Glossary

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GLOSSARY INDEX

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ABBREVIATION
DEFINITION
  • P&A 
    Procedures and Arrangements (manual) 
  • P&C 
    Private & Confidential 
  • P&C or P+C or PANDC 
    Private & Confidential 
  • P.P. 
    Perpendicular 
  • P.P.I 
    Policy proof of interest 
  • P/A o PA 
    Particular average 
  • P/C or PCGO 
    Part cargo, parcel cargo. Goods which do not represent the entire cargo for a particular ship but whose quantity is sufficient to be carried on charter terms. 
  • P/E 
    Purchase enquiry 
  • P/F or PF 
    Pro Forma 
  • P/G or P.G. or PG 
    Persian Gulf 
  • P/L 
    Partial Loss 
  • P/L 
    Partial loss 
  • P/N 
    Promissory note 
  • P/O 
    Pier/ocean 
  • P/P 
    Pier/Pier 
  • P/S 
    Public sale 
  • PA 
    Particular average 
  • PAC 
    Pacific Coast 
  • Packing List 
    Itemized list of commodities with marks/numbers but no cost values indicated. 
  • PAD 
    Pacific Australia Direct 
  • PADAG 
    Please Authorize Delivery Against Guarantee: A request from the consignee to the shipper to allow the carrier or agent to release cargo against a guarantee, either bank or personal. Made when the consignee is unable to produce original bills of lading. 
  • PAH 
    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon. PAH's occur mainly, and to high levels, in coconut oil because of the practice of smoke drying the copra. However, PAH's have also been detected in other oils, although at a much lower level. Removal of PAH's is by proper
  • Paired Ports 
    A U.S. Customs program wherein at least two designated Customs ports will enter cargo that arrives at either port without the necessity of an in–bound document. 
  • Pallet 
    A platform with or without sides, on which a number of packages or pieces may be loaded to facilitate handling by a lift truck. 
  • Palletised Cargo Ship 
    A single or multi deck cargo ship loaded and unloaded by way of pallets lift(s). There are no weather deck hatches 
  • Palm Acid Oil 
    It is a by-product obtained from the alkali refining of palm oil resulting from the acidulation of soapstock. It is normally used for making laundry soaps. 
  • Palm Kernel Cake 
    The residue after pressing and/or solvent extraction of palm kernels to obtain the oil. Used as a component of animal feed. 
  • Palm Mid Fraction 
    Palm mid fraction (PMF) is obtained by a two stage fractionation. Usually, in the first stage, the highest melting solid components are removed and, in the second stage, the most liquid. The solid residue of the second stage has sharp melting properties t
  • Palm Oil 
    The oil obtained from the fruit flesh of the oil palm (Elaeis Guineensis). World production in 1995/96 was estimated by the USDA at 15.69 million tonnes, Malaysia and Indonesia being the major producing countries. Most of the plantings today are of the ""
  • Palm Olein 
    Palm oil is separated into palm stearin (30-35% of the original oil ) and palm olein (65-70%). The latter finds a ready market as a high-quality, highly stable frying oil. With improved filtration procedures the yield of olein has been raised to 71-78%. 
  • Palm Stearin 
    As mentioned above, palm oil is separated into palm stearin and palm olein. The olein is the more valuable product, but the stearin can be used as a hard fat in margarine stock or as an alternative to tallow in the oleochemical industry where it serves as
  • Palmitic Acid 
    Palmitic acid, having a 16 carbon atom chain, is the most widely distributed saturated fatty acid. It occurs in practically all animal, vegetable and marine animal fats and is a major component of lard, tallow, palm oil and cocoa butter. 
  • Paml Kernel Oil 
    The oil obtained from the kernel of the oil palm fruit. Its chemical composition is quite different from that of the palm oil obtained from the flesh. Palm kernel oil is a lauric type oil similar to coconut oil. 
  • PAN 
    Panama 
  • Panamax 
    Medium Range Tanker, maximum size possible to pass through the locks of the Panama Canal- designed for carrying bulk crude oil in tanks. (60,000 dwt - 80,000 dwt approx with 32.2m beam limitation) 
  • Panamax Tanker 
    A liquid cargo vessel of 50,000 to 70,000dwt. 
  • Panamax tankers 
    Oil carriers which meet the 32.2 meter beam and 259 meter LOA limitations of the Panama Canal. Modern ship design translates those dimensions into a vessel with a maximum deadweight tonnage around 70,000. 
  • Panamax Vessel 
    Ships built to maximize capacity within the Panama Canal lock size limits of 950 feet long, 106 feet wide. Design draft is usually no greater than 40 feet and sails no greater than the 39.5 feet canal limit, with deadweights up to 80,000 tons. 
  • PANDI or P&I 
    Protection and Indemnity's (Club). A mutual Association formed by shipowners to provide protection from large financial loss by one member by contribution towards that loss by all members. The P & I Clubs cover liabilities not insurable by the shipowner. 
  • Paper barrels 
    Also known as dry barrels or electric barrels, these units trade in the futures or other non-physical markets. These terms designate the opposite of the wet barrels traded in physical deals. Since short sales in the wet market involve product the seller d
  • Paper Ramp 
    A technical rail ramp, used for equalization of points not actually served. 
  • Paper Rate 
    A published rate that is never assessed because no freight moves under it. 
  • Paraffinic 
    A high concentrate of paraffins, usually in distinction from naphthenic or olefinic mixtures. 
  • Paraffins 
    straight- or branched-chain hydrocarbons containing no unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds. A high paraffins content gives a naphtha a low octane rating, a diesel oil a high octane number, and a vacuum gasoil or straight run fuel oil a good susceptibility to
  • Paraxylene 
    One of the forms of xylene, paraxylene is used to make polyesters, which have applications in clothing, packaging and plastic bottles. The most widely-used polyester is polyethylene terephthalate (PET), used in lightweight, recyclable soft drinks bottles,
  • Parcel Receipt 
    An arrangement whereby a steamship company, under rules and regulations established in the freight tariff of a given trade, accepts small packages at rates below the minimum bill of lading, and issues a parcel receipt instead of a bill of lading. 
  • Parcel tanker 
    A ship fitted to segregate a large number of products. Some of these vessels, called chemical carriers, can handle more than a dozen materials simultaneously. Most of these ships have tanks made of stainless steel or lined with inert, easily cleaned coati
  • Parcels Tanker 
    A chemical tanker with many segregated cargo tanks to carry multiple grades of chemicals as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code. Typically these can have between 10 and 60 different tanks 
  • Parraffinic naphtha 
    A naphtha composed primarily of paraffinic molecules. In general, the feedstock trade considers 65 percent paraffins content the minimum for a paraffinic naphtha. Paraffins have a low octane rating. They crack readily, however. This combination of propert
  • Partial Containerships 
    Multipurpose containerships where one or more but not all compartments are fitted with permanent container cells. Remaining compartments are used for other types of cargo. 
  • Partial Shipments 
    Under letters of credit, one or more shipments are allowed by the phrase “partial shipments permit- ted.” 
  • Partially Hydrogenated 
    The term used to describe an oil which has been lightly to moderately hydrogenated to shift the melting point to a higher temperature range and increase the stability of the oil. Partially hydrogenated oils remain liquid and are used in a wide variety of
  • Particular Average 
    See Insurance, Particular Average. 
  • Passenger Ship 
    A vessel certificated to carry more than 12 passengers, some of whom may be accommodated in cabins 
  • Passenger Ship, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel used for carriage of passengers with purpose of a to b transport on rivers/lakes/canals, not suitable for open sea voyages. 
  • Passenger/Container Ship 
    A container ship with accommodation for the carriage of more than 12 passengers 
  • Passenger/Cruise 
    A vessel certificated to carry more than 12 passengers, all of whom may be accommodated in cabins 
  • Passenger/Landing Craft 
    A landing craft certificated to carry more than 12 passengers 
  • Passenger/Ro-Ro Ship (Vehicles) 
    A ro-ro cargo ship with accommodation for more than 12 passengers 
  • Passenger/Ro-Ro Ship (Vehicles), Inland Waterways 
    A vessel designed for the transportation of Vehicles. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • Passenger/Ro-Ro Ship (Vehicles/Rail) 
    A ro-ro cargo ship for the additional carriage of rail-vehicles and with accommodation for more than 12 passengers 
  • Passenger/Ro-Ro Ship (Vehicles/Train), Inland Waterways 
    A vessel designed for the transportation of Vehicles or Rail vehicles. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • Passivation 
    A nitric acid wash of high chromium stainless steel ship's tanks to form a very thin oxide film on the metal surface which serves as a protective barrier. 
  • Passivation potential 
    Corrosion potential, at which the corrosion current has a peak value, and above which there is a range of potentials, where the metal is in a passive state 
  • Passive state 
    State of a metal resulting from a passivation, usually the formation of an extremely thin surface oxide layer 
  • PASTUS 
    Past Us 
  • PASTUS or PUS 
    Past Us 
  • Patrol Vessel 
    A non military vessel used for patrol duties 
  • Patrol Vessel, Naval 
    A naval vessel for patrolling duties 
  • Pax 
    Passenger Vessel 
  • Payee 
    A party named in an instrument as the beneficiary of the funds. Under letters of credit, the payee is either the drawer of the draft or a bank. 
  • Payer 
    A party responsible for the payment as evidenced by the given instrument. Under letters of credit, the payer is the party on whom the draft is drawn, usually the drawee bank. 
  • PB 
    Permanent Bunkers or Poop and Bridge 
  • PBF 
    Poop, bridge and forecastle 
  • PBL 
    Parallel Body Length 
  • PC 
    Per Container or Part Cargo or Port Consumption or Product carrier or Period of Charter or Port Clearance 
  • PCC 
    Pure Car Carrier or Pre-Carriage Charges 
  • PCL 
    Parcel 
  • PCM 
    Per calendar month (hire) 
  • PCNT 
    Panama Canal Net Tonnage 
  • PCO 
    Port, charterers' option 
  • PCO or PICO 
    Port in charterer’s option 
  • PCS 
    Pieces 
  • PCT 
    Percentage or % 
  • PCTC 
    Pure Car and Truck Carrier 
  • PD 
    Per Diem or Per day or Port Dues or Paid or Passed 
  • PD 
    Production deck (OCIMF acronym) 
  • PD STG£ 
    British Pound Sterling (GBP) 
  • PDA 
    PDA (Proforma Disbursement Account) Calculation – Preliminary Estimate  
  • PDAOPR 
    Per day and/or pro rata 
  • PDM 
    Punta De Madeira 
  • PDOPR 
    Per diem or pro rata 
  • PDPR 
    Per Day Pro-Rata 
  • PDS 
    Pound Sterling 
  • PE 
    Polyethylene 
  • Pearl Shells Carrier 
    A vessel equipped for the carriage of pearl shells 
  • PEL 
    Permussible Exposure Limit. This is one of the most important OSHA limits used. It is defined as the allowable limit for air containment in which works may be exposed day after day without adverse health effects.  
  • PER 
    Period 
  • Per Diem 
    A charge, based on a fixed daily rate. 
  • Per Hatch Per Day 
    PER HATCH PER DAY shall mean that the Laytime is to be calculated by dividing the quantity of cargo by the result of multiplying the agreed daily rate per hatch by the number of the Vessel’s hatches. Thus:Laytime = Quantity of cargo / (Daily rate x Number
  • PER SE 
    By Itself 
  • Per Working Hatch Per Day or Per Workable Hatch Per Day 
    PER HATCH PER DAY shall mean that the Laytime is to be calculated by dividing the quantity of cargo by the result of multiplying the agreed daily rate per hatch by the number of the Vessel’s hatches. Thus: Laytime = Quantity of cargo / (Daily rate x Numbe
  • Percutaneous toxicity 
    Systemic toxic effects produced as a result of a substance being absorbed across the skin. 
  • PERDIEM 
    By the Day 
  • Perils of the Sea 
    Those causes of loss for which the carrier is not legally liable. The elemental risks of ocean trans- port. 
  • Period business 
    Deals which involve transfer of merchandise or delivery of service (transportation, for instance) from seller to buyer over a stretch of time. See term deal and time charter. 
  • Permanent Shore Facility 
    Any vessel which has been decommissioned as a non floating permanent facility 
  • Peroxide Value 
    Fats consist of saturated and unsaturated acids. The unsaturated acids are susceptible to oxidation, that is oxygen, can add to the fatty chain to form peroxides or hydroperoxides. The peroxide value is a measure of the amount of these products. It is usu
  • PES 
    Unsaturated Polyester Resins 
  • PET 
    Polyethylene terephthalate. PET is derived from xylene and is one of the most widely used industrial polyesters. It is used in lightweight, recyclable soft drink bottles, as fibers in clothing, as a filling for anoraks and duvets, in car tyre cords and co
  • Petrochemical 
    An organic compound that has been derived from petroleum or natural gas. There are almost 200 chemicals that can be so described and they include many simple hydrocarbons (e.g. methane, ethane), aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. benzene, toluene), naphthenes an
  • Petroleum 
    A generic term applied to oil and oil products in all forms, such as crude oil, unfinished oils, petroleum products, natural gas plant liquids, and non-hydrocarbon compounds blended into finished petroleum products. See crude oil. 
  • PFAD 
    Palm Fatty Acid Distillate. It is a term used specifically for the by-product obtained from palm oil refined by steam distillation (physical refining). PFAD contains free fatty acid (major component) and a small amount of unsaponifiable material and neutr
  • PFD 
    Personal Floatation Device 
  • PFG 
    Piracy Focus Group 
  • PFSA 
    Port Facility Security Assessment 
  • PFSO 
    Petroleum Floating Storage Offloading or Port Facility Security Officer 
  • PFSP 
    Port Facility Security Plan 
  • PFT 
    Per freight ton 
  • PG 
    Persian Gulf (now AG) 
  • PGEE 
    Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether. 
  • PGEEA 
    Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether Acetate 
  • PGEP 
    Propylene Glycol Ethers Panel (USA) 
  • PGH 
    Per Geared Hatch 
  • PGME 
    Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether 
  • PGMEA 
    Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether Acetate 
  • PGO 
    This acronym designates two different intermediates. See process gasoil and pyrolysis gasoil. 
  • pH 
    A measure of acidity or alkalinity on a scale of 1 to 14. 1 is strongly acidic, 7 is neutral and 14 is strongly alkaline 
  • PHC 
    Port handling charges 
  • PHD 
    Per hatch day 
  • Phenanthrene 
    Phenanthrene is a crystalline polycyclic hydrocarbon isomeric to Anthracene. It is distilled from coal tar and is found in some coal tar oils which are used for example as wood preservatives and as carbon black feedstocks.  
  • Phenol 
    Phenol is an aromatic alcohol mainly used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. It essentially serves as a raw material for the production of bisphenol A, phenolic resins, alkylphenols and caprolactam. 
  • Phenolic resin 
    Phenolic resins are manufactured from phenol. They are used in wood products and molding powders applications, and also have a wide range of applications on the electrical, mechanical and decorative markets, in the automotive industry, in building and con
  • PHIL 
    Philippines 
  • PHO 
    Port health officer 
  • Phosphatides 
    These are lipids which contain combined phosphoric acid in their chemical composition. Phosphatides (or phospholipids) are important structural and functional constituents of the membranes of biological tissue and are also the major constituent of the gum
  • Phosphorus 
    Phosphorus is a chemical element which has an important functional role in the phospholipid molecule. During the refining of oils and fats, it is important to remove the phosphorus before high temperature treatment in the deodoriser. Therefore, analysis o
  • Photosensitizer 
    A substance which is converted in the skin circulation by light into a derivative capable of causing skin sensitization 
  • Phototoxic 
    A substance which is converted in the skin circulation by light into a derivative capable of causing local irritation 
  • PHPD 
    Per Hatch Per Day 
  • Phthalate 
    Phthalates, or phthalate esters, are manufactured by the reaction of phthalic anhydride with one of a variety of alcohols ranging from methanol to tridecanol. They are predominantly used as plasticizers to soften the popular plastic PVC and to a lesser ex
  • Physical Hazard 
    A physical hazard is one in which harm could be caused to humans or wildlife as a consequence of the physical properties of chemical, e.g., stickiness or viscosity 
  • Physical Refining 
    In simple terms, physical refining may be defined as free fatty acid removal by the action of high temperature, high vacuum and with live steam applied directly to the oil. Physical refining, also frequently referred to as ""steam refining"", may more acc
  • Phytosanitary Inspection Certificate 
    A certificate issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to satisfy import regulations of foreign countries; indicates that a U.S. shipment has been inspected and found free from harmful pests and plant diseases. 
  • PIAT 
    Petrochemical Industry Association of Taiwan 
  • PIC 
    Person in charge 
  • Pickling 
    A chemical or electrochemical method of removing mill scale, rust and similar coating from steel 
  • Pickling bath 
    Solution used for pickling. The pickling bath is normally composed of acids, but can in electrolytic pickling consistent of a salt solution 
  • Pickup 
    The act of calling for freight by truck at the consignor’s shipping platform. 
  • Pier 
    The structure perpendicular to the shoreline to which a vessel is secured for the purpose of loading and unloading cargo. 
  • Pier–to–House 
    A shipment loaded into a container at the pier or terminal, thence to the consignee’s facility. 
  • Pier–to–Pier 
    Containers loaded at port of loading and discharged at port of destination. 
  • Pigging 
    At any bulking installation loading, unloading and other pumping lines are used interchangeably for different types of oils or different products of the same oil. The oil left behind in any pipeline after the pumping operation could be as much as 5-10 ton
  • Piggy Packer 
    A mobile container–handling crane used to load/unload containers to/from railcars. 
  • Piggyback 
    A transportation arrangement in which truck trailers with their loads are moved by train to a destination. Also known as Rail Pigs. 
  • PIH 
    Poison Inhalation Hazard. Term used to describe gases and volatile liquids that are toxic when inhaled. 
  • Pile Dike 
    A dike constructed of a group of piles braced and lashed together along a riverbank 
  • Pile Driving Vessel 
    A vessel equipped for pile driving operations 
  • Pilot Vessel 
    A vessel from which pilots operate 
  • Pilotage 
    Process of piloting a ship. 
  • PIOPIC 
    P & I Oil Pollution Indemnity Clause 
  • Pipe Burying Vessel 
    A vessel equipped to carry small stones and aggregates and to deliver them via a flexible fall pipe system to bury pipes and cables on the sea bed 
  • Pipe Carrier 
    A platform supply ship equipped with increased scantlings & longer deck space for the transportation of pipes 
  • Pipe Down 
    Means stop talking and be quiet. The Pipe Down was the last signal from the Bosun's pipe each day which meant "lights out" and "silence". 
  • Pipe Layer 
    A vessel primarily equipped to lay solid or flexible pipes on the sea bed 
  • Pipe Layer Crane Vessel 
    A pipe layer also equipped with a large crane or derrick 
  • Pipe layer Platform, jack up 
    A jack up offshore pipe layer platform 
  • Pipe layer Platform, semi submersible 
    A semi submersible offshore pipe layer platform 
  • Pipeline 
    Line of pipe equipped with pumps and valves and other control devices for moving liquids and gases. It is one of the main modes of transport for many chemicals, including olefins, the main building blocks of the petrochemical industry. 
  • Pipestill 
    A traditional industry name for crude distillation units. The term generally applies to atmospheric stills. "Vacuum pipestill," used infrequently, refers to vacuum distillation units. 
  • Pit 
    A corroded hollow in a metal surface, caused by localized corrosion (pitting) 
  • Pitching 
    Ship Stability: is when the vessel rotates about the transverse (side-to-side) axis 
  • PITT 
    Petroleum Institute of Thailand 
  • Pitting corrosion 
    Localized corrosion resulting in pits, i.e. cavities extending from the surface into the metal 
  • Pitting initiation potential 
    Lowest value of a corrosion potential at which pit initiation is possible in a passive surface in a given corrosive environment 
  • PKD 
    Partially knocked down 
  • PKGE 
    Package 
  • PL 
    Protectively Located spaces (Marpol 13g) 
  • Place of Delivery 
    Place where cargo leaves the care and custody of carrier. 
  • Place of Receipt 
    Location where cargo enters the care and custody of carrier. 
  • Plastic 
    Any of numerous synthetic materials that consist of giant molecules called polymers, with extremely long chains of repeating units derived from short molecules. Plastics can be formed into products by molding or otherwise shaping. The two major divisions
  • Plasticize 
    The process of creating a solid crystal structure in a fat or oil product resulting in a smooth appearance and firm consistency. 
  • Plasticizer 
    A plasticizer is a substance which when added to a material, usually a plastic, makes it flexible, resilient and easier to handle. Modern plasticizers are manmade organic chemicals; the majority of which are esters, such as adipates and phthalates. They a
  • PlasticsEurope 
    Plastics Manufacturers Association, the plastics programme of Cefic. 
  • Platform Supply Ship 
    A vessel for the transportation of stores and goods to offshore platforms on an open deck, typically at the stern. May also be fitted with specialist under deck tanks for water, cement and/or drilling mud 
  • PLC 
    Public Limited Company 
  • PLEM 
    Pipeline End Manifold 
  • Plimsoll 
    A Plimsoll line or mark shows the safe 'freeboard' (distance from water to weather deck). There are 6 load lines as follows:Tropical Fresh, Fresh, Tropical, Summer, Winter, Winter North Atlantic. 
  • Plimsoll Mark 
    A series of horizontal lines, corresponding to the seasons of the year and fresh or saltwater, painted on the outside of a ship marking the level which must remain above the surface of the water for the vessel’s stability. 
  • PLS 
    Please 
  • PLT 
    Per Long Ton 
  • PLTC 
    Port liner term charge 
  • PM 
    Per month or Afternoon 
  • PMMA 
    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is made from methyl methacrylate and is mainly used in the construction industry, lighting applications, signs, automotive and related areas, electronics and consumer-ware. 
  • PMO 
    Passing Muscat outbound 
  • PMQS 
    Provided minimum quantity supplied 
  • PMRC 
    APPE Petrochemicals Market Research Committee. APPE is a major group within the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • PMT 
    Per Metric Ton 
  • PO 
    Propylene Oxide. A petrochemical used as a monomer in polymer production and as an intermediate in the synthesis of other substances. Propylene oxide is used as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of polyurethane foam, in propylene glycol and in ot
  • PO-PO 
    Push-on/push-off 
  • POA 
    Place of acceptance 
  • POB 
    Pilot On Board or Port Office Box 
  • POC 
    Port of call 
  • POD 
    Paid On delivery or Port of Discharge or Proof of Delivery 
  • Point of Origin 
    The place at which a shipment is received by a carrier from the shipper. 
  • Poise 
    The unit of absolute viscosity. The trade often uses centipoises. One poise equals 100 centipoises. 
  • POL 
    Petroleum, oil and lube Or Port of Loading 
  • Polar 
    See Miscible 
  • Pollution Control Vessel 
    A vessel equipped for the primary function of pollution control. Typical types include oil spill recovery vessel and a pollution and debris collector 
  • Polyacrylate 
    A family of thermoplastic engineering resins made by the polymerization of an acrylic compound such as methyl methacrylate. 
  • Polycarbonate resins 
    Polycarbonate resins, derived from bisphenol A, are used for structural parts, impact resistant glazing, street-light bulbs, household appliance parts, components of electrical/electronic devices, automotive applications, reusable bottles, and food and dr
  • Polycarbonates 
    Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastics.They are easily worked, molded, and thermoformed; as such, these plastics are very widely used in modern manufacturing. Polycarbonate is becoming more common in housewares as well as laboratories and
  • Polyester 
    Any of a group of polymers that consist basically of repeated units of an ester and are used especially in making fibers or plastics. Polyesters can be made into woven and knitted fabrics, either alone or blended with other fibers; they also have industri
  • Polyethylene 
    A polymer of ethylene, especially any of various lightweight thermoplastics that are resistant to chemicals and moisture, have good insulating properties, and are used especially in packaging and insulation. 
  • Polyisobutylene 
    Polyisobutylene is a synthetic rubber, or elastomer. It is special because it is that only rubber that is gas impermeable, that is, it is the only rubber which can hold air for long periods of time. Polyisobutylene, sometimes called butyl rubber is a viny
  • Polymer 
    Polymer is derived from the Greek word poly meaning many while the term monomer is derived from mono meaning one. When identical simple molecules (monomers) come together and link up in a chain-like fashion they form a polymer. Polymers can be short chain
  • Polymer 
    A strand of monomers. By [Definition], it takes five or more of these combining units to make a polymer. Shorter chains have individual names (dimer, trimer, and tetramer). Most familiar synthetic polymers, plastics like polystyrene, polypropylene, and po
  • Polymerisation 
    Tank cleaning: The initial wash of products that tend to polymerise should be carried out with cold (ambient) water. Washing with hot water may result in polimeric residues being left in tanks and lines, which are very difficult to remove. 
  • Polymerise 
    The bonding of similar molecules into long chains or branched structures. 
  • Polymorphism 
    The property of fat molecules to exist in multiple crystalline structures; identified as alpha, beta and beta prime. 
  • Polyol 
    This is an organic molecule with three or more alcohol groups attached. The correct chemical term for an alcohol group is a hydroxy group with the combination of one oxygen attached to one hydrogen (OH). 
  • Polyolefin 
    The collective name given to those polymers that are made from the lower olefins: ethylene, propylene, butylene and isoprene. The polyolefins are thermoplastic polymers. 
  • Polypropylene 
    Any of various thermoplastic plastics or fibers that are polymers of propylene. Polypropylene can be made into fibers, where it is a major constituent in fabrics for home furnishings such as upholstery and carpets. Numerous industrial end uses include rop
  • Polystyrene 
    A solid plastic made from polymerized styrene and used in a wide variety of everyday applications, from coffee cups through to CD jewel boxes.. 
  • Polyurethane 
    A synthetic compound derived from toluene, belonging to the family of organic polymers. Polyurethanes are used to make the foam in furniture, mattresses, car seats, building insulation, coatings for floors and furniture and refrigerators. They are also us
  • Pomerene Act 
    U.S. federal law enacting conditions by which a B/L may be issued. Penalties for issuing B/L’s containing false data include monetary fines and/or imprisonment. Also known as (U.S.) Federal Bill of Lading Act of 1916. 
  • PONA 
    A breakdown of the kind of molecules which compose a hydrocarbon mixture. The trade uses PONA most frequently to describe naphthas. See paraffins, olefins, naphthenes, and aromatics. All hydrocarbons fall into one of these four categories. The feedstock t
  • Pontoon (Function Unknown) 
    A non propelled pontoon whose function is unknown 
  • Pool Agreement 
    An agreement between a number of persons who have the right (because they are bareboat or time charterers, so disponent owners) to exploit the earning capacity of similar ships to co-operate in the Commercial Management and Commercial Operation of (typica
  • Pooped 
    The poop is the stern section of a ship. To be pooped is to be swamped by a high, following sea 
  • POPS 
    Purchase Options 
  • POR 
    Port of Refuge or Port of Registry 
  • Port 
    Left side of a ship as perceived when facing toward the front (bow). Also refers to a shore facility where ships dock to be loaded and unloaded. 
  • Port 
    PORT shall mean any area where vessels load or discharge cargo and shall include, but not be limited to, berths, wharves, anchorages, buoys and offshore facilities as well as places outside the legal, fiscal or administrative area where vessels are ordere
  • Port Facility Security Officer 
    Is the person designated as responsible for the development, implementation, revision and mainte- nance of the port facility security plan and for liaison with the ship security officers and company security officers. 
  • Port Facility Security Plan 
    Is a plan developed to ensure the application of measures designed to protect persons on board, cargo, cargo transport units and ship’s stores within the port facility from the risks of a security incident. 
  • Port of Call 
    Port where a ship discharges or receives traffic. 
  • Port of Entry 
    Port where cargo is unloaded and enters a country. 
  • Port of Exit 
    Place where cargo is loaded and leaves a country. 
  • Port Security 
    It is the defense, law and treaty enforcement, and counterterrorism activities that fall within the port and maritime domain. It includes the protection of the seaports themselves, the protection and in- spection of the cargo moving through the ports, and
  • Port Security Grant Program (PSGP) 
    As a result of the Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2005, fiscal year grant funding is provided annually to the Nation’s most at–risk seaports for physical security enhancements to be used in the protection of critical port infrastruc
  • Port State Inspection 
    An inspection of a vessel carried out by the national marine authority of the Country in which the vessel is visiting. 
  • POSH - Port out, Starboard home 
    A popular theory holds that the term Posh is derived from the initials of “Port Out, Starboard Home,” the cooler, and thus more expensive, side of ships traveling between England and India in the mid-19th century. The acronym POSH was supposedly stamped o
  • Positional Isomer 
    An isomer differing in the location of a double bond. 
  • POSN 
    Position 
  • Post Curing 
    The input of heat to a coating after the initial cure has taken place to enhance the chemical resistance 
  • Post-Fixture Operations 
    Voyage planning operations that take place after a voyage has been contracted, or "fixed". 
  • Post-Panamax Vessel 
    a fully cellular containership that can carry more than 4,000 TEUs; a vessel that is larger than the original Panama Canal dimensions, but will fit under the Panama Canal expansion 
  • Posted price 
    The published or list price of crude and petroleum products, sometimes shortened to "posting." Many companies use this term as a name for the price applied to their contract business. In some cases, it means the commodity's base price--the starting figure
  • POT (able) 
    POTable water 
  • Pour point 
    The temperature where a hydrocarbon mixture becomes too thick to flow. The industry uses this property to assure that gasoil will fuel furnaces and diesel engines properly during cold weather. In particularly harsh climates, pour point indicates how warm
  • Pour point 
    The lowest temperature at which commodity will continue to flow when it is cooled under specified standard conditions. 
  • Powder Carrier 
    A single deck cargo vessel for the carriage of fine powders such as fly ash. There are no weather deck hatches 
  • PP 
    Per Procurationem (on behalf of) or Picked Ports 
  • PP(D) 
    Prepaid 
  • PPB 
    Parts per billion. A thousand times less than a ppm. An expression for tiny concentrations of one ingredient (usually a contaminent) in a mixture. One milligram per kilogram equals one weight ppm. 
  • ppb 
    Parts by weight per billion parts 
  • Ppd 
    Prepaid: Freight charges paid by the consignor (shipper) prior to the release of the bills of lading by the car- rier. 
  • PPE 
    Personnel Protective Equipment 
  • PPI 
    Principal Party of Interest (see USPPI and FPPI). 
  • PPM 
    Parts per million. A convenient expression for very small concentrations of one ingredient (usually a contaminent) in a mixture. One milligram per kilogram equals one weight ppm. So does 1 gram in a metric ton. The industry does not regularly use volume p
  • PPM 
    Parts Per Million 
  • PPOSE 
    Propose 
  • PPP 
    Public Private Partnership 
  • PPS or PU 
    Pumps 
  • PPSE 
    Propose 
  • PPSE or PPROPOSE 
    Please Propose 
  • PPT 
    Prompt.. Immediate availability of the cargo or vessel offered in the charter party or any other contract. Similar to Spot. 
  • PPUK 
    Picked ports of U.K 
  • PQ 
    Province of Quebec 
  • PR 
    Polski Rajestr Statkow (polish register) 
  • PR 
    Pro-Rata 
  • PRAC 
    Primary Response Action Contractor 
  • Pratique 
    License or permission to use a port 
  • Pratique Certificate 
    Lifts temporary quarantine of a vessel; granted pratique by Health Officer. 
  • PRC 
    People's Republic of China 
  • PRE 
    Pitting Resistance Equivalent. An empirical formula used to predict the resistance of stainless steels to pitting corrosion. Various formulas are used but the most common is PRE=%Cr+3.3%Mo+16%N 
  • Pre–cooling 
    A process employed in the shipment of citrus fruits and other perishable commodities. The fruit is packed and placed in a cold room from which the heat is gradually extracted. The boxes of fruit are packed in containers that have been thoroughly cooled an
  • Precursor 
    A stream or molecule transformed into a specific product by a reaction or other processing. Refiners, for instance, regard naphthenes as aromatics precursors because they readily become aromatics in reformers. 
  • PREF 
    Prefer/Preferable/Preferably 
  • PREP 
    National Preparedness for Response Exercise Program 
  • Preparation 
    A preparation is a mixture or a solution composed of two or more substances. This term is used in the European legislation. 
  • Press into Service 
    The British navy filled their ships' crew quotas by kidnapping men off the streets and forcing them into service. This was called Impressment and was done by Press Gangs. 
  • Pressuring agent 
    Butanes used to control the vapor pressure of finished gasoline. Usually butane's price, relative to other components' and finished gasolines. gives refiners incentive to put as much butane as possible in their blends. During the winter months, when RVP s
  • PRIV 
    Private 
  • Pro Forma 
    A Latin term meaning “For the sake of form.” 
  • Pro Forma Invoice 
    An invoice provided by a supplier prior to the shipment of merchandise, informing the buyer of the kinds and quantities of goods to be sent, their value, and specifications (weight, size, etc.). 
  • Pro Rata 
    A Latin term meaning “In proportion.” 
  • PROBO 
    Product-Bulk-Oil carriers. See OBO. 
  • PROBO 
    Product/Bulk/Ore Carrier 
  • PROCESS GASOIL 
    A synonym for vacuum gasoil. Processing arrangement: See TOLL PROCESSING Also called processing deals. 
  • Processes 
    Basic oleochemicals are producted primarily through splitting, distillation, fractionation, separation, hydrogenation, methylation and hydrophilisation. Derivatives of basic oleochemicals are produced mainly through amidation, chlorination, dimerisation,
  • Producers 
    Companies, often state organizations, which own oil wells and the crude which flows from them. This category includes a large number of private enterprises. Integrated oil companies and specialists called independent producers develop much of the world's
  • Product 
    Refined petroleum product such as gasoline, kerosene or fuel oil. 
  • Product Name 
    Cargo name listed in Chapter 17 or 18 in the IBC Code or in the latest edition of MEPC.2/Circ. or as per a Tripartite Agreement. This is the name that should be indicated on the shipping document. 
  • Product Stewardship 
    Product Stewardship is the responsible and ethical management of the health, safety and environmental aspects of a product throughout its total life cycle. Product Stewardship is Responsible Care applied to products. More… 
  • Product Tanker 
    A tanker built to comply with Annex 1 of Marpol 73/78 for the carriage of oil and engaged in the trade of carrying oil other than crude oil. This includes both clean and black products. 
  • Production 
    Stage in the industry where oil and gas are extracted and prepared for transport. 
  • Production Platform, jack up 
    A jack up offshore production platform 
  • Production Platform, semi submersible 
    A semi submersible offshore production Platform  
  • Production Testing Vessel 
    A vessel primarily equipped for testing the quality and amount of oil produced by a well 
  • Products (Oil) 
    Oil which has been produced as the direct result of a refining process. The resultant product may be Clean Petroleum Products - CPP (Naptha, Gasoline, Gas Oil, Base Oils etc. Or Dirty Petroleum Products - DPP (Fuel Oils etc.) 
  • Products Tank Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled tank barge for the carriage of oil products 
  • Products Tanker  
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of refined petroleum products, either clean or dirty 
  • Products Tanker Barge, propelled 
    A self propelled tanker barge for the bulk carriage of refined petroleum products, either clean or dirty 
  • Products with a high melting Point 
    Tank cleaning: These products should be washed at a temperature of 15-20 C above the melting point. During washing there should be no ballast water or cold cargoes adjacent to the tank to be cleaned. During cleaning special attention must be given to liqu
  • Products with a high viscosity 
    Tank cleaning: These products should be washed at higher temperatures. In general the viscosity is closely related to the temperature and will decrease at higher temperatures. During washing there should be no ballast water or cold cargoes adjacent to the
  • Project Rate 
    Single tariff item, established to move multiple commodities needed for a specified project, usually construction. 
  • Propane 
    A colorless, gaseous hydrocarbon. It is separated in large quantities from natural gas, light crude oil, and oil-refinery gases and is commercially available as liquefied propane or as a major constituent of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). As with ethane,
  • Propene 
    See Propylene 
  • Propylene 
    Also called propene, a colorless, flammable, gaseous hydrocarbon obtained from petroleum; large quantities of propylene are used in the manufacture of resins, fibers, and plastics (see polyolefins), and numerous other chemical products. 
  • Propylene 
    Three-carbon olefin produced in refineries by catalytic crackers and in petrochemical plants by steam crackers. Refiners process part of their supply into motor gasoline blendstock, particularly alkylate. Some refinery material and that from steam cracker
  • Propylene glycol 
    Generic term for a family of propylene glycols, the most important of which is monopropylene glycol.  
  • Propylene glycol ethers 
    Propylene glycol ethers are formed from the base catalyzed reaction of propylene oxide with alcohols like methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol or phenol. For further information please see http://www.ethers-de-glycol.org 
  • Propylene glycol ethers acetates 
    Glycol ether acetates are clear liquids that often have a pleasant, fruity odor. For further information please see http://www.ethers-de-glycol.org 
  • Protected Waters 
    an area of sheltered waters presenting no special hazards such as most rivers, harbours and lakes, designated by the Administration for the operation of small vessels and where not so designated means an area not more than 3 miles from a safe haven. 
  • Protein 
    A naturally occurring combination of amino acids, containing the chemical elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulphur. One of the essential constituents of all living things and of the diet of animals and man. 
  • PRT 
    Port 
  • PS 
    Port side 
  • PSC 
    Port state control. Is the system whereby the authorities of a State responsible for marine safety are empowered to inspect vessels entering its ports, even if they do not fly the flag of that State, in order to identify ships not complying with applicabl
  • PSG 
    Passing 
  • PSG or PSSG 
    Passing 
  • PSI 
    Pounds Per Square Inch or Pre Shipment Inspection 
  • PSI 
    Pounds per square inch (lbsin2). A common unit of pressure particularly vapor pressure. Some folks express pressure specifications in kPa or bars. 1.0 lbin2 = 0.068947 bar = 6.8947 kPa 
  • PSIG 
    Pounds Per Square Inch Gauge 
  • PSIX 
    Port State Information Exchange (USCG) 
  • PSPC 
    Polystyrene Packaging Council (USA) 
  • PSR 
    Perils at Sea Revision 
  • PST 
    Pacific Standard Time; Per Short Ton 
  • PSV 
    Platform Supply Vessel -designed to supply offshore oil platforms 
  • PT 
    Port or Private Terms or Product Tanker 
  • pt B 
    Port bunkers 
  • PT or PTON 
    Per ton 
  • PTC 
    Ports & Terminal Committee 
  • PTO 
    Please turn over 
  • PTY 
    Proprietary 
  • Public Service Commission 
    A name usually given to a State body having control or regulation of public utilities. 
  • Publishing Agent 
    Person authorized by transportation lines to publish tariffs or rates, rules, and regulations for their account. 
  • PUFA 
    Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acids. Fatty acids having two or more double bonds in their carbon chain. The most common poly-unsaturated fatty acid is linoleic acid. CH3 (CH2)4 CH = CH CH2 CH = CH(CH2)7 COOH Corn oil, sunflowerseed and soyabean oil are rich in p
  • Puigs 
    Pigs"" are used for cleaning pipelines. Hard pigs consist of several, usually three, discs of plastic on a central shaft. They are a close fit in the pipeline to be cleaned. They are pushed through by gas or air and evacuate any product ahead of them in
  • Pulp Carrier 
    A vessel designed for carrying paper pulp 
  • Pulp Temperature 
    Procedure where carrier tests the temperature of the internal flesh of refrigerated commodities to assure that the temperature at time of shipment conforms to prescribed temperature ranges. 
  • Pumping Platform 
    A platform dedicated to pumping operations 
  • Pup 
    A short semi–trailer used jointly with a dolly and another semi–trailer to create a twin trailer. 
  • Purplefinder 
    Tracks, monitors and reports on remote assets. PurpleFinder® uses satellite GPS in conjunction with satellite or land-based communication services to provide global, two-way, real-time, web-access to standard and exception-based asset position reporting, 
  • Pusher Tug 
    A vessel equipped to push cargo carrying barges and pontoons. May be articulated to work with specifically designed barge(s) 
  • PVC 
    Polyvinyl Chloride. A polymer of vinyl chloride used to make a diverse range of cost-effective products with various levels of technical performance suited to a wide range of applications. Many of these PVC products are used everyday and include everythin
  • PW 
    Packed weight or Piece weight 
  • PWH 
    Per Workable Hatch 
  • PWHD 
    Per Workable Hatch Day 
  • PWWD 
    Per Weather Working day 
  • PX 
    Pump Room (OCIMF acronym) 
  • PY 
    Py-gas 
  • Pygas 
    An abbreviation of pyrolysis gasoline. 
  • Pygas 
    Pyrolisis Gasoline 
  • Pyrolisis gasoline 
    Pyrolysis Gasoline, or Pygas, is a naphtha-range product with a high aromatic content, used either for gasoline blending or as a feedstock for a BTX extraction unit. Pygas is produced in an ethylene plant that processes butane, naphtha or gasoil. 
  • Pyrolysis 
    Application of heat to change molecular structure. The oil industry ordinarily reserves this term for processes which break hydrocarbons without the assistance of a catalyst, such as steam cracking and cooking. 
  • Pyrolysis gasoil 
    The distillate fuel oil produced by a heavy liquids steam cracker. This material usually finds use as a distillate blendstock. 
  • Pyrolysis gasoline 
    The aromatics-rich naphtha-range stream produced in sizeable quantities by an ethylene plant when it cracks butane, naphtha, or gasoil. Pygas resembles reformate. It can serve as a high-octane blendstock for motor gasoline or as a feedstock for an aromati
  • Pyrophoric 
    A substance which ignites spontaneously upon exposure to air (or oxygen).