and purifier, in plastics and polymers, solvents, agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals, as well as an intermediate in manufac
  • Chlorobenzene 
    A colorless, liquid organic compound used as a solvent and starting material for the manufacture of other organic compounds, such as phenol. 
  • Chloroethylene 
    See Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) 
  • Chlorophyll 
    A natural, green colouring agent vital to a plant's photosynthesis process which is removed from vegetable oils through bleaching and refining processes. 
  • CHN 
    China 
  • Chock 
    A piece of wood or other material placed at the side of cargo to prevent rolling or moving sideways. 
  • Chock-a-Block 
    Meaning something is filled to capacity or over loaded. If two blocks of rigging tackle were so hard together they couldn't be tightened further, it was said they were "Chock-a-Block". 
  • Cholesterol 
    Cholesterol is one of a class of compounds known as sterols. It is an important component in animal tissues and cell membranes but found only in trace amounts in plant tissues. While many vegetable oils are known to contain traces of cholesterol, the amou
  • CHOPT 
    Charterers Option (As opposed to owner's option) 
  • Chromatography 
    Chromatography is a separation process used to analyse mixtures. The mixture, dissolved in a mobile phase, is contacted with a stationary phase, usually a fine powder. The components of the mixture are adsorbed or retained by the stationary phase to varyi
  • Chronic 
    A long time period of action in weeks, months, or years 
  • Chronic Effects of Overexposure 
    The adverse effects that develop slowly over a long period of time or upon repeated prolong exposure to a hazardous material without implying a degree of severity 
  • Chronic toxicity 
    Effects resulting from repeated exposure to a material for the lifespan of the species, or the greater part thereof. 
  • CHRTS 
    Charterers 
  • CHRTS or CHTRS 
    Charterers 
  • CHS 
    Continuous Survey of Hull 
  • CI 
    Cost and Insurance: A price that includes the cost of the goods, the marine insurance and all transportation charges except the ocean freight to the named point of destination. 
  • CI or CLS 
    Clause 
  • CIA 
    UK Chemical Industries Association 
  • CIF 
    Cost, Insurance and Freight (named port of destination)  Exactly the same as CFR except that the seller must in addition procure and pay for the insurance. Maritime transport only. The four rules defined by Incoterms 2010 for international trade where tra
  • CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight) (...Named Place of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale where the seller has the same obligations as under the CFR but also has to procure marine insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premi
  • CIF (Named Port) 
    Cost, Insurance, Freight (Named Port). Same as C&F or CFR except seller also provides insurance to named destination. 
  • CIF&C 
    Price includes commission as well as CIF. 
  • CIF&E 
    Cost, insurance, freight and exchange 
  • CIFCI 
    Cost, insurance, freight, commission and interest 
  • CIFFO 
    Cost, insurance, freight, and free out 
  • CIFI&E 
    Cost, insurance, freight, interest and exchange 
  • CIFLT 
    Cost, insurance and freight, London terms 
  • CIM 
    International Convention Concerning the Carriage of Goods by Rail 
  • CINET 
    International Committee of Textile Care 
  • CIP 
    Carriage and Insurance Paid to (named place of destination) The containerized transport/multimodal equivalent of CIF. Seller pays for carriage and insurance to the named destination point, but risk passes when the goods are handed over to the first carrie
  • CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid To) (...Named Place of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale which means the seller has the same obligations as under CPT, but with the addition that the seller has to procure cargo insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts for insu
  • CIRFS 
    Comité International de la Rayonne et des Fibers Synthétiques (International Rayon and Synthetic Fibers Committee) 
  • CIRR 
    Commercial Interest Reference Rate 
  • CIS 
    The term applied to a geometric isomer of an unsaturated fatty acid where the hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon atoms comprising the double bond are on the same side of the carbon chain. 
  • CIS 
    Commonwealth of Independent States 
  • CKD 
    Completely or Cars knocked down 
  • CL 
    Carload or Containerload 
  • Claim 
    A demand made upon a transportation line for payment on account of a loss sustained through its alleged negligence. 
  • Class 
    Classification society which has inspected and certified the vessel from construction, launch and periodically throughout a vessel''s trading life, including re-classification after any incident of grounding, stranding or collision. 
  • Class 1 [Deck] 
    Master or Captain: Entitles the holder to act as Master on a ship of any size, with unlimited trading range. 
  • Class 1 [Engineer] 
    Chief Engineer: Entitles the holder to act as Chief Engineer on a ship of any power. 
  • Class 2 [Deck] 
    1st Mate, Chief Mate or Chief Officer: Entitles the holder to act as Chief Mate on a ship of any size with unlimited trading or may entitle the holder to act as Master on a ship but with restrictions on size or trading area. 
  • Class 2 [Engineer] 
    2nd Engineer: Entitles the holder to sail as Second Engineer on a ship of any power but may also entitle the holder to act as Chief Engineer on a ship with a restriction on power. 
  • Class 3 [Deck] 
    2nd Mate: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of a navigational watch on a ship of any size with unlimited trading but may also entitle the holder to act as Chief Mate, or possibly Master, on a ship but with restrictions on size or trading are
  • Class 3 [Engineer] 
    3rd Engineer: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of an engineering watch on a ship of any power but may also entitle the holder to act as Second Engineer, or possibly Chief Engineer, on a ship with a restriction on power. 
  • Class 4 [Deck] 
    3rd Mate: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of a navigational watch on any ship. 
  • Class 4 [Engineer] 
    4th Engineer: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of an engineering watch on a ship of any power. 
  • Classification 
    A publication, such as Uniform Freight Classification (railroad) or the National Motor Freight Clas- sification (motor carrier), that assigns ratings to various articles and provides bill of lading descriptions and rules. 
  • Classification Rating 
    The designation provided in a classification by which a class rate is determined. 
  • Classification Society 
    An organization maintained for the surveying and classing of ships so that insurance underwriters and others may know the quality and condition of the vessels offered for insurance or employment. See also ABS, BV, DNV, LR and NK. 
  • Classification Yard 
    A railroad yard with many tracks used for assembling freight trains. 
  • Clastogen 
    A substance capable of causing structural injury to chromosomes. 
  • Clayton Act 
    An anti–trust act of the U.S. Congress making price discrimination unlawful. 
  • CLC 
    International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage 1969/1984 (Certificate of Insurance) 
  • Clean 
    Unleaded, when used to describe motor gasoline or blendstock. 
  • Clean Ballast 
    Ballast contained in cargo tanks that have been COW'd and thoroughly water washed. It may be discharged to sea and meets MARPL requirements. 
  • Clean Bill of Health 
    A certificate signed by a port authority attesting that no contagious disease existed in the port of departure and none of crew were infected with a disease at the time of sailing. Shore-side, it means in good shape.. 
  • Clean Bill Of Lading 
    A bill of lading issued by a carrier declaring that the goods have been received in an appropriate condition, without the presence of defects. The product carrier will issue a clean bill after thoroughly inspecting the packages for any damage, missing qua
  • Clean fuels 
    So-called clean fuels are among the instruments introduced by EU Member States to combat air pollution problems arising from increases in road transport. See Auto-Oil Programme. 
  • Cleaning in Transit 
    The stopping of articles, such as peanuts, etc., for cleaning at a point between the point of origin and destination. 
  • Clear Point 
    The clear point is the temperature at which a fat sample in a closed capillary tube or a U-tube becomes completely clear on warming. 
  • Clear the Deck 
    One of the things done in preparation for battle. Current usage similar to "Batten down the hatches".. 
  • Clearance Limits 
    The size beyond which cars or loads cannot use bridges, tunnels, etc. 
  • Cleat 
    A strip of wood or metal used to afford additional strength, to prevent warping, or to hold in place. 
  • Climate change 
    The term "climate change" is used to imply a significant change from one climatic condition to another. Sometimes, climate change is used synonymously with the term global warming; scientists however, tend to use the term in the wider sense to also includ
  • Clingage 
    Material which adheres to the surface of tank walls and structures, both horizontal and vertical, within empty and part empty tanks, other than bottom surfaces. 
  • Clip–On 
    Refrigeration equipment attachable to an insulated container that does not have its own refrigeration unit. 
  • Close Quarters 
    In the 17th century the barriers that sailors laid across a ship’s deck in order to provide a safe haven from the enemy were called close-fights. By the mid 18th century that confined defensive space became called ‘close quarters’, i.e. close dwellings. T
  • Closed Operations 
    The procedure to prevent the release of cargo vapours at deck level on vessels during loading, ballasting and discharging. This is essential when handling toxic, volatile or noxious cargoes to prevent injury to personnel and risk of ignition. "Closed Ope 
  • Cloud Point 
    The cloud point is the temperature at which the oil begins to cloud resulting from crystallisation under controlled cooling. The cloud point is related to the unsaturation of the oil. In general, the higher the unsaturation of an oil, the lower will be it
  • Cloud point 
    The temperature where wax crystals begin to appear in a cooled hydrocarbon mixture. This quality consideration, usually applied to gasoil, indicates how cold the air must become to make a stream form solids which block filters halting fuel delivery. Cloud
  • CM 
    Centimeter 
  • CMF 
    Composite Meter Factor 
  • CMI 
    Committee Maritime International 
  • CMID 
    Common Marine Inspection Document 
  • CMO 
    Common Market Organization 
  • CMPL 
    Completed 
  • CMPS 
    Centimeters per second 
  • CMR 
    Convention on the Contract for International Carriage of Goods by Road 
  • CMS 
    Continuous Survey of Machinery 
  • CNG 
    Compressed Natural Gas 
  • CNG Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of Compressed Natural Gas. Cargo remains in gaseous state but is highly compressed 
  • CNR 
    Charterers not reported; Charter not reported 
  • CO 
    Cargo oil; Case oil; Country of origin 
  • Co-products 
    substances made in one processing unit at the same time. A lot of refining hardware, especially crackers, cannot help making an assortment of hydrocarbons. The industry uses "co product" when it does not want to designate one material a plant's 
  • CO2 
    Carbon Dioxide. A colorless, non-poisonous gas that is a normal part of the ambient air. Carbon dioxide is formed in combustion of fossil fuel and carbon-containing materials, in fermentation, and in respiration of animals and employed by plants in the ph
  • CO2 Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of liquefied carbon dioxide 
  • COA 
    Contract of Affreightment: A cargo transportation arrangement whereby the owner agrees to transportation of a specified quantity of cargo over a set period of time in a vessel or series of vessels for the Charterer. It consists of the base terms of agre 
  • COA 
    Contract of affreightment. An arrangement between a ship owner and a charterer for the carriage of a certain amount of specified grade or grades of cargo on named routes over a period of time. Owners may use any suitable ships at their disposable to meet
  • COACP 
    Contract of Affreightment Charter Party 
  • Coal 
    A black or brownish black solid, combustible carbon-rich substance formed by the partial decomposition of vegetable matter without access to air. Coal is one of the most important of the primary fossil fuels. It is indispensable to life and constitutes hu
  • Coal tar 
    Coal tar is a principal liquid product resulting from the carbonization of coal, i.e. the heating of coal in the absence of air at temperatures ranging from about 900º to 1,200ºC (1,650º to 2,200ºF). Many commercially important compounds are derived from
  • Coal/Oil Mixture Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of a cargo of coal and oil mixed as a liquid and maintained at high temperatures 
  • Coast Guard-AWO Safety Partnership 
    The Coast Guard-AWO Safety Partnership, the first formal industry-Coast Guard partnership of its kind, has launched more than 25 quality action teams that address the most pressing industry safety issues. The Partnership is responsible for improving safet
  • Coastal 
    Smallest tankers and are generally used in coastal waters requiring a shallow draft. (3,001 dwt - 10,000 dwt approx ) 
  • Coastal amenity 
    Beach, mudflat, wharf, boardwalk or any other feature of the coastline considered of public value 
  • Coastal Waters 
    an area designated as such by the Administration and where this is not so designated it means an area not more than 20 miles from a safe refuge. 
  • Coastwise 
    Water transportation along the coast. 
  • COB 
    Cargo On Board or Close of Business 
  • COBLDN 
    Closing Of Business LoDoN 
  • COC 
    Certificate of Compliance means a certificate issued by the Coast Guard to a foreign flag vessel after it is examined and found to comply with regulations in this chapter. 
  • Cocoa Butter 
    The seed fat of ""Theobroma Cacao"", a small tree growing in tropical climates. Normally the cocoa beans are fermented and roasted to develop the desirable cocoa flavour. The beans are then milled to produce cocoa mass. Pressing of the cocoa mass gives co
  • Cocoa Butter Equivalent 
    Fats which behave like cocoa butter in all respects and are able to mix with cocoa butter in any proportion without altering the melting, rheological and processing characteristics of cocoa butter in all types of formulation. These fats have the physico-c
  • Cocoa Butter Substitute 
    Fats which have a very limited compatibility with cocoa butter as mixing with cocoa butter adversely affects the rheological, melting and processing characteristics of the product. These fats on their own and also with a limited amount of cocoa butter hav
  • Coconut Oil 
    Coconut oil is the oil obtained from copra - dried coconut meat. An edible oil, coconut oil is distinguished from other edible oils by its high content of short chain saturated acids (predominantly lauric) and its low unsaturated acid content. Susceptible
  • COD 
    Cash on delivery : Financial transaction wherein the payment for goods/services is done at the time of delivery/execution rather than in advance. 
  • Codex Alimentarius 
    A Commission operating under the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations/World Health Organisation (FAO/WHO) auspices, which has the task of preparing model standards and codes of practice for edible products and for food processes. It ope
  • COE 
    Certificate of Entry 
  • COF 
    Certificate of Fitness 
  • COFC 
    Container On Flat Car 
  • COFFERDAM 
    Void space in a vessel to separate cargo tanks from each other or from the engine room 
  • COFR 
    Certificate of Financial Responsibility (OPA 90) 
  • COFR/CA 
    Certificate of Financial Responsibility (OPA 90) for California 
  • COGS 
    Cost of Goods Sold : Aka Direct Costs, the sum of all expenditures for materials and labour to produce a product or provide a service. 
  • COGSA 
    Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 
  • COH 
    Cuba, Orinoco River and Haiti 
  • Coiled 
    Tankers fitted with tubes which carry hot water or steam through viscous cargoes, such as heavy fuel oil and certain crudes, to keep them fluid. 
  • Coke 
    solid, almost hydrogen-free carbon made on purpose in fuel oil destruction units called cokers or inescapably in other processing hardware. Coke forms on the catalyst in cat crackers and in the furnaces of ethylene plants. The coke manufactured intentiona
  • Coker 
    A thermal processing unit which cracks heavy refinery streams, such as vacuum still bottoms, into light products while reducing much of that feedstock to solid carbon. The liquids yielded by these units, often called coker naphtha and coker gasoil, usuall
  • Coking 
    A thermal cracking process to break up large molecules into smaller ones with the generation of quantities of petroleum coke. 
  • Cold blender 
    see blender. European producers of motor gasoline who have no distillation or other refining equipment go by this name. They make their product by mixing purchased "cold" components. This term has the advantage over the simple "blender" used in the USA of
  • Cold filter plugging point 
    A measure of diesel fuel's suitability for use in cold weather. Usually called by its initials, CFPP, this specification reports the temperature where clotted wax stops fuel from passing through a test filter. CFFP goes beyond cloud point, which indicates
  • Cold zone 
    Area where the command post and support functions that are necessary to control the incident are located. This is also referred to as the clean zone or support zone in other documents. (NFPA 472) 
  • COLIPA 
    Comité de Liaison des Associations Européennes de l'Industrie de la Parfumerie, des Produits Cosmétiques et de Toilette (European Cosmetic, Toiletry and Perfumery Association) 
  • Collecting 
    A bank that acts as an agent to the seller’s bank (the presenting bank). The collecting bank assumes no responsibility for either the documents or the merchandise. 
  • Collection 
    A draft drawn on the buyer, usually accompanied by documents, with complete instructions concerning processing for payment or acceptance. 
  • collision 
    when two moving vessels strike each other 
  • Colonial grade 
    Light petroleum product which conforms to one of the specifications of Colonial Pipeline Company. 
  • Colonial pipeline 
    The on-land pipeline system connecting US Gulf Coast refineries to Southeast and Atlantic Coast markets. The main artery runs from Deer Park, Texas, to Linden, NJ. It has the effective capability to carry roughly 2.1 million barrels per day of clean produ
  • Color 
    A spectrum which extends from absolutely colorless (usually described as water white) to dirty (black and opaque). This property only pertains usefully to light refined products and gas liquids. It makes a handy indicator of contamination or poor distilla
  • Color 
    Most oil products are preferred as colourless as possible. In the oils and fats trade, the colour of oils is usually measured by the Lovibond Comparator. Alternatively, a spectrophotometer may be used to record the variation of light absorbence over the v
  • COLREGS 
    International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972 as amended (IMO) 
  • Column Chromatography 
    This is a laboratory technique by which two or more substances in a mixture are separated due to their differential affinities for a solid adsorbent. The adsorbent is filled into a column and a solution of the mixture is washed down the column with solven
  • Combination carriers 
    Vessels fitted to transport more than one type of cargo. The petroleum industry uses a good-sized fleet of OBO's, ships which transport dry cargo or oil. 
  • Combination Carriers 
    Ships designed to carry either a liquid cargo or a dry cargo on different voyages. This concept was developed to shorten ballast voyages. 
  • Combination Carriers (O/O) 
    Ore Oil (O/O) carriers have twin longitudinal bulkheads (similar to a conventional tanker) but have been additionally equipped with large deck hatches and strengthened double bottoms in way of the centre cargo tanks. This arrangement allows dry bulk carg 
  • Combination Carriers (OBO) 
    Oil Bulk Ore (OBO) carriers have a large central hold similar to a conventional dry bulk carrier but are also equipped to operate as an oil tanker. The large cargo "hold" (as opposed to a cargo "tank") means that lighter cargo such as grain etc. can be c 
  • Combination Export Manager 
    A firm that acts as an export sales agent for more than one non–competing manufacturer. 
  • Combination Passenger and Cargo Vessels 
    Ships with a capacity for 13 or more passengers and any form of cargo or freight. 
  • Combination Rate 
    A rate made up of two or more factors, separately published. 
  • Combined Carriers 
    Designed to transport both liquid and dry bulk cargoes. If both are carried simultaneously, they are segregated in separate holds and tanks. Combined carriers require special design and are expensive. They were prevalent in the 1970s, but their numbers ha
  • COMBO 
    Combination Carrier 
  • Combustible liquid 
    Liquids which have a flash point greater than 60.5°C (141°F) and below 93°C (200°F). U.S. regulations permit a flammable liquid flashing between 38°C (100°F) and 60.5°C (141°F) to be reclassed as a combustible liquid. 
  • Command Vessel 
    A naval vessel used as a command centre for military operations 
  • Commercial Invoice 
    Represents a complete record of the transaction between exporter and importer with regard to the goods sold. Also reports the content of the shipment and serves as the basis for all other documents relating to the shipment. 
  • Commercial Management 
    Service where a hired agent operates a ship and receives a fee in return. 
  • Commercial Transport Vessel 
    Any ship which is used primarily in commerce: (1) For transporting persons or goods to or from any harbor(s) or port(s) or between places within a harbor area; (2) In connection with the construction, change in construction, servicing, mainte- nance, repa
  • Commodity 
    Article shipped. For dangerous and hazardous cargo, the correct commodity identification is critical. 
  • Commodity Rate 
    A rate published to apply to a specific article or articles. 
  • Common Carrier 
    A transportation company which provides service to the general public at published rates. 
  • Common Law 
    Law that derives its force and authority from precedent, custom and usage rather than from statutes, particularly with reference to the laws of England and the United States. 
  • COMP 
    Completing 
  • Company Security Officer 
    Is the person designated by the company for ensuring that a ship security assessment is carried out and that a ship security plan is developed, submitted for approval and thereafter implemented and maintained for liaison with port facility security office
  • Compatibility 
    The suitable of two or more residues for blending. Some stocks--certain visbroken resides and hydrotreated bottoms, for instance--do not combine well enough to yield stable fuel oils. 
  • Complex Triglyceride 
    A triglyceride where one or two fatty acid structures differ from the third fatty acid. 
  • Component 
    One part of a blend. The word most commonly names streams combined to make motor gasoline. In that usage, it serves as short version of "mogas component". Though not used casually, "gasoil component," “heavy fuel oil component" and similar designations ma
  • Compound 
    A compound (or molecule) is a combination of two or more chemical elements (atoms) held together by chemical bonds. 
  • Compulsory Ship 
    Any ship which is required to be equipped with radiotelecommunication equipment in order to comply with the radio or radio-navigation provisions of a treaty or statute to which the vessel is subject. 
  • COMS 
    Commissions 
  • COMSAR 
    Sub-Committee on Radiocommunications and Search and Rescue 
  • CONCAWE 
    The Oil Companies' European Organization for Environment, Health and Safety 
  • Concealed Damage 
    Damage that is not evident from viewing the unopened package. 
  • CONCS 
    Concentrates 
  • Condensate 
    Natural gas liquids heavier than butane. The term condensates commonly covers two quite different kinds of streams: natural gasolines and heavy condensates. Natural gasolines come from LPG or LNG plants. They have properties similar to naphthas. Heavy con
  • CONF 
    Confidential 
  • Confectionary Fats 
    Fats used for the manufacture of sugar and/or chocolate based confectionery products. These fats generally have sharp melting behaviour, having a very low solid fat content at body temperature. The physico-chemical properties of these fats and hence, thei
  • Conference 
    An association of ship owners operating in the same trade route who operate under collective condi- tions and agree on tariff rates. 
  • Confirmed Letter of Credit 
    A letter of credit, issued by a foreign bank, whose validity has been confirmed by a domestic bank. An exporter with a confirmed letter of credit is assured of payment even if the foreign buyer or the foreign bank defaults 
  • Confirming Bank 
    The bank that adds its confirmation to another bank’s (the issuing bank’s) letter of credit and promises to pay the beneficiary upon presentation of documents specified in the letter of credit. 
  • Conjugated Fatty Acids 
    Polyunsaturated fatty acids exhibiting pairs of unsaturated carbons not separated by at least one saturated carbon. 
  • Conjunctoblepharitis 
    Inflammation of the conjuctiva and eyelids 
  • Connecting Carrier 
    A carrier which has a direct physical connection with, or forms a link between two or more carriers. 
  • Connecting Carrier Agreement 
    A connecting carrier agreement is a contract between the originating carrier and a second party, where the second party agrees to carry goods to a final destination on a through Billof Lading. 
  • Conradson carbon (ConCarbon) 
    A measurement of hydrocarbon mixtures tendency to leave carbon deposits (coke) when burned as fuel or subjected to intense heat in a processing unit such as a catalytic cracker. The ConCarbon test involves destructive distillation -subjection to high temp
  • CONS 
    Consumption 
  • CONSEC 
    Consecutive 
  • Consignee 
    A person or company to whom commodities are shipped. 
  • Consignee Mark 
    A symbol placed on packages for identification purposes; generally a triangle, square, circle, etc. with letters and/or numbers and port of discharge. 
  • Consignment 
    (1) A stock of merchandise advanced to a dealer and located at his place of business, but with title remaining in the source of supply. (2) A shipment of goods to a consignee. 
  • Consignor 
    A person or company shown on the bill of lading as the shipper. 
  • Consolidation 
    Cargo containing shipments of two or more shippers or suppliers. Containerload shipments may be consolidated for one or more consignees, often in containerload quantities. 
  • Consolidator 
    A person or firm performing a consolidation service for others. The consolidator takes advantage of lower full carload (FCL) rates, and passes on the savings to shippers. 
  • Construction Differential Subsidy 
    A program whereby the U.S. government attempted to offset the higher shipbuilding cost in the U.S. by paying up to 50% of the difference between cost of U.S. and non–U.S. construction. The differ- ence went to the U.S. shipyard. It is unfunded since 1982.
  • Consul 
    A government official residing in a foreign country who represents the interests of her or his country and its nationals. 
  • Consular Declaration 
    A formal statement describing goods to be shipped; filed with and approved by the consul of the country of destination prior to shipment. 
  • Consular Invoice 
    A document, certified by a consular official, is required by some countries to describe a shipment. Used by Customs of the foreign country, to verify the value, quantity and nature of the cargo. 
  • Consular Visa 
    An official signature or seal affixed to certain documents by the consul of the country of destina- tion. 
  • Consumption Entry (CE) 
    The process of declaring the importation of foreign–made goods into the United States for use in the United States. 
  • CONT 
    Continent or Europe 
  • Container 
    A truck trailer body that can be detached from the chassis for loading into a vessel, a rail car or stacked in a container depot. Containers may be ventilated, insulated, refrigerated, flat rack, vehicle rack, open top, bulk liquid or equipped with interi
  • Container Barge, propelled 
    A self propelled cargo vessel with boxed holds fitted with fixed cellular guides for the carriage of containers 
  • Container Booking 
    Arrangements with a steamship line to transport containerized cargo. 
  • Container Freight Station 
    See CFS. 
  • Container Load 
    A load sufficient in size to fill a container either by cubic measurement or by weight. 
  • Container Manifest 
    Document showing contents and loading sequence, point of origin, and point of destination for a container. Vessels are required by law to carry such a document for each container carried. 
  • Container Pool 
    An agreement between parties that allows the efficient use and supply of containers. A common supply of containers available to the shipper as required. 
  • Container Security Initiative (CSI) 
    A U.S. cargo security program whereby containerized cargoes destined for the United States may be inspected on a selective basis at many foreign ports before loading on a vessel. As of October 2007, there were 51 approved ports. A multinational program, a
  • Container Ship (Fully Cellular with Ro-Ro Facility) 
    A container ship with the additional capability to be loaded and unloaded by ro-ro access to a limited portion of the cargo space 
  • Container Ship (Fully Cellular) 
    A single deck cargo vessel with boxed holds fitted with fixed cellular guides for the carriage of containers 
  • Container Ship (Fully Cellular), Inland Waterways 
    A vessel designed for the transportation of fully cellular Containers. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • Container Terminal 
    An area designated for the stowage of cargoes in container; usually accessible by truck, railroad and marine transportation. Here containers are picked up, dropped off, maintained and housed. 
  • Container Vessels 
    Ships equipped with permanent container cells that hold containers 
  • Container Yard (CY) 
    A materials–handling/storage facility used for completely unitized loads in containers and/or empty containers. Commonly referred to as CY. 
  • Container-on-Barge 
    Using deck barges, shipping by container-on-barge is becoming more prevalent as a means to mitigate truck traffic congestion on the nation's highways. 
  • Container/Ro-Ro Cargo Ship 
    A hybrid of a container ship and a ro-ro cargo ship in independent sections 
  • Containerizable Cargo 
    Cargo that will fit into a container and result in an economical shipment. 
  • Containerization 
    Stowage of general or special cargoes in a container for transport in the various modes. 
  • Contraband 
    Cargo that is prohibited. 
  • Contract 
    A legally binding agreement between two or more persons/organizations to carry out reciprocal ob- ligations or value. 
  • Contract Carrier 
    Any person not a common carrier who, under special and individual contracts or agreements, transports passengers or property for compensation. 
  • Contract deal 
    see TERM DEAL 
  • Control zones 
    Designated areas at dangerous goods incidents, based on safety and the degree of hazard. Many terms are used to describe control zones; however, in this guidebook, these zones are defined as the hot, warm, and cold zones. (NFPA 472) 
  • Controlled Atmosphere 
    Sophisticated, computer–controlled systems that manage the mixtures of gases within a container throughout an intermodal journey reducing decay. 
  • Conventional Day 
    CONVENTIONAL DAY shall mean a period of twenty-four (24) consecutive hours running from any identified time. Any part of a Conventional Day shall be counted pro-rata. 
  • Conventional Tanker 
    Crude tankers used for deep sea transportation of unrefined oil from producing countries to refineries, ranging in size from 55,000 to 500,000 deadweight tonnes. 
  • Conversion 
    Cracking molecules which boil above the threshold temperature into smaller ones which boil below it. Traditionally, the term applied to catalytic crackers. They convert oil which boils above 430 F to hydrocarbons which boil below that point. In other word
  • Conversion 
    In the plastics industry, conversion is the processing of raw materials into usable forms, e.g. the conversion of plastic pellets into films or the conversion of films into food containers. The steps involved include compounding (the mixing together of va
  • Convulsant 
    A material which causes seizures. 
  • COOP 
    Co-operation 
  • COP 
    Custom of the Port 
  • Copper-Bottomed 
    Copper-bottomed described ships that were fitted with copper plating on the underside of their hulls. The process was first used on ships of the British Navy in 1761 to defend their wooden planking against attack by Shipworms and to reduce infestations by
  • Copra 
    The fruit of the tree ""Cocos Nucifera"" is the well known coconut. The white meat of the coconut, when removed and dried to between 4% to 7% moisture, is called copra. Drying may be either by sun drying where the moisture is allowed to evaporate naturall
  • Corn Oil 
    Corn oil is obtained from the germ of the corn (or maize) cob, the germ being separated as a byproduct from the manufacture of starch from corn. The corn oil is extracted from the germ and, after refining, it has a number of uses such as frying and as a g
  • Corner Posts 
    Vertical frame components fitted at the corners of the container, integral to the corner fittings and connecting the roof and floor structures. Containers are lifted and secured in a stack using the castings at the ends. 
  • Correspondent Bank 
    A bank that, in its own country, handles the business of a foreign bank. 
  • Corrosion 
    Physiochemical interaction between a metal and its environment that results in changes in the properties of the metal and which may lead to significant impairment of the function of the metal, the environment or technical system, of which these form a par
  • Corrosion fatigue 
    Process involving conjoint corrosion and alternating straining of the metal, often leading to cracking 
  • Corrosion product 
    Substance formed as a result of corrosion 
  • Corrosive 
    Capable of causing erosive destruction of tissues. 
  • corrosive environment 
    Environment that contains one or more corrosive agents 
  • Corvette 
    A combat vessel smaller than a destroyer, often armed for antisubmarine operations 
  • Cost, Insurance and Freight (CIF) 
    Cost of goods, marine insurance and all transportation (freight) charges are paid to the foreign point of delivery by the seller. 
  • COSWP 
    MCA Code of Safe Working Practices 
  • COTANCE 
    European Federation of Tanneries and Leather Care in Europe 
  • COTP 
    Captain Of The Port (Coast Guard) 
  • Cottonseed Oil 
    Records show that cotton has been grown for nearly 3,000 years as a source of fibre to be spun and woven into textiles. The seed is a by-product which yields 20-24% of useful food oil. 
  • Countervailing Duty 
    An additional duty imposed to offset export grants, bounties or subsidies paid to foreign suppliers in certain countries by the government of that country for the purpose of promoting export. 
  • Couple 
    Ship Stability: A moment created by two equla forces exerted in opposite directions and along parallel lines. In transverse stability a couple is created by the forces of G and B acting parallel to each other in opposite direction 
  • Covered Bulk Cargo Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled covered barge for the carriage of bulk cargoes 
  • COW 
    Crude Oil Washing: The operation carried out on crude oil ships as a statutory requirement under Marpol 73/78 to reduce the quantity of residual oil left in cargo tanks that will or might contain ballast. The operation is also employed to maximise the o 
  • COW 
    Crude oil wash. A cleaning technique used by some ships. They spray a few tons of crude around their tanks to rinse off the remains of previous cargoes. This method cannot make a dirty vessel clean. But it can do enough good to prevent excessive darkening
  • CP or C/P 
    Charter Party 
  • CPD 
    Charterers Pay Dues 
  • CPMA 
    Chemicals and Petrochemicals Manufacturers Association (India) 
  • CPP 
    Clean Petroleum Product 
  • CPR 
    Cardia-Pulmonary Respiration 
  • CPS 
    Compact Polystyrene 
  • CPT 
    Captain 
  • CPT 
    Carriage Paid To (named place of destination) The seller pays for carriage. Risk transfers to buyer upon handing goods over to the first carrier.  Incoterms 2010
  • CPT (Carriage Paid To) (...Named Place of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale which means the seller pays the freight for the carriage of the goods to the named destination. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time the goods have been delivered
  • CQD 
    Customary Quick Despatch 
  • CR 
    Current rate 
  • CR 
    Carrier’s risk 
  • CR 
    Compressor Room (OCIMF acronym) 
  • Cracked 
    Broken by a thermal or catalytic process. This term frequently describes an oil product which contains cracked components made by such a process. 
  • Cracked component 
    An ingredient in a hydrocarbon blend produced by a cracking process. The opposite of a virgin or straight-run component. Blends containing any cracked components do not qualify as straight-run. The presence of cracked components makes refinery streams uns
  • Cracked cutters 
    Cycle oils used to reduce the sulfur content or, especially, the viscosity of fuel oil. 
  • Cracked fuel 
    Fuel oil containing molecules broken in a cracking unit. The term most frequently applies to residue. It distinguishes streams unsuitable for upgrading from straight-run material of interest as feedstock. 
  • Cracked Gas 
    see UNSATURATED GASES 
  • Cracked naphtha 
    General term for any naphtha-range fraction produced by a molecule breaking process. The category includes cat gasoline from a catalytic cracker, visbroken naphtha from a visbreaker, and coker naphtha from a coking unit. In ordinary usage, this term signi
  • Cracked Stock 
    see CRACKED COMPONENT. Cracking units produce cracked stocks such as cycle oils and cat naphthas used for blending finished products. 
  • Cracker 
    A processing unit which breaks molecular bonds, usually to produce lighter hydrocarbons with lower boiling points. Commercial crackers (cracking units) include cat crackers, hydrocrackers, thermal crackers, visbreakers, and stream crackers. 
  • Cracking 
    The process of breaking down large molecules of oil into smaller ones. When this process is achieved by the application of heat only, it is known as thermal cracking. If a catalyst is used as well it is known as catalytic cracking. It is known as hydrocra
  • Cracking-Cracker 
    The process of breaking down large molecules of oil into smaller ones. When this process is achieved by the application of heat only, it is known as thermal cracking. If a catalyst is used as well it is known as catalytic cracking. Cracking causes molecul
  • Crane Platform, jack up 
    A jack up offshore crane platform 
  • Crane Platform, semi submersible 
    A semi submersible offshore crane platform 
  • Crane Pontoon 
    A pontoon with a jib crane 
  • Crane Ship 
    A vessel equipped with a large crane for lifting operations 
  • Crane Vessel, Naval Auxiliary 
    A naval auxiliary vessel constructed or adapted for crane operations, with limited cargo capability 
  • CRC 
    Cold Rolled Coils 
  • CRD 
    Current rate discharge 
  • Crevice corrosion 
    Localized corrosion associated with, and taking place in, or immediately around, a narrow aperture or clearance formed between the metal surface and another surface (metallic or non-metallic) 
  • Crew 
    The body of people manning a ship, excluding the master, officers and any passengers. 
  • Crew Boat 
    A vessel equipped for the transportation of crew to ships and/or installations 
  • Crew Boat, Naval Auxiliary 
    A naval auxiliary vessel for transporting crew 
  • Crew/Supply Vessel 
    A typically high speed vessel primarily for the transportation of crew to offshore facilities; may also have limited stores carriage capability on an open deck 
  • CRISTAL 
    Contract Regarding an Interim Settlement to Tanker Liability for Oil Pollution Damage 
  • CRL 
    Current rate of load 
  • CRN 
    Crane 
  • CRN or CRNS 
    Crane(s) 
  • CROB 
    Cargo Remaining on Board 
  • Cross Member 
    Transverse members fitted to the bottom side rails of a container, which support the floor. 
  • Crude Oil 
    Oil or condensates that have not undergone any refining processes. 
  • Crude Oil Tank Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled tank barge for the carriage of crude oil 
  • Crude Oil Tanker 
    A tanker built to comply with Annex 1 of Marpol 73/78 for the carriage of oil and conforming to the requirements for the carriage of crude oil. 
  • Crude Vegetable Oil 
    Extracted vegetable oils which have had no further processing or refining except possibly that of being degummed or filtered, settled or both. 
  • Crude/Oil Products Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of crude oil but also for carriage of refined oil products 
  • Cruise Ship, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel used for leisure cruising on rivers/lakes/canals, not suitable for open sea voyages. 
  • Cruiser 
    A combat vessel of medium tonnage with a long cruising radius and less armor and firepower than a battleship 
  • Cryogenic liquid 
    A refrigerated, liquefied gas that has a boiling point colder than -90°C (-130°F) at atmospheric pressure. 
  • Crystallization  
    A substance can exist in three states, namely gaseous, liquid and solid states. When a liquid is cooled sufficiently, it solidifies and the process is called crystallisation. Crystallisation is the formation of crystals from a melt or a solution. The proc
  • CSC 
    International Convention for Safe Containers 
  • CSD 
    Closed shelter deck 
  • CSH 
    Cargo ship 
  • CSO 
    Company Security Officer 
  • CSR 
    Continues Synopsis Record 
  • CST 
    Abbreviation of centistoke. 
  • CT 
    Centre Tank (OCIMF acronym) 
  • CT 
    Chemical Tanker or Cargo Tank or Center Tank 
  • CT 
    Combined transport or Cubic Tonnage 
  • CTF 
    Carbon Task Force 
  • CTL 
    Constructive total loss 
  • CTO 
    Combined transport operator 
  • CTR 
    Container Fitted 
  • Cu 
    Cubic: A unit of volume measurement. 
  • Cube Out 
    When a container or vessel has reached its volumetric capacity before its permitted weight limit. 
  • Cubic Foot 
    1,728 cubic inches. A volume contained in a space measuring one foot high, one foot wide and one foot long. 
  • Cumene 
    Cumene is an aromatic derived from benzene and used in turn to produce polycarbonates, phenolic resins and essential healthcare products such as aspirin and penicillin. 
  • Curing 
    The chemical reaction that takes place after the mixing of 2 component paints which results in a chemically resistant film 
  • Customhouse 
    A government office where duties are paid, import documents filed, etc., on foreign shipments. 
  • Customhouse Broker 
    A person or firm, licensed by the treasury department of their country when required, engaged in entering and clearing goods through Customs for a client (importer). 
  • Customs 
    Government agency charged with enforcing the rules passed to protect the country’s import and ex- port revenues. 
  • Customs Bonded Warehouse 
    A warehouse authorized by Customs to receive duty–free merchandise. 
  • Customs Entry 
    All countries require that the importer make a declaration on incoming foreign goods. The importer then normally pays a duty on the imported merchandise. The importer’s statement is compared against the carrier’s vessel manifest to ensure that all foreign
  • Customs Invoice 
    A form requiring all data in a commercial invoice along with a certificate of value and/or a certificate of origin. Required in a few countries (usually former British territories) and usually serves as a seller’s commercial invoice. 
  • Customs of the Port (COP) 
    A phrase often included in charter parties and freight contracts referring to local rules and practices which may impact upon the costs borne by the various parties. 
  • Customs–Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C–TPAT) 
    It is a voluntary supply chain security program, launched in November 2001 and led by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) which focuses on improving the security of private companies’ supply chains with respect to terrorism. In exchange for companies
  • Cut 
    To divide a hydrocarbon mixture into fractions by distillation. Also a name for the fractions obtained, as in kerosene cut or naphtha cut. 
  • Cut and Run 
    Most often thought to mean the cutting of an anchor line in an effort to make a quick getaway. Hard to imagine that many ship’s masters enjoyed routinely losing an anchor or two, so it is probably more likely referring to the practice of securing the sail
  • Cut of his Jib 
    Warships many times had their foresails or jib sails cut thinly so that they could maintain point and not be blown off course. Upon sighting thin foresails on a distant ship a captain might not like the cut of his jib and would then have an opportunity to
  • Cut–Off Time 
    The latest time cargo may be delivered to a terminal for loading to a scheduled train or ship. 
  • Cutaneous Hazards 
    Chemicals which affect the skin. Signs and symptoms are defatting the skin, rashes, irritation 
  • Cutter (cutter stock) 
    A refinery stream used to thin a fuel oil or gasoil. Viscosity reduction and sulfur level adjustment provide most of the requirement for the cutter. 
  • Cutter stock 
    Diluent material used for tank washing, acting as a solvent or viscosity reducer to enable better recovery or ROB. 
  • Cutter Suction Dredger 
    A vessel equipped to obtain material from the sea bed by use of a cutter wheel, which loosens the material, and a suction pipe. The material may be carried on board, transferred to other vessels, pumped ashore or deposited elsewhere using a spray 
  • CVO 
    Certificate of value and origin 
  • CWA 
    Clean Water Act 
  • Cwt 
    Hundred weight 
  • CX 
    Cofferdam (OCIMF acronym) 
  • CY 
    Country yard 
  • Cycle oil 
    Cat cracking unit produced in the fuel oil or gasoil boiling range. The term light cycle oil generally describes products of this kind suitable for blending into diesel or home heating oil. Heavy cycle oil, accordingly, refers to the cat cracked material
  • Cyclohexane 
    Cyclohexane is an aromatic derived from benzene used as an intermediate to produce nylon. 
  • CYL 
    Cylinders 
  • Class 2 [Deck] 
    1st Mate, Chief Mate or Chief Officer: Entitles the holder to act as Chief Mate on a ship of any size with unlimited trading or may entitle the holder to act as Master on a ship but with restrictions on size or trading area. 
  • Class 2 [Engineer] 
    2nd Engineer: Entitles the holder to sail as Second Engineer on a ship of any power but may also entitle the holder to act as Chief Engineer on a ship with a restriction on power. 
  • Class 3 [Deck] 
    2nd Mate: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of a navigational watch on a ship of any size with unlimited trading but may also entitle the holder to act as Chief Mate, or possibly Master, on a ship but with restrictions on size or trading are
  • Class 3 [Engineer] 
    3rd Engineer: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of an engineering watch on a ship of any power but may also entitle the holder to act as Second Engineer, or possibly Chief Engineer, on a ship with a restriction on power. 
  • Class 4 [Deck] 
    3rd Mate: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of a navigational watch on any ship. 
  • Class 4 [Engineer] 
    4th Engineer: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of an engineering watch on a ship of any power. 
  • Cubic Foot 
    1,728 cubic inches. A volume contained in a space measuring one foot high, one foot wide and one foot long.