Glossary

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GLOSSARY INDEX

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T(221)
ABBREVIATION
DEFINITION
  • Ton (of 1000 kilos) or Tropical (loadline) 
  • T&E 
    Transportation and Exportation: Customs form used to control cargo movement from port of entry to port of exit, meaning that the cargo is moving from one country, through the United States, to another country. 
  • T&P 
    Theft (petty) and Pilferage 
  • T/C 
    Time Charter 
  • T/C or TC 
    Time charter 
  • T/L 
    Total Loss 
  • T/L 
    Total loss 
  • T/P 
    Trans Pacific 
  • T/S 
    Time Sheet or Transshipment 
  • TA 
    Tanks or Transatlantic 
  • TAC 
    Transatlantic Carrier Association 
  • TAED 
    Tetraacetylethylenediamine. See Ethyleneamine 
  • TAFHEX 
    Thursday afternoons Fridays and holidays excepted 
  • Tail 
    Rear of a container or trailer–opposite the front or nose. 
  • Tail 
    A protraction at the end of a feedstock or product's distillation curve. A wide spread between the 95 percent point and final boiling point of a stream. A heavy contaminant in a product. Less than ideal distillation can produce tails. 
  • Tainting 
    Refers to a substance which is known to be taken up by marine organisms with the result that it is tainted and rendered unpalatable as seafood. Examples are chlorophenols. A taint is defined as "a foreign flavor or odor in the organisms induced by conditi
  • Taken Aback 
    A dangerous situation where the wind is on the wrong side of the sails pressing them back against the mast and forcing the ship astern. Most often this was caused by an inattentive helmsman who had allowed the ship to head up into the wind. 
  • Taking turns 
    Changing watches with the turn of the hour glass. 
  • Taking wind out of his sails 
    Sailing in a manner so as to steal or divert wind from another ship's sails. 
  • Tall Oil 
    A by-product of the sulphite digestion of wood pulp for kraft paper manufacture. Tall oil is not a true fat or oil but consists of a natural mixture of 45 percent each of rosin acids and fatty acids and 10 percent unsaponifiable matter. The fatty acids ar
  • Tallow 
    The rendered fat obtained mainly from beef carcass trimmings from the slaughter house. Some sheep fat may be included in commercial tallow, particularly in Australia and New Zealand. Tallow may be of edible or inedible quality. The latter is derived from
  • Tallyman 
    Controls the cargo going into and out of the vessel. Checks that volume and number tallies with the manifests 
  • TAME 
    Tertiary-Amyl-Methyl-Ether 
  • Tank Barge 
    Tank barges transport liquid cargoes like petroleum, petrochemicals and liquid fertilizers. Tank barges contain one or many tank compartments below deck with regulated temperature and pressure, depending on the cargo. Tank barges have special safety and s
  • Tank Cleaning Vessel 
    A vessel equipped to clean the tanks of other vessels and remove and transport slops 
  • Tank Landing Craft 
    A combat vessel with strengthened bow ro-ro ramp for loading and discharge of tanks and other military vehicles 
  • Tank Vessel (Tanker) 
    Ships which carry liquid products, such as crude petroleum, petroleum product, chemicals, liquid natural gas and molasses. 
  • Tanker 
    A popular name for the tankships which carry bulk oil, oil products, chemicals, and other liquids in some cases. 
  • Tanker 
    A seagoing vessel capable of carrying oil, gas or chemicals in bulk, whether it be a barge or ship. 
  • Tanker (unspecified) 
    A tanker whose cargo is unspecified 
  • Tankers 
    Ships fitted with tanks to carry liquid bulk cargo such as: crude petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, Liquefied gasses (LNG and LPG), wine, molasses, and similar product tankers. 
  • Tare Weight 
    In railcar or container shipments, the weight of the empty railcar or empty container. 
  • TARPS 
    Tarpaulins 
  • TARV 
    Trans atlantic round voyage 
  • TARV (TA R/V) 
    Trans Atlantic Round Voyage 
  • Taste 
    A subjective quality characteristic. It is not defined unambiguously and is evaluated differently by different people. It is mostly defined as the sense by which certain properties are perceived through the stimulation of the taste buds (the gustatory sen
  • TBA 
    To Be Advised or To Be Agreed 
  • TBD 
    To be declared 
  • TBMA 
    To be mutually agreed 
  • TBN 
    To Be Named or To Be Narrowed or To Be Nominated 
  • TBN or TOBENA 
    To be Named; To be narrowed; To be Nominated 
  • TBOOK 
    To the Best Of Owners Knowledge 
  • TBR 
    To Be Renamed 
  • TBR or TBRN or TRND 
    To Be Renamed 
  • TBT 
    Tributyltin, used in tin-based antifouling 
  • TC 
    Time charter. Owners agree to hire a particular ship for a set length of time and provide technical management, crewing etc. 
  • TC 
    Tank Cleaning or Till Countermanded or Temperature Controlled (container) 
  • TC-LO 
    Toxic Concentration Low. This is the lowest concentration of an airborne substance to which humans or animals have been exposed that resulted in any toxic effects in humans or produced any tumors or adverse reproductive effects in animals or humans  
  • TCE 
    Time charter equivalent 
  • TCH 
    Time charter hire 
  • TCL 
    Tank Cleaning 
  • TCM 
    Convention on the International Combined Transport of Goods 
  • TCP 
    Time Charter Party. The document containing the terms and conditions of a contract between a charterer and a shipowner for the hire of a ship for a fixed time frame, usually more than one voyage. 
  • TCT 
    Time charter Trip 
  • TCV 
    Total Calcuated Volume 
  • TCY 
    Time charter yield 
  • TD-LO 
    Toxic Dose Low. The lowest dose of a hazardous substance introduced by means other than inhalation over a given time period that has been reported to produce toxic effects in humans or produced any tumors or adverse reproductive effects in animals or huma
  • TDI 
    Tolune Diisocyanate. TDI is an isocyanate used in the production of polyurethanes for flexible foam applications ranging from furniture, bedding, and carpet underlay, to transportation and packaging. TDI is also used in the manufacture of coatings, sealan
  • TDK or TWD 
    Tween Decker 
  • TDW 
    Tons deadweight 
  • TEA 
    Triethanolamine. See ethanolamine 
  • TECH 
    Toxic, explosive, corrosive and hazardous (dangerous cargo) 
  • Technical Management 
    Service where a hired agent operates a ship and receives a fee in return. 
  • Technical Operator 
    Technical Operator means an entity dealing with the responsibility for operation of the ship and which, on assuming such responsibility, has agreed to take over all the duties and responsibilities imposed by the ISM code and, where applicable, holds the
  • TFW 
    Tropical fresh water loadline 
  • TG 
    Tug 
  • THC 
    Terminal Handling Charges 
  • The Bitter End 
    The end of an anchor cable is fastened to the bitts at the ship's bow. If all of the anchor cable has been payed out you have come to the bitter end. 
  • The Devil to Pay 
    To pay the deck seams meant to seal them with tar. The devil seam was the most difficult to pay because it was curved and intersected with the straight deck planking. Some sources define the "devil" as the below-the-waterline-seam between the keel and the
  • Theatre Vessel 
    A mobile vessel used as a theatre 
  • Thermal Cracker 
    Originally, the name of the refining industry's first molecule breaker. These units used heat and pressure to turn heavy fuel oil into gasoline and distillate. Today, the term applies to a category of bottoms crackers, including visbreakers and cokers, wh
  • Thermal cracking 
    Thermal cracking is a petroleum refining process used to break up heavy oil molecules into lighter, more valuable fractions (e.g. gasoline, kerosene) by the use of high temperature without the aid of catalysts. It is used to convert gas oils into naphtha.
  • Thermal Stability 
    Reluctance to change, especially to deteriorate, when heated. A property particularly associated with aviation turbine fuels. 
  • Thermoforming 
    The process of heating a thermoplastic sheet to a working temperature and then forming it into a finished shape by means of heat or pressure. (Modern Plastics Encyclopedia 1995) 
  • Thermoplastic 
    A plastic which is solid when cold, but which may flow and be re-formed multiple times with the application of heat. Some plastics are dissolved in solvents such as water (a latex) to aid their application. 
  • Thermoset 
    A polymer that solidifies when heated, in other words it sets and cannot thereafter be changed, is called a thermoset. Some polymers behave like this because the heating process causes the chains of the polymer to bind to each other, via cross-links, and
  • Third Party Logistics (3PL) 
    A company that provides logistics services to other companies for some or all of their logistics needs. It typically includes warehousing and transportation services. Most 3PL’s also have freight forwarding licenses. 
  • Third-Party Processing 
    see TOLL PROCESSING 
  • THP 
    Thrust horse-power 
  • THR 
    THRuster 
  • Three Sheets to the Wind 
    A sheet is a rope line which controls the tension on the downwind side of a square sail. If, on a three masted fully rigged ship, the sheets of the three lower course sails are loose, the sails will flap and flutter and are said to be "in the wind". A shi
  • Through Rate 
    The total rate from the point of origin to final destination. 
  • Throughput Charge 
    The charge for moving a container through a container yard off or onto a ship. 
  • Thwartships 
    At right angles to the centre-line of the ship  
  • TIB 
    Trimmed in bunkers 
  • Tide 
    The periodic rise and fall of water level in the oceans 
  • Tide Over 
    At first glance, this would seem to be an obviously nautical term. Today it means to make a small bit of something, usually money, last until a supply comes in, as in borrowing some money to tide you over till payday. However, the meaning has changed over
  • Time Bar 
    The expiration of the time period within which a lawsuit can be brought or arbitration commenced against a carrier for any claim under a contract of carriage. This time period is usually stipulated in the contract of carriage and can be extended or abridg
  • Time Charter 
    see "Charter, Time". 
  • Time chartered vessels 
    Time chartered vessels means vessels contracted for a period of 6 months or more. 
  • Time Draft 
    A draft that matures either a certain number of days after acceptance or a certain number of days after the date of the draft. 
  • Time lost waiting for berth to count as loading or discharging time or as laytime 
    TIME LOST WAITING FOR BERTH TO COUNT AS LOADING OR DISCHARGING TIME or AS LAYTIME shall mean that if no loading or discharging Berth is available and the Vessel is unable to tender Notice of Readiness at the waiting-place then any time lost to the Vessel
  • Time Swap 
    An exchange which involves today's barrels for tomorrow's or next week's for next month's. 
  • Time-Charter 
    Lease of a ship to a charterer for a period of time rather than for the performance of a specific voyage. An elemental version of this arrangement, called a bare boat charter, works like renting an unfurnished apartment. The charterer must provide his own
  • TIP 
    Taking inward pilot 
  • TIR 
    Transport International par la Route. Road transport operating agreement among European governments and the United States for the international movement of cargo by road. Display of the TIR carnet allows sealed containerloads to cross national frontiers w
  • Titration  
    The strength of a chemical solution is often determined by reacting the chemical with another in measured amounts. Knowing the chemical reaction involved and the amount of the second reactant, the amount of the first reactant can be calculated. The proces
  • Titre Test 
    The titre is the highest temperature reached during the crystallisation of fatty acids under controlled cooling conditions. It is an important characteristic of inedible fats used for soap making or as a raw material for acid manufacture and it is also an
  • TIW 
    Total insured value 
  • TL 
    Turkish LLoyd 
  • TLO 
    Total loss only 
  • TLV 
    Threshold Limit Value 
  • TLX 
    Telex 
  • TMK 
    Tonnage mark 
  • TMSA 
    Tanker Management Self Assessment: The Tanker Management and Self Assessment (TMSA) programme provides ship operators with a means to improve and measure their own management systems. The programme encourages ship operators to assess their safety managem 
  • TNC 
    Time to next cargo 
  • TNGE 
    Tonnage 
  • TNS / TS 
    Tons 
  • To Average Laytime 
    TO AVERAGE LAYTIME shall mean that separate calculations are to be made for loading and discharging and that any time saved in one operation is to be set off against any excess time used in the other. 
  • To Know the Ropes 
    There was miles and miles of cordage in the rigging of a square rigged ship. The only way of keeping track of and knowing the function of all of these lines was to know where they were located. It took an experienced seaman to know the ropes. 
  • Tocopherol 
    A natural antioxidant found in vegetable oils and fats. There are four naturally occurring tocopherol homologs, i.e. a-, ß-, y- and d- tocopherols. In addition, there are four analogous tocotrienols with the same chemical structures, but having three doub
  • Toe the Line 
    When called to line up at attention, the ship's crew would form up with their toes touching a seam in the deck planking. 
  • TOFA 
    Tall Oil Fatty Acids. An important industrial feedstock that is a by-product of the wood pulp industry. The term ""tall oil"" is derived from the Swedish word for ""pine oil"", or tallolja. Production occurs mainly in North America and Scandinavia. TOFA a
  • TOFC 
    Trailer on Flat Car: The movement of a highway trailer on a railroad flatcar. Also known as Piggyback. 
  • Toll Processing 
    Refining or petrochemicals production done on a fee basis. A plant owner puts another party's feedstock through his equipment and charges for the service. A portion of the product retained by the processor may constitute payment. This form of compensation
  • Toluene 
    Gasoline blenders and petrochemicals makers continually compete for possession of this aromatic. Its high octane and low vapor pressure make it an excellent blendstock. The chance to turn it into benzene appeals to the chemical industry. Refineries and st
  • Toluene 
    Toluene, a colorless liquid, is an aromatic hydrocarbon used extensively as starting material for the manufacture of industrial chemicals. Its major end-products are polyurethanes. 
  • TOM 
    Tomorrow 
  • TOMK 
    To make 
  • TON 
    Ton of 1000 Kilos. a unit of measurement used in shipping assuming 100 cubic feet of cargo equals one ton, equals 2000 pounds and is also called a “short ton”, a “long ton” equals 2240 pounds, and a “tonne” is 2204 pounds 
  • TON 
    Turn over or Transfer order 
  • Ton Mile 
    Equivalent to transporting one ton of cargo over a distance of one mile. 
  • Ton–Mile 
    – A unit used in comparing freight earnings or expenses. The amount earned from the cost of hauling a ton of freight one mile. – The movement of a ton of freight one mile. 
  • Tonnage 
    Cubic capacity of a ship. 
  • Tonne 
    Metric ton equivalent to 1,000 kilograms or 2204 pounds 
  • Tons Per Inch 
    Ship Stability: TPI=Area of WP/420 
  • TOP 
    Taking Outward Pilot 
  • Top–Air Delivery 
    A type of air circulation in a container. In top air units, air is drawn from the bottom of the container, filtered through the evaporator for cooling and then forced through the ducted passages along the top of the container. This type of airflow require
  • Topping Plant 
    A simple refinery, one which lacks cracking and other upgrading equipment. The name comes from what such basic installations can do. They boil the straight-run light products, the top, off crude oil. The most rudimentary topping plants have no complex har
  • Topping Yields 
    The product slate obtained by processing a grade of crude in a simple refinery. In everyday industry usage, the term usually means the yield from atmospheric distillation followed by naphtha reforming and finished product blending. 
  • Topside 
    The sides of a ship between the waterline and the deck; sometimes referring to onto or above the deck  
  • TOR 
    Time on risk 
  • Torpedo Boat 
    A combat vessel designed for launching torpedoes, usually small and fast  
  • Torpedo Recovery Vessel 
    A naval auxiliary vessel designed for recovering unexploded or training torpedoes 
  • Torpedo Trials Vessel 
    A naval auxiliary vessel for testing and conducting trails on torpedoes 
  • TOTCOM 
    Total commission 
  • Totox Value 
    Index of the degree of oxidation in which the peroxide value and anisidine value are combined - Totox = 2PV + AV 
  • Touch and Go 
    This referred to a ship's keel touching the bottom and getting right off again. 
  • TOVALOP 
    Tanker Owners Voluntary Agreement to Limit Oil Pollution 
  • Towage 
    Act of towing a ship. 
  • Towboat 
    A towboat is a powerful boat with a flat front that pushes barges on rivers. Towboats typically have flat hulls to accommodate the shallower depths of the nation's inland waterways. 
  • Towing/Pushing, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel designed for tug, towing or pushing operations. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • Towline 
    Towlines or hawsers are constructed of extremely strong synthetic materials or steel wire. When the towline connection with the barge forms a "Y" shape to reduce chafing, it is known as abridle. 
  • Toxic 
    Poison which can affect personnel through inhalation, absorption or ingestion. For the purposes of this policy the term toxic is taken to include all products which give off vapours containing substances for which exposure limits are recommended as they  
  • TP 
    Time in Port 
  • TP 
    Time in Port 
  • TP R/V or TPRV 
    Trans Pacific Round Voyage 
  • TPC 
    Tons Per Centimetre 
  • TPC Immersion 
    the amount of tons that it takes to lower a ship's draft one centimeter 
  • TPCM 
    Tons per cubic meter 
  • TPD 
    Tons per day 
  • TPI 
    Tons per inch. Measure of vessel capacity equal to the weight of displaced water if vessel draft were to change by one inch.  
  • TPRG 
    Terminal Policy Review Group 
  • TPSG 
    Terminal Policy Steering Group 
  • TQ 
    As found, or Just as it is 
  • TR 
    Tons Registered 
  • Trace Metals 
    Refers to metals which are present in very small amounts. Copper and iron are trace metals found in vegetable oils. The level decreases in refining and increases if there is contamination. 
  • Tractor 
    Unit of highway motive power used to pull one or more trailers/containers. 
  • Trade Acceptance 
    A time or a date draft that has been accepted by the buyer (the drawee) for payment at maturity. 
  • Trading Limits 
    Geographical limits specified in a time charter party outside which the charterer is not allowed to operate the ship. 
  • Traffic 
    Persons and property carried by transport lines. 
  • Traffic Diversion 
    Any commodity flow which ceases to use the project under some project alternative or scenario. 
  • Trailer 
    The truck unit into which freight is loaded as in tractor trailer combination. See Container. 
  • Training Ship 
    A vessel equipped for training seafarers 
  • Training Ship, Naval Auxiliary 
    A vessel used for training merchant or naval seamen. 
  • Tramp Line 
    An ocean carrier company operating vessels not on regular runs or schedules.They call at any port where cargo may be available. 
  • Tramp Shipping 
    The employment of ships in trades where there are no published schedules, in contrast to liner shipping. 
  • Trans 
    A geometric isomer of an unsaturated fatty acid where hydrocarbons attached to the carbons comprising the double bond are on opposite sides of the carbon chain. 
  • Trans Shipment Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled pontoon used for the storage and or trans shipment of cargoes 
  • Trans Shipment Vessel 
    A vessel equipped for the trans shipment of dry cargo to other vessels alongside. May also be able to store cargo until trans shipment. 
  • Transaction Currency 
    The currency used on a single invoice/voucher 
  • Transhipment 
    Applies to lightening operations and "ship to ship" (STS) transfers both at anchor and underway, or where vessels are "double banked" alongside a berth. 
  • Transpassive state 
    State of the metal polarized to a potential value above the range of a passive state, characterized by a considerable increase of the corrosion currents but no pitting corrosion 
  • Transport 
    To move cargo from one place to another. 
  • Transportation & Exit (T&E) 
    Allows foreign merchandise arriving at one port to be transported in bond through the U.S. to be exported from another port, without paying duty. 
  • Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC) 
    Established by Congress through the Maritime Transportation Security Act (MTSA) and is adminis- tered by the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) and U.S. Coast Guard. TWICs are tamper– resistant biometric credentials that will be issued to all cr
  • Transship 
    To transfer goods from one transportation line to another, or from one ship to another. 
  • Transshipment Port 
    Place where cargo is transferred to another carrier. 
  • Transverse Axis 
    Ship Stability: The lateral axis passes through the ship from side to side. Rotation about this axis is called pitch. Pitch changes the vertical direction the aircraft's nose is pointing. The elevators are the primary control of pitch. 
  • Trawler 
    A vessel for catching fish by trawling with nets handled over the side 
  • Trenching Support Vessel 
    A vessel primarily equipped to operate submersibles for digging trenches on the sea bed for pipes and cables 
  • Trf 
    Tariff: A publication setting forth the charges, rates and rules of transportation companies. 
  • Triglycerides 
    See Glyceride 
  • Trim 
    The difference between the fore and aft draught of the vessel. When the aft draught is greater that the forward draught, the vessel is said to be trimmed 'by the stern'. When the aft draught is greater than the forward draught, the vessel is said to be tr
  • Trim 
    The angle at which a ship floats when viewed from the side. It can rest stern high, bow high, or on an even keel. Masters must load their ships with safe trim in mind. 
  • Troopship 
    A naval auxiliary vessel. Designed for carrying troops 
  • True Colors 
    The current meaning, ‘to reveal yourself as you really are’, actually came about because of the opposite phrase “false colors” – from the 17th century referring to a vessel which sailed under a flag not her own. This tactic was used by almost everyone as
  • True Draft 
    Ship Stability: Where the waterline intersects the forward and after perpendiculars. 
  • Trust Receipt 
    Release of merchandise by a bank to a buyer while the bank retains title to the merchandise. The goods are usually obtained for manufacturing or sales purposes. The buyer is obligated to maintain the goods (or the proceeds from their sales) distinct from
  • Try a Different Tack 
    The direction in which a ship moves as determined by the position of its sails and regarded in terms of the direction of the wind (starboard tack). If one tack didn’t bring the ship up properly, one could always attempt another. 
  • TS 
    Time at Sea or Tons 
  • TS 
    NULL
  • TSG (C)(G) 
    Tanker Safety Guide (Chemicals) and (Gas) (ICS) 
  • TSP 
    Triple super phosphate 
  • TSS 
    Twin screw ship 
  • TST 
    Topside tank 
  • TT 
    Turn Time or Telegraphic Transfer or That or TankTop 
  • TTBE 
    Turn Time Both Ends 
  • TTL 
    Total 
  • TUB 
    Tubarao 
  • Tug 
    A powerful small boat designed to pull, push or manuever vessels. 
  • Tug, Naval Auxiliary 
    A tug for naval support 
  • Tugboat / Ocean Towing 
    Tugboats are used to pull ortow barges on the ocean or on wider inland rivers that have rough waters. Ocean towing involves long towlines between the tugboat and tow, to provide the necessary slack to accommodate rough water and varied weather conditions.
  • Turn a Blind Eye 
    From Admiral Lord Nelson’s awesome display of badassery at the Battle of Copenhagen. When the signal was given to stop fighting, Nelson held his spyglass to his blind eye and insisted he didn’t see the signal. He then proceeded to kick butt, of course. 
  • Turnaround 
    In water transportation, the time it takes between the arrival of a vessel and its departure. 
  • Turning Basin 
    An area that provides for the turning of a ship (bow to stern). Turning basins are usually located at or near the upper end of the interior channel and possibly at one or more intermediate points along long channels (EM 1110-2-1613). 
  • Turret 
    An attachment for a Floating Storage and Offtake vessel or Floating Production, Storage and Offloading vessel that allows vessel to rotate around its mooring according to direction of wind and current. 
  • TV 
    Time volume 
  • TVE 
    Tank Vessel Examination (USCG) 
  • TVP 
    True Vapor Pressure. The absolute pressure exerted by the gas produced by evaporation from a liquid, when the gas and liquid are in equilibrium at the prevailing temperature. 
  • TW 
    Tween Deck (OCIMF acronym) 
  • TW 
    Twin Decker 
  • TWA 
    Time Weighted Average. Time-weighted average concentration for an 8-hour workday and a 40-hour-work week in which a worker may be repeatedly exposed without adverse health effects 
  • TWD 
    Tween Decker 
  • TWHD 
    Tons per working or Workable hatch per day 
  • Twist Locks 
    A set of four twistable bayonet type shear keys used as part of a spreader to pick up a container or as part of a chassis to secure the containers. 
  • Two–Way Pallet 
    A pallet so designed that the forks of a fork lift truck can be inserted from two sides only. 
  • TX 
    Tank (OCIMF acronym) 
  • TX 
    Telex or Transmitter (Radio) 
  • Typicals 
    specifications considered representative of a crude or product stream. Parcels, particularly of feedstocks, often trade on typicals even though such data carries no absolute commitments or legal obligations. 
  • TYT 
    Thanks your telex