Glossary

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GLOSSARY INDEX

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O(164)
ABBREVIATION
DEFINITION
  • O&R 
    Ocean and rail 
  • O&S 
    Ocean and Air 
  • o.a. 
    Over All 
  • O.O. or OO 
    Owner’s option 
  • O/A 
    Open account or On account of 
  • O/B 
    On board 
  • O/C 
    Ore Carrier or Open Charter or Overcharge 
  • O/D 
    On Deck or Over Deck 
  • O/N 
    Order notify 
  • O/S 
    On Sale or Out of Stock or Out Standing 
  • o/w 
    Outward 
  • OA 
    Over Age or Overall 
  • OAAOOP 
    On arrival at or of the port 
  • OABE 
    Owners agents both ends 
  • OAFSP 
    On arrival first sea pilot 
  • OAGE 
    Overage 
  • OAHPS 
    On arrival harbour pilot station 
  • OAL 
    Overall length (same as LOA) 
  • OAPEC 
    Organisation of Arabic Petroleum Exporting Countries 
  • OBO 
    Ore Bulk Oil Carrier-ship for transporting bulk cargo such as coal and grain, and high-density cargoes such as iron ore, as well as crude petroleum products 
  • OBO 
    Oil-Bulk-Ore carriers. These versatile ships can transport cargoes as various as crude oil, grain, coal, and metal ore. They feature simply-shaped holds without exposed hull framework to permit easy cleaning between cargoes of different kinds. Certain OBO
  • OBQ 
    On Board Quantity (before loading) 
  • OCC 
    Oil Co-ordination Committee or Outward Clearance Certificate or On-Carriage Charges or Occupied 
  • Occupational exposure 
    The occupational exposure is a standard term that concerns adult workers in good health, with a possible exposure of 8 hours per day, 5 days a week, 11 months per year. See exposure. 
  • OCD 
    Olio Combustibile Denso (Fuel oil) 
  • Ocean Bill of Lading (Ocean B/L) 
    A contract for transportation between a shipper and a carrier. It also evidences receipt of the cargo by the carrier. A bill of lading shows ownership of the cargo and, if made negotiable, can be bought, sold or traded while the goods are in–transit. 
  • Ocean Bill Of Lading 
    A non-negotiable ocean bill of lading allows the buyer to receive the goods upon showing identification. If the bill is deemed negotiable, then the buyer will be required to pay the shipper for the products and meet any of the seller's other conditions. A
  • Oc B/L  
    NULL
  • OCIMF 
    Oil Companies International Marine Forum: An oil company consultative organisation, with a secretariat based in London, funded by the oil company members to represent the Oil Industry on marine safety, marine standards and international legislation. OCIM 
  • OCP 
    See Overland Common Points. 
  • Octane 
    For a gasoline engine to work efficiently, gasoline must burn smoothly without premature detonation, or knocking. Severe knocking can dissipate power output and even cause damage to the engine. When gasoline engines became more powerful in the 1920s, it w
  • Octane 
    A measure of a motor gasoline's or blendstock's resistance to preignition (knocking). The industry commonly uses two different indexes of this quality RON (research octane number), and MON (motor octane number). The USA employs an average of the two: (R+M
  • OD 
    Outside diameter 
  • ODM 
    Oil discharge monitor 
  • ODPCP 
    Oil Discharge Prevention and Contingency Plan 
  • ODS 
    Operating Differential Subsidy: An amount of money the U.S. government paid U.S. shipping companies that qualify for this subsidy.The intent was to help offset the higher subsidy. The intent was to help ofset the higher cost of operating a U.S.–flag vesse
  • OECD 
    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 
  • Oedema 
    Swelling of a tissue due to excess accumulation of tissue fluid 
  • OEL 
    Occupational Exposure Limit 
  • Oestromimetic 
    A substance which is capable of simulating the biological effects of naturally occurring oestrogenic hormones 
  • Off-hire 
    A chartering term indicating the time a chartered vessel is no longer attracting a daily fixture rate. It arises i.e. upon break down of machinery, equipment or when owing to poor performance such as slower speed than prescribed in the voyage charter, the
  • Offshore 
    Segment of industry that deals with exploration and extraction of oil from undersea deposits. 
  • Offshore Support Vessel 
    A single or multi functional offshore support vessel  
  • Offshore Tug/Supply Ship 
    A vessel for the transportation of stores and goods to offshore platforms on an open stern deck and equipped with a towing facility 
  • OFG 
    Offshore Floating Group 
  • OFG 
    Offshore Hose Guidelines 
  • OGSB 
    One good safe berth 
  • OH 
    Off-hire 
  • OHA 
    Office of History and Archaeology (ADNR) 
  • OHBC 
    Open hatch bulk carrier 
  • OHSAS 18001 
    Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series - Provides standards to help a company control occupational health and safety hazards for staff. 
  • Oil Content 
    The term refers to the amount of fatty material present in materials of animal and vegetable sources and food products, etc. To measure the oil content of a material it is usually necessary to prepare the sample by drying, grinding or digestion. The oil i
  • Oil Storage Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled storage barge for dry cargoes 
  • Oil Tanker, Inland Waterways 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of refined petroleum products, either clean or dirty, which is not suitable for trading in open waters 
  • OILREC 
    OIL RECovery 
  • Oils (and Fats) 
    Oils and fats are synonymous. However, the difference between them is that the former are liquid at ambient temperatures, while the latter are solid in appearance. Since ambient temperatures vary so much, a rigorous definition is not possible but, convent
  • Oilseed Hulls 
    The outer covering of oilseeds. 
  • Oilseed Meals 
    The product obtained by grinding the cake, chips or flakes which remain after removal of most of the oil from oilseeds. Oilseed meals are mainly a feedstuff for livestock and poultry. Some meals are also used as a raw material for producing edible vegetab
  • Oilseed Processing 
    The procedure involved in removing oil from oilseeds. There are three basic types of processes - solvent extraction, mechanical processing and hydraulic pressing. 
  • Olean (Olestra) 
    A sucrose fatty acid polyester used as a substitute for dietary fat which is not digested or absorbed by the body. 
  • Oleate 
    An ester or salt of oleic acid. Commonly referenced as a preparation containing oleic acid as the principal ingredient. 
  • Olefin 
    Olefins are aliphatic hydrocarbons with one or more double bonds along the chain. The lower olefins have short chains with only two, three or four carbons, and the simplest one is ethylene. The higher olefins have chains of up to 20 or more carbon atoms,
  • Olefin 
    A straight or branched-chain hydrocarbon with at least one unsaturated carbon-carbon bond. The petrochemical industry's highest volume product, ethylene, belongs to this family of molecules. Cracking processes produce such molecules in considerable quanti
  • Olefins 
    Olefins are petrochemical derivatives produced by cracking feedstocks from raw materials such as natural gas and crude oil. Lower olefins have short chains with only two, three or four carbon atoms, and the simplest one is ethylene. The higher olefins hav
  • Oleic Acid 
    This monounsaturated acid is the most widely distributed of all fatty acids, found in practically every vegetable oil and animal fat. Rich sources are olive and peanut oils and palm olein. Oleic acid contains 18 carbon atoms and one double bond in the cis
  • Olein 
    The triglyceride ester of oleic acid but in the palm oil industry it usually refers to the liquid fraction of the oil 
  • Olein/Palm Olein 
    This is the liquid, more unsaturated fraction separated from palm oil after crystallisation at a controlled temperature. The olein contains the lower melting point, more liquid triglycerides allowing it to be used for some applications for which the paren
  • Oleochemicals 
    Oleochemicals are chemicals derived from biological fats or oils and are analogous to petrochemicals, which are chemicals derived from biological fats or oils and are analogous to petrochemicals, which are chemicals derived from petroleum. The hydrolysis
  • Olive Oil 
    Olive oil is obtained from the flesh of the fruit of the olive tree (""Olea Europaea Sativa""). The cultivation of olives in the countries of the Mediterranean basin goes back several thousand years and it remains today a highly prized edible oil used in
  • OMC 
    Offshore Marine Committee 
  • OMOG 
    Offshore Maritime Operations Group 
  • On Board 
    A notation on a bill of lading that cargo has been loaded on board a vessel. Used to satisfy the requirements of a letter of credit, in the absence of an express requirement to the contrary. 
  • On Deck 
    A notation on a bill of lading that the cargo has been stowed on the open deck of the ship. 
  • ONW 
    Onwards 
  • OO 
    Oil/Ore (or Ore/Oil) Carrier or Order Of or Ocean/Ocean (movement) 
  • OO 
    Owner's option 
  • OOC 
    Ore oil carrier 
  • OOW 
    Officer of the Watch 
  • OP 
    Open Policy or Operator or Option 
  • OPA 
    Oil Pollution Act; Owners Protecting Agent 
  • OPA 90 
    The United States Oil Pollution Act 1990: The U.S. Federal Regulations concerning Oil Pollution Protection in US waters and off-shore economic exclusion areas. Requirements of the Act are contained in 33 CFR and 46 CFR . 
  • OPEC 
    Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Includes Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Venezuela. 
  • Open Account 
    A trade arrangement in which goods are shipped to a foreign buyer without guarantee of payment. 
  • Open Bulk Cargo Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled open barge for the carriage of bulk cargoes 
  • Open Hatch Cargo Ship 
    A large single deck cargo vessel with full width hatches and boxed holds for the carriage of unitised dry cargo such as forest products and containers. Many are fitted with a gantry crane 
  • Open Insurance Policy 
    A marine insurance policy that applies to all shipments made by an exporter over a period of time rather than to one shipment only. 
  • Open Sea 
    The water area of the open coast seaward of the ordinary low-water mark, or seaward of inland wa- ters. 
  • Open spec 
    A description of the substance sold in certain petroleum products transactions. Buyer and seller agree to price, delivery range and other particulars, but only to general specifications for the material. The seller covers the deal with any availability fa
  • Open Top Container 
    A container fitted with a solid removable roof, or with a tarpaulin roof so the container can be loaded or unloaded from the top. 
  • Operating Ratio 
    A comparison of a carrier’s operating expense with its net sales. The most general measure of operating efficiency. 
  • Operational tolerance 
    Flexibility in the quantity of a stem, usually expressed as a small percentage of the stern's nominal size. This provision makes it easier to find suitable ships to lift crude and products. 
  • OPIC 
    Overseas Private Investment Corporation, an agency of the U.S. government which helps U.S. busi- nesses invest overseas. 
  • OPL 
    Outside Port Limits 
  • OPRC 
    Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation 
  • OPT 
    Option 
  • Optimum Cube 
    The highest level of cube utilization that can be achieved when loading cargo into a container. 
  • OR 
    Owner's risk 
  • ORB 
    Owner's risk of breakage 
  • ORC 
    Owner's risk of chafing 
  • ORD 
    Owner's risk of damage 
  • Order–Notify (O/N) 
    A bill of lading term to provide surrender of the original bill of lading before freight is released; usually associated with a shipment covered under a letter of credit. 
  • ORDET 
    Owner's risk of detoriation 
  • Ore Carrier 
    A single deck cargo ship fitted with two longitudinal bulkheads. Ore is carried in the centreline holds only 
  • Ore/Bulk/Products Carrier 
    A bulk carrier arranged for the alternative (but not simultaneous) carriage of oil products 
  • Ore/Oil Carrier 
    An ore carrier arranged for the alternative (but not simultaneous) carriage of crude oil 
  • Ore/oil carrier 
    Ship with separate cargo holds for ore cargoes. When the ship is carrying oil, the ore holds may also be filled with oil, in order to utilize the deadweight capacity to the fullest 
  • ORF 
    Owner's risk of fire/freezing 
  • ORFS 
    Origin Rail Freight Station: Same as CFS at origin except an ORFS is operated by the rail carrier participating in the shipment. 
  • Organic 
    Based on a carbon structure but also containing other elements eg hydrogen, oxygen 
  • Organic chemicals 
    Organic chemicals are based on carbon compounds and form the backbone of the petrochemicals industry, while inorganic chemicals are non-carbon chemicals, such as chlorine, alkalis or hydrogen peroxide. Every chemical is either organic or inorganic. 
  • Organoleptic Test 
    Refers to the careful tasting and odour assessment procedures carried out by experienced personnel. An important test on all fully refined oils which should be bland in odour and taste. Both the senses are involved in organoleptic testing when freshly pro
  • Origin 
    Location where shipment begins its movement. 
  • Original Bill of Lading (OBL) 
    A document which requires proper signatures for consummating carriage of contract. Must be marked as “original” by the issuing carrier. 
  • ORL 
    Owner's risk of leakage 
  • ORS 
    Owner's risk of shifting 
  • Orthoxylene 
    Orthoxylene is an isomer of mixed xylene. It is primarily used in plasticizers (primarily in flexible polyvinyl chloride - PVC - material), medicines and dyes. 
  • ORW 
    Owner's risk of becoming wet 
  • OS&D 
    Over short and damage 
  • OSB 
    One safe berth 
  • OSC 
    Olefin Steering Committee (a sub-group of LOSG). LOSG is a sector group of the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • OSD 
    Open shelterdecker 
  • OSD/CSD 
    Open shelter deck or closed shelter deck (vessel) 
  • OSH 
    Open Shelter Deck 
  • OSIC 
    On-Scene Incident Commander 
  • OSP 
    One safe port 
  • OSP 
    Official selling price. See posted price. 
  • OSPA 
    Oxygenated Solvent Producers Association, a sector group of the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • OSPB 
    One safe port or berth 
  • OSRO 
    Oil Spill Removal Organization 
  • OSS 
    On Scene Security 
  • OST 
    Ore Sea Transport or Ordinary spring tides 
  • OSV 
    Offshore supply vessel 
  • OT 
    Overtime or On truck or railway or Open top (container) 
  • OTF 
    Offshore Terminal Forum 
  • Other Activities, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel used for an undefined activity. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • Ototoxic 
    Capable of causing injury to the inner ear and/or the auditory nerve. 
  • Out Gate 
    Transaction or interchange that occurs at the time a container leaves a rail or water terminal. 
  • Outturn 
    As measured at vessel discharge. The industry uses this term as a description of the oil unloaded at a buyer's terminal. It indicates that measurements taken at the delivery of a parcel will determine the quality or quantity, or both, of a parcel changing
  • Over the Barrel 
    The most common method of punishment aboard ship was flogging. The unfortunate sailor was tied to a grating, a mast or over the barrel of a deck cannon. 
  • Overage 
    Quantity of cargo loaded in excess of minimum agreed 
  • Overbearing 
    To sail downwind directly at another ship thus "stealing" or diverting the wind from his sails. 
  • Overboard 
    Over the side or out of the ship 
  • Overcharge 
    To charge more than the proper amount according to the published rates. 
  • Overhaul 
    To prevent the buntline ropes from chaffing the sails, crew were sent aloft to haul them over the sails. This was called overhauling. 
  • Overhead stream 
    The fraction which leaves through the top of a distillation column as a gas. 
  • Overheight Cargo 
    Cargo more than eight feet high which thus cannot fit into a standard container. 
  • Overland Common Point (OCP) 
    A term stated on the bills of lading offering lower shipping rates to importers east of the Rockies, provided merchandise from the Far East comes in through the West Coast ports. OCP rates were es- tablished by U.S. West Coast steamship companies in conju
  • Overreach 
    If a ship holds a tack course too long, it has overreached its turning point and the distance it must travel to reach it's next tack point is increased. 
  • Overwhelm 
    Old English for capsize or founder. 
  • OVID 
    Offshore Vessel Inspection Database 
  • OVIQ 
    Offshore Vessel Inspection Questionnaire 
  • OVMSA 
    Offshore Vessel Management and Self Assessment 
  • OW or OWS or OWNS 
    Owners 
  • OWISE 
    Otherwise 
  • Owner Code (SCAC) 
    Standard Carrier Abbreviation Code identifying an individual common carrier. A three letter carrier code followed by a suffix identifies the carrier’s equipment. A suffix of “U” is a container and “C” is a chassis. 
  • OWS 
    Oily Water Separator 
  • OWS 
    Owners 
  • Oxidation 
    Process in which the unsaturated fatty acids of oils and fats react with oxygen, resulting in rancidity. Oils and fats in contact with oxygen present in the atmosphere will cause chemical changes in the product which will downgrade the quality. Oxidation
  • Oxidation stability 
    Resistance to change when exposed to air. Motor gasoline should have this property. Otherwise it will form gum when stored. 
  • Oxidized Oil 
    Deteriorated oil due to attack by atmospheric oxygen which has occurred either during processing or during subsequent storage and transport. The chemical change is gradual and progressive but the effect on quality can be very great. Commonly assayed by pe
  • Oxidizer 
    A chemical which supplies its own oxygen and which helps other combustible material burn more readily. 
  • Oxidizing agent 
    Substance causing oxidation by accepting electrons 
  • Oxygenate 
    Oxygen-containing molecules such as alcohols or ethers used either for volume or octane, or both, in motor gasoline blending. Common examples of such compounds include ethanol, tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA), and methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE). 
  • Oxygenation Vessel 
    A vessel designed for re-oxygenating waterways where waters have low levels of oxygen through pollution