Please enter a keyword to search or click a letter below to browse the list of abbreviations and definitions through our glossary index.


Search Results for L
  • L&D 
    Loss and Damage 
  • L&R 
    Lake and rail 
  • L. or LDN 
  • L.B.H. 
    Length / breadth / height 
  • L.T 
    Long tons 
  • L.T. 
    Long Tons (2240 lbs) 
  • L.T. or LT 
    Liner Terms 
  • L.T. or LT or LTONS 
    Long tons 
  • L/C 
    Lay Can or Letter of credit 
  • L/C or LAYCAN or LC or LYCN 
    Laydays/Canceling date 
  • L/C or LC 
    Letter of credit 
  • L/D 
    Loading / discharging 
  • L/I or LOI 
    Letter of indemnity 
  • L/P 
    Loading Port 
  • L/S or LS or LPS or LUMPS 
  • LA 
    Los Angeles (USA) or Letter of Authority or Letter of Appointment 
  • Lacyhrymator 
    A material which produces an excess production of tear fluid when it comes into contact with the eye.  
  • Laden 
    Loaded aboard a vessel. 
  • Lading 
    Refers to the freight shipped; the contents of a shipment. 
  • Lakers 
    Bulkers prominent on the Great Lakes, often identifiable by having a forward house which helps in transiting locks. Operating in fresh water, these ships suffer much less corrosion damage and have a much longer lifespan than saltwater ships. 
  • LAKES 
    Great Lakes (US/CA) 
  • Landbridge 
    Movement of cargo by water from one country through the port of another country, thence, using rail or truck, to an inland point in that country or to a third country. As example, a through movement of Asian cargo to Europe across North America. 
  • Landed Cost 
    The total cost of a good to a buyer, including the cost of transportation. 
  • Landing Certificate 
    Certificate issued by consular officials of some importing countries at the point or place of export when the subject goods are exported under bond. 
  • Landing Craft 
    An open deck cargo vessel onto which cargo is loaded and unloaded over a bow door/ramp 
  • Landing Gear 
    A support fixed on the front part of a chassis (which is retractable); used to support the front end of a chassis when the tractor has been removed. 
  • Landing Ship (Dock Type) 
    A combat vessel designed for the transport of troops, using a semi submersible dock to launch landing craft or helicopters, and with ro-ro ramp facilities 
    whereby each unit of space (Linear Meter) is represented by an area of deck 1.0 meter in length x 2.0 meters in width. 
  • Lanemeter 
    Primarily used to indicate the cargo capacity of a roll–on/roll–off car carrier. It is one meter of deck with a width of 2.5 to 3.0 meters. 
  • Lard 
    The rendered fat of the pig. One of the traditional cooking fats, especially in Europe and USA. The best quality lard is obtained from the internal fats surrounding the kidney etc. Pork backfat is significantly softer in character. 
  • LASH 
    Lighter Aboard Ship 
  • LAT 
    Latitude or Lowest Astronomical Tide 
  • Latex (pl. latices) 
    A water emulsion of a synthetic rubber or plastic obtained by polymerization and used especially in coatings, paints and adhesives. Latices include a binder dispersed in the water and form films by fusion of the plastic particles as the water evaporates.
  • Latex Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of latex 
  • Lauric Acid 
    Lauric acid is a commonly distributed, naturally occurring saturated fatty acid (C12:0). The richest common sources of lauric acid are coconut, palm kernel and babassu oils. 
  • Lauric Fats and Oils 
    The largest volume lauric fats and oils are coconut and palm kernel, which are vital to the manufacture of surfactants among other applications. Lauric oils typically contain 40-50% lauric acid (C12) in combination with lesser amounts of other relatively
  • Lauric Oils 
    Oils containing 40-50% lauric acids (C12 ) in combination with other relatively low molecular weight fatty acids. Coconut and palm kernel oils are principal examples. 
  • Laycan 
    The period when a spot chartered ship must arrive to load a cargo. The word combines “laydays” and “cancellation” as does the concept. Charter parties specify a range of days when the terminal will receive the ship which corresponds to the laydays of the
  • Laydays 
    The ship-loading window allotted to a parcel of oil. A supplier names a period of time when his customer must lift the oil he has purchased. Cargoes get several days, barges perhaps a single day, consistent with the time required to load the quantity invo
  • Laytime 
    A specific number of hours, named in the pertinent charter party, a tanker must prepare to spend on berth at the shipowner's expense. Details vary from one fixture to another. Usually, though, owner and charterer agree on a total laytime for a voyage whic
  • LB 
    Long Bearch (USA) or Pounds 
  • LB.(S) 
  • LBP 
    Length Between Perpendiculars 
  • LC 
    Last Cargo or London Clause 
  • LC-50 
    Lethal Concentration 50. This concentration of a hazardous material in air is expected to kill 50% of a group of test animals when given as a single respiratory exposure in a specific time period 
  • LCI 
    Lambert’s Capesize Index 
  • LCL 
    Less than Full Container Load 
  • LCL/FCL 
    More than one Shipper/one Consignee 
  • LCM 
    Least common multiple 
  • LCR 
    Lowest current rate 
  • LD 
    Lethal Dose. The dose of a substance being tested which will kill a test+ animal. 
  • LD-50 
    Lethal Dose 50. The single dose, other than inhalation, that causes death in 50% of an animal population from exposure to a hazardous substance. 
  • LD-LO 
    Lethal Dose Low. The lowest dose, other than inhalation, that caused death in humans or animals. 
  • LDD 
  • LDG 
  • LDN 
  • LDO 
    Light diesel oil 
  • LDPE 
    Low Density Polyethylene. A plastic used predominantly in film applications due to its toughness, flexibility and relative transparency. LDPE has a low melting point, making it popular for use in applications where heat sealing is necessary. Typically, LD
  • LDPT 
    Load Port 
  • LDT 
    Light Displacement tonnes 
  • Lead 
    Tetra-ethyl (TEL) or tetra-methyl (TML) lead, primarily. These lead alkyls improve the octane rating of certain motor gasoline blendstocks quite inexpensively. Concern about the health effects of lead and other airborne pollutants generated restrictions o
  • Lead response 
    The susceptibility of a motor gasoline blending component to octane improvement by addition of lead alkyl anti- knock compounds. 
  • Lecithin 
    The mixed phosphatides obtained from vegetable oils in the degumming process. The main source is from soybean oil. 
  • Leeway 
    The weather side of a ship is the side from which the wind is blowing. The Lee side is the side of the ship sheltered from the wind. A lee shore is a shore that is downwind of a ship. If a ship does not have enough “leeway” it is in danger of being driven
  • LEFO 
    Land’s end for orders 
  • LEG 
    LEgal Committee 
  • LEL 
    Lower Explosive Limit 
  • LEMA 
    Local Emergency Management Agency 
  • Less Than Truckload 
    Also known as LTL or LCL. 
  • Let the Cat Out of the Bag 
    In the Royal Navy the punishment prescribed for most serious crimes was flogging. This was administered by the Bosun's Mate using a whip called a cat o' nine tails. The "cat" was kept in a leather or baize bag. It was considered bad news indeed when the c
  • Lethal Concentration Low, LC-LO 
    This value indicates the lowest concentration of a substance in the air that caused death in humans or laboratory animals. This value may represent periods of exposure that are less than 24 hours (acute) or greater than 24 hours (subacute and chronic). 
  • Letter of Credit (LC) 
    A document, issued by a bank per instructions by a buyer of goods, authorizing the seller to draw a specified sum of money under specified terms, usually the receipt by the bank of certain documents within a given time. 
  • Letter of Indemnity 
    In order to obtain the clean bill of lading, the shipper signs a letter of indemnity to the carrier on the basis of which may be obtained the clean bill of lading, although the dock or mate’s receipt showed that the shipment was damaged or in bad conditio
  • LF 
    Low frequency 
  • LFL 
    Lower Flammable Limit 
  • LGC 
    Liquified gas carrier 
  • LGC or L.G.C. 
    Longitudinal Center of Gravity: That point at which the combined weight of all the items that constitute a ship's weight are considered to be concentrated; usually stated as either aft or forward of the middle perpendicular or the midship frame. 
  • LGFM 
    London Grain Fixtures Market 
  • LGSP 
    Liquid Gas Sampling Procudures (SIGTTO) 
  • LGT 
  • LH 
    Lower hold 
  • LHAR 
    London, Hull, Antwerp, Rotterdam range 
  • LIBA 
    Lloyd's Insurance Brokers Association 
  • Lien 
    A legal claim upon goods for the satisfaction of some debt or duty. 
  • LIFO 
    Liner In Free Out or Last In First Out 
  • Lift 
    To take purchased product by loading it aboard a transportation vessel at the point of production or storage. 
  • Lifter 
    A product purchaser who takes (lifts) crude, fuel, or feedstock physically from a producer's or reseller's facility. Oil frequently has a buyer and a lifter. The buyer, some times a contract holder, sells his stem to someone else who lifts it from the sou
  • Lifting 
    Process of loading cargo for transport. 
  • Lifting subjects 
    Confirmation of a deal by removal of any exceptions--any subjects--left open at the time of its conclusion. 
  • Light Crude 
    Crude oil that is easier to pump and process due to a lower viscosity. 
  • Light ends 
    Hydrocarbons lighter than naphtha derived from crude oil and natural gas processing. The industry also describes this collection of volatile materials as “C 4 and lighter.” Butane, propane, ethane and methane, the predominant hydrocarbons in this cut, wou
  • Light naphtha 
    A naphtha cut with a boiling range which commonly extends from pentane through 175 F or perhaps a bit higher. The exact end point varies with the needs and objectives refiner. See NAPHTHA. 
  • Light products 
    Refinery products in the middle distillate and naphtha boiling ranges. 
  • Lightening 
    A vessel discharges part of its cargo at anchor into a lighter to reduce the vessel’s draft so it can then get alongside a pier. 
  • Lighter 
    An open or covered barge towed by a tugboat and used mainly in harbors and inland waterways to carry cargo to/from alongside a vessel. 
  • Lighterage 
    Refers to carriage of goods by lighter and the charge assessed there from. 
  • Lightering 
    Unloading of cargo from deep draft vessels into smaller vessels that are able to enter shallower ports. 
  • Lightering 
    ship-to-ship transfer of cargo in deepwater to complete loading of a vessel leaving a shallow load port (or berth) or to partially unload one which draws too much water to reach a shallow point. 
  • Lighthouse Tender 
    A vessel equipped for supply of stores and personnel to lighthouses 
  • Lightship 
    A vessel specifically designed for use as a lightship for use as a navigational mark 
  • Limestone Carrier 
    A single deck cargo vessel for the carriage of limestone in bulk. There are no weather deck hatches. May be self discharging 
  • Line–Haul 
    Transportation from one city to another as differentiated from local switching service. 
  • Liner 
    A vessel advertising sailings on a specified trade route on a regular basis. It is not necessary that every named port be called on every voyage. 
  • Linkspan/Jetty 
    Any classified linkspan, jetty or floating access pontoon 
  • Linoleic Acid 
    Linoleic acid is the most important poly-unsaturated fatty acid, naturally occurring in natural fats and oils (C18:2). It is an essential fatty acid, i.e. a dietary requirement for healthy animals. Physiologically important as a precursor for the producti
  • Linolenic Acid 
    It is widely distributed in nature as a major component of many of the more highly unsaturated vegetable oils (C18:3). It is a major component of linseed oil and its high degree of unsaturation is responsible for the drying properties of the oil. 
  • Lipid 
    Historically a general term for natural organic products that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. The most common lipids are the neutral triglycerides (oils, fats) but the term includes minor components, often of biological importance,
  • Lipoprotein 
    Any of the class of proteins that contain a lipid combined with a simple protein. 
  • Liquefaction 
    Process that takes clean natural gas and condenses it using a refrigeration process. Temperature of the gas is reduced to a very frigid - 260°F (-163°C), reducing its volume by more than 600 times. At this temperature LNG can be stored and transported as
  • Liquefied Natural Gas 
    LNG - Natural gas that has been cooled to - 260°F ( - 163°C), which liquefies it for safer, easier transport. 
  • Liquidated Damages 
    The penalty a seller must pay if the construction project does not meet contractual standards or dead- lines. 
  • List 
    The amount in degrees that a vessel tilts from the vertical. 
  • Listless 
    When a ship was listless, she was sitting still and upright in the water, with no wind to make her lean over (list) and drive ahead. 
  • Liter 
    1.06 liquid U.S. quarts or 33.9 fluid ounces. 
  • Live Fish Carrier (Well Boat) 
    A vessel for the carriage of live fish in water tanks 
  • Livestock Carrier 
    A cargo vessel arranged for the carriage of livestock 
  • LKG&BKG 
    Leakage and breakage 
  • LL 
    Load lines or Long Lenghts 
  • LLDPE 
    Linear Low Density Polyethylene. A plastic that is used predominantly in film applications due to its toughness, flexibility and relative transparency. LLDPE is the preferred resin for injection molding because of its superior toughness and is used in ite
  • LLMC 
    Limitation of Liability for Marine Claims 
  • Lloyds’ Registry 
    An organization maintained for the surveying and classing of ships so that insurance underwriters and others may know the quality and condition of the vessels offered for insurance or employment. 
  • LLT 
    London landed terms 
  • LM 
    Lane meters 
  • LMC 
    Lloyd's Machinery Certificate 
  • LMMA 
    London Maritime Arbitration Association 
  • LMT 
    Local mean time 
  • LNG 
    Liquefied Natural Gas: Natural gas that has been converted temporarily to liquid form for ease of storage or transport. 
  • LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) 
    Natural gas will liquefy at a temperature of approximately -259 F or -160 C at atmospheric pressure. One cubic foot of liquefied gas will expand to approximately 600 cubic feet of gas at atmospheric pressure. 
  • LNG Carriers 
    Liquefied Natural Gas Carriers - Specialized ships that carry super-cooled liquefied natural gas. 
  • LNG Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of Liquefied Natural Gas (primarily methane) in independent insulated tanks. Liquefaction is achieved at temperatures down to -163 deg C 
  • LNGC (LNG Carrier) 
    An ocean-going ship specially constructed to carry LNG in tanks at 160 C. Current average carrying capacity of LNGs is 125,000 cubic metres. Many LNGCs presently under construction or on order are in the 210,000 – 215,000 cubic metre range. 
  • LO 
    Lubricating oil 
  • Lo Ho 
    Lower Hold 
  • LO/LO 
    Lift-On Lift-Off or Load-On Load-Off 
  • LOA 
    Length Over All or Letter of Appointment 
  • LOA 
    Length-over-all. Distance between the fore-most and aft-most points of a ship. 
  • Load Center 
    A high volume container port effectively reducing vessel port calls by concentrating intermodal sea-land transfers at a few large ports rather than spreading them out among a larger number of small ports. 
  • Load Line 
    The waterline corresponding to the maximum draft to which a vessel is permitted to load, either by freeboard regulations, the conditions of classification, or the conditions of service. See also Plimsoll Mark. 
  • Load on Top 
    The procedure where a crude oil cargo is loaded into tanks on top of residues from a previous cargo (these residues are normally held in a "slop tank" and are the result of tank washing and dirty ballast decanting operations on pre-MARPOL ships). 
  • Loaded specs 
    The quality of a cargo of oil as tested at loading aboard a vessel. Information frequently offered as actual specifications. 
  • LOC 
    Letter of Compliance (USA) 
  • Local Cargo 
    Cargo delivered to/from the carrier where origin/destination of the cargo is in the local area. 
  • Local toxicity 
    Adverse effects seen at the site where the test material comes into initial contact with the organism. 
  • Localized Corrosion 
    Corrosion preferentially concentrated on discrete sites of the metal surface exposed to the corrosive environment 
  • Location swap 
    A deal in which companies trade oil in one place for some somewhere else. 
  • Lock and Dam 
    a device for raising and lowering boats from one water level to another. It is often associated with a dam. 
  • Locks 
    Tows must navigate through locks in order to get around dams on the rivers. Many locks on the nation's waterways are now over 60 years old and are too small to accommodate the size of the modern tows, forcing those tows to be broken up and taken through t
  • LOF 
    Lloyd’s Open Form. (Salvage Agreement), 1995 
  • LOF 95 
    Lloyds Standard Form of Salvage Agreement 
  • Log P OW 
    See Octanol-water partition coefficient 
  • Log Tipping Ship 
    A vessel equipped to transport logs discharge them into the water by tipping itself 
  • Log Towing 
    One disappearing but fascinating function of the towing industry is log towing, where small boats pull logs on rivers to sawmills in log rafts, frames of logs connected with chains within which are hundreds of logs. Today, this operation is only performed
  • Logistics Vessel (Naval Ro-Ro Cargo) 
    A naval auxiliary vessel. With ro-ro capability 
  • LOH 
    Loss of hire 
  • LOLO 
    Lift On Lift Off ship 
  • LONG 
  • Long Haul 
    Operation on ship requiring the hauling of a lot of line. Also seen in short haul, an operation requiring little line. 
  • Long residue 
  • Long Shot 
    In old warships, the muzzle-loading cannon were charged with black powder of uncertain potency that would propel the iron shot an equally uncertain distance with doubtful accuracy. A 24-pounder long gun, for instance, was considered to have a maximum effe
  • Long Ton 
    2,240 pounds 
  • Longitudinal Axis 
    Ship Stability: an axis drawn through the body of the vehicle from tail to nose in the normal direction of movement, or the direction the pilot faces. Parallel to the waterline. 
  • Longshoreman 
    Individual employed in a port to load and unload ships. 
  • Longshoremen 
    those employed to unload and load ships 
  • Loose 
    Without packing. 
  • Loose Cannon 
    A cannon having come loose on the deck of a pitching, rolling, and yawing deck could cause severe injury and damage. Has come to mean an unpredictable or uncontrolled person who is likely to cause unintentional damage. 
  • LOP 
    letter of protest 
  • LOSG 
    Lower Olefins Sector Group, a sector group of the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • LOT 
    Load On Top 
  • Lovibond 
    This refers to a widely used system by which the colour of an oil can be measured. The essential features of this system consist of a light source, a series of calibrated coloured glasses forming the standards of reference and an instrument in which they
  • LOW 
    Last open water 
  • Low pour 
    A description of distillate or residual fuel oils, which flow at relatively low temperatures. Sometimes, the industry uses this term, and its opposite, informally. Frequently, though, it designates oil meeting specific standards of a particular market. 
  • Low-speed diesel 
    Very powerful, heavy-duty diesel engines such as those used to drive ocean-going ships and large electricity generators.These engines burn residual oil. 
  • Low–Boy 
    A trailer or semi–trailer with no sides and with the floor of the unit close to the ground. 
  • Lower olefin 
    See Olefins 
  • LPA 
    Low Pressure 
  • LPD 
    Load port disbursements 
  • LPG 
    Liquefied Petroleum Gas: A nonrenewable gaseous fossil fuel, which turns to liquid under moderate pressure;by-product of natural gas processing and oil refining 
  • LPG 
    Liquified petroleum gas. Propane and butane captured as by-products of natural gas and crude oil processing. 
  • LPG Barge, propelled 
    A self propelled tanker barge for the bulk carriage of Liquefied Petroleum Gas 
  • LPG carriers 
    Tankers fitted to transport such volatile products as propane, butane, ammonia, and vinyl chloride monomer. These cargoes require high-pressure or refrigerated storage to keep them in liquid form. In these times of slack employment in their specialty, som
  • LPG Tank Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled tank barge for the carriage of LPG 
  • LPG Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of Liquefied Petroleum Gas in insulated tanks, which may be independent or integral. The cargo is pressurised (smaller vessels), refrigerated (larger vessels) or both ('semi-pressurised') to achieve liquefaction.  
  • LPG/Chemical Tanker 
    An LPG tanker additionally capable of the carriage of chemical products as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code 
  • LPGC 
    Liquified petroleum gas carrier 
  • LPL 
  • LQT 
    Liverpool quay terms 
  • LR 
    Lloyds Register or Long Range 
  • LR-1 
    AFRA's large-range 1 tankers. These ships' deadweight tonnages fall between 45,000 and 79,999. 
  • LR-2 
    AFRA's large-range 2 tankers. These vessels have deadweight tonnages between 80,000 and 159,999. 
  • LR1 Tanker 
    Long Range 1 (LR1) Tanker - Product tanker ranging in size between 45,000 and 79,999 deadweight tonnes. Main trade routes are Middle East Gulf to the Far East and Europe, or from northwest Europe to the United States. 
  • LR2 Tanker 
    Long Range 2 (LR2) Tanker - Product tanker ranging in size from 80,000 to 159,999 deadweight tonnes. Main trade routes are Middle East Gulf to the Far East and Europe, or from northwest Europe to the United States. The LR2 segment consists of the largest
  • LRATE 
    Load rate 
  • LRF 
    Lloyds Register Fairplay: Publications such as the Register of Ships and the World Shipping Directory, Lloyd's Register - Fairplay also provides bespoke data services and market analyses. 
  • LRG 
  • LS 
    Light Ship or Lump Sum 
  • LSA 
    Life Safety Appliances 
  • LSD 
    Landing Ship Dock or Landing Storage and Delivery 
  • LSD 
    Lashed, Secured and Dunnaged 
    Loaded, stowed, lasned, secured, dunnaged and unlashed 
  • LST 
    Local standard time 
  • LT 
    Local Time 
  • LT 
    Liner Terms 
  • LT (LTONS) 
    Long TONS. 
  • Lt. V 
    Light vessel 
  • LT.V. 
  • LTA 
    Long term agreement 
    Liner Terms, Both Ends 
  • LTGE 
  • LTI 
    Lost Time Injury - Key performance indicator measuring the loss of productive time due to injury. 
  • LTS 
    Laytime saved 
  • LTSBE 
    Laytime saved both ends 
  • Lubricating Oil 
    Is a Clean Petroleum Product (CPP) as defined in this section. It is a product of many specialist grades derived through the blending of components known as Base Oils. 
  • LUBS 
  • Lump Sum 
    An agreed sum of money for freight, irrespective of the amount of cargo carried. 
  • Lumpsum 
    A price for oil transportation quoted as a total for the cargo. This approach differs from the popular practice of charging a rate per ton carried. Lumpsums also differ from the rate method by including canal tolls and other items usually treated as surch
  • LVOC 
    Large Volume Organic Chemicals 
  • LW 
    Low Water 
  • LWH 
    Length, width, height 
  • LWM 
    Low water mark 
  • LWNA 
    Lumber Winter North Atlantic 
  • LWOST 
    Low Water On Ordinary Spring Tides 
  • LWR 
  • LWT 
    Lightweight tons 
  • Liter 
    1.06 liquid U.S. quarts or 33.9 fluid ounces. 
  • Long Ton 
    2,240 pounds