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  • Ship Stability: Area, generally. 
  • A & CP 
    Anchors and chains proved 
  • A Square Meal 
    In good weather, crews' mess was a warm meal served on square wooden platters. 
  • A/B 
    Able bodied seaman, a member of the crew who is able to perform all duties of an experienced seaman. 
  • A/C 
    Account or Air Changes 
  • A/F 
    Also for (referring to port/s to be touched by ship) 
  • A/H 
    Anchor Handling 
  • A/S 
    Account sales or Alongside or After sight 
  • AAGR 
    Average Annual Growth Rate  
  • AAPA 
    American Association of Port Authority 
  • AASO 
    Association of American Shipowners 
  • Abaft 
    A point beyond the midpoint of a ship’s length, towards the rear or stern. 
  • Abandon 
    A proceeding wherein a shipper/consignee seeks authority to abandon all or parts of their cargo. 
  • Abatement 
    A discount allowed for damage or overcharge in the payment of a bill. 
  • ABB 
    All Buoy Berth 
  • ABI 
    U.S. Customs’ “Automated Broker Interface,” by which brokers file importers’ entries electronically. 
  • Above Board 
    Anything on or above the open deck. If something is open and in plain view, it is above board. 
  • Above deck 
    On the deck (not over it – see ALOFT)  
  • ABS 
    American Bureau Of Shipping 
  • Absolute Viscosity 
    An observation of liquid's rate of flow under pressure applied to neutralize density's influence. This property, sometimes called dynamic viscosity, converts to kinematical viscosity by division. With density ex-pressed in gramscm, centistokes the units o
  • Absorption 
    One carrier assumes the charges of another without any increase in charges to the shipper. 
  • ACC 
    American Chemistry Council 
  • Accelerated Corrosion Test 
    Corrosion test carried out under more severe conditions that will yield results in a shorter time than in service 
  • Acceptance 
    A time draft (or bill of exchange) that the drawee (payer) has accepted and is unconditionally obligated to pay at maturity. Broadly speaking, any agreement to purchase goods under specified terms. 
  • Accessorial Charges 
    Charges that are applied to the base tariff rate or base contract rate, e.g., bunkers, container, currency, destination/delivery. 
  • Accommodation Platform, jack up 
    A jack up offshore accommodation platform 
  • Accommodation Platform, semi submersible 
    A semi submersible offshore accommodation platform 
  • Accommodation Ship 
    A vessel providing accommodation for those working on other vessels and installations 
  • Acetaldehyde 
    An aldehyde used as a starting material in the synthesis of acetic acid, n-butyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, and other chemical compounds. 
  • Acetate 
    An ester formed from acetic acid and an alcohol 
  • Acetic acid 
    Acetic acid is a key organic intermediate used in the preparation of metal acetates, used in some printing processes; vinyl acetate; acetic anhydride, and volatile organic esters, such as ethyl and butyl acetates. 
  • Acetic anhydride 
    The most important of the organic anhydrides, used to manufacture pain-relieving pharmaceuticals (aspirin, paracetamol), modified starches, emulsifiers, liquid crystal polymers, dyestuffs and cellulose acetate, a major ingredient in photographic films and
  • Acetone 
    An organic solvent of industrial and chemical significance, acetone is capable of dissolving many fats, resins and cellulose esters. It is used extensively in the manufacture of artificial fibers and explosives, as a chemical intermediate in pharmaceutica
  • Acetyl 
    Any chemical compound with an acetate group.  
  • ACGIH 
    American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. This organization includes professionals in government and education involved in occupational safety and health programs. One important function of this group is the determination and publication
  • Acid 
    Any substance that in water solution tastes sour, changes the color of certain indicators, promotes certain chemical reactions, etc.. Examples of acids include inorganic substances such as sulfuric, nitric, and phosphoric acids, and organic compounds such
  • Acid Oil 
    Acid oil is a general term for a by-product obtained from the alkali refining of oils and fats. During alkali refining the free fatty acids are neutralised with alkali and this soapstock containing some emulsified neutral oil is separated. Acidification o
  • Acid Pre-Treatment 
    The crude oil or fat is pre-treated with phosphoric acid or citric acid to remove impurities such as gums, mucilaginous materials and phosphatides present. Also referred to as "degumming", it is essential since it removes impurities which would otherwise
  • Acid Value 
    This is defined as the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralise the free fatty acids in one gram of fat. Since acid value is an indication of the extent of hydrolysis and deterioration, oils with low acid value are sought after. 
  • Acidity 
    Free fatty acids have, as the name implies, a weak acidic nature. There will be a naturally occurring level of these present in each oil and levels can be further increased by hydrolysis (water breakdown) of triglyceride. The level of acidity may be expre
  • Acidulate soapstock (Acid Oil) 
    Soapstock, which contains mainly soaps and entrained neutral oil, is treated with sulphuric acid and heated to decompose the soaps. This produces a layer of oil of high free fatty acid content (acid oil) and an aqueous phase which is separated and treated
  • ACOT 
    Advisory Committee of Offshore Technology 
  • Acquiescence 
    When a bill of lading is accepted or signed by a shipper or shipper’s agent without protest, the shipper is said to acquiesce to the terms, giving a silent form of consent. 
  • Acquittance 
    A written receipt in full, in discharge from all claims. 
  • Acrylate elastomer 
    In latex paints, textile applications (backcoating), emulsion polymers for paper coating; as pulp additives, in floor polishes & sealants (resinous & polymeric coatings), in adhesives. 
  • Acrylic acid 
    Acrylic acid and the basic alkyl esters (methyl, ethyl, butyl and 2-ethylhexyl esters) are important monomers used for the manufacture of polymer dispersions, adhesives, flocculants, detergents, varnishes, fibers and plastics as well as chemical intermedi
  • Acrylic esters 
    When polymerized, acrylic esters, esters derived from acrylic acid, are the film-forming components of acrylic paints, coatings, textiles, adhesives, plastics and other applications.  
  • Acrylic fibers 
    Acrylic fibers are artificial, thermoplastic fibers made from acrylonitrile. Fabrics produced from acrylic fibers wash and dry easily 
  • Acrylonitrile 
    Acrylonitrile is a chemical intermediate used in acrylic fibers, ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene), SAN (styrene-acrylonitrile) and NBR (nitrile-butadiene-rubber).  
  • ACS 
    American Chemical Society or Arab Classification Society 
  • ACS or ACE 
    U.S. Customs’ master computer system, “Automated Commercial Systems.” Now being replaced by the Automated Commercial Environment system. 
  • Act of God 
    An act beyond human control, such as lightning, flood or earthquake. 
  • Activation 
    Changing the condition of steel from passive to active 
  • Activation Potential 
    The electrode potential at which a steel is changed from passive to active condition 
  • Active State 
    state of a corroding metal surface which is below the passivation potential and associated with uniform corrosion 
  • Activity 
    The level of catalyst's ability to do its work. The scale descends from fresh (full capacity right from the box or rejuvenator) to spent (coated, poisoned, or other wise neutralized.) 
  • Actual condition 
    Ship Stability: A condition of the vessel that is observed. 
  • Actual specifications 
    The quality reports on a specific parcel of fuel or feedstock. Such specifications do not constitute guarantees on the oil unless the seller says so. But they give a good description of the product available aboard a vessel or in a storage tank. 
  • Acute 
    A short term period of action measured in seconds, minutes, hours, or days 
  • Acute (aquatic) toxicity 
    Adverse effects that occur rapidly as a result of a short-term exposure to a chemical or physical agent. In fish or other aquatic organisms, effects that occur within a few hours, days or weeks are considered acute. Generally, acute effects are severe, th
  • Acute Effects of Overexposure 
    Refers to the adverse effects that normally are evident immediately or shortly after exposure to a hazardous material without implying a degree of severity 
  • Ad Valorem 
    A term from Latin meaning, “according to value.” Import duty applied as a percentage of the cargo’s dutiable value. 
  • Ad valorum 
    Means “at Value” a rate of freight based on the value of the goods.  
  • Added Weight Method 
    Ship Stability: A method of solving for damage stability where the water that enters the vessel is considered an added weight. 
  • Addendum 
    Additional chartering terms at the end of a charter party 
  • Additives 
    In many plastic products, the polymer is only one constituent. In order to arrive at a set of properties appropriate to the product, the polymer is almost always combined with other ingredients, or additives, which are mixed in during processing and fabri
  • ADF&G 
    Alaska Department of Fish and Game (State Agency) 
  • Adm 
    Admiralty: Refers to marine matters such as an Admiralty Court. 
  • Administrative Law Judge 
    A representative of a government commission or agency vested with power to administer oaths, examine witnesses, take testimony, and conduct hearings of cases submitted to, or initiated by, that agency. Also called Hearing Examiner. 
  • ADNR 
    The transport of dangerous goods on the River Rhine and most inland waterways in Europe is regulated by ADNR. 
  • Advance 
    To move cargo up line to a vessel leaving sooner than the one booked. (See also Roll.) 
  • Advanced Charge 
    Transportation charge advanced by one carrier to another to be collected by the later carrier from the consignor or consignee. 
  • Advanced Notice of Arrival (ANOA) 
    Any vessel entering United States waters from a foreign port is required to give a 96–hour ANOV. Any vessel of 300 gross registered tonnage and greater is required to give the ANOA to the U.S. Coast Guard’s National Vessel Movement Center. Any vessel unde
  • Adventure 
    Shipment of goods on shipper’s own account. A bill of adventure is a document signed by the master of the ship that carries goods at owner’s risk. Also, a term used in some insurance policies to mean a voyage or a shipment. 
  • Advice of Shipment 
    A notice sent to a local or foreign buyer advising that shipment has gone forward and containing details of packing, routing, etc. A copy of the invoice is often enclosed and, if desired, a copy of the bill of lading. 
  • Advising Bank 
    A bank operating in the seller’s country that handles letters of credit on behalf of a foreign bank. 
  • AF 
    All Fast or Advance Freight 
    The hiring of a ship in whole or part 
  • Affreightment, Contract of 
    An agreement by an ocean carrier to provide cargo space on a vessel at a specified time and for a specified price to accommodate an exporter or importer. 
  • AFRA 
    Average Freight Rate Assessments. A monthly estimate of tanker rates issued by London tanker brokers, AFRA, quoted on a Worldscale basis, assists large oil companies' internal accounting, provides a freight element for some netback deals, and serves other
    AFRA - (Average Freight Rate Assessment) designed for carrying For bulk crude oil in tanks (80,000 dwt - 120,000 dwt) 
  • Aframax Tanker 
    A vessel of 70,000 to 119,000 DWT capacity. The largest tanker size in the AFRA (average freight rate assessment) tanker rate system. 
  • AFT 
    The foremost part of the ship 
  • After Perpendicular 
    Ship Stability: Usually established at the intersection of the design waterline and the vessels rudder stock or stern post 
  • Agency Tariff 
    A tariff published by an agent on behalf of several carriers. 
  • Agent or Ship's Agent 
    Person looking after the interests of a ship whiøe in port. Duties include organising pilotage, towage and berth for the ship, collecting freight and signing bills of lading 
  • Aggregate Shipment 
    Numerous shipments from different shippers to one consignee that are consolidated and treated as a single consignment. 
  • Aggregates Carrier 
    A single deck cargo vessel for the carriage of aggregates in bulk. Also known as a Sand Carrier. May be self discharging 
  • Agreed valuation 
    The value of a shipment agreed upon in order to secure a specific freight rate. 
  • Agreed Weight 
    The weight prescribed by agreement between carrier and shipper for goods shipped in certain packages or in a certain number. 
  • Agrochemical 
    A chemical, such as a hormone, fungicide, or insecticide, that improves or protects the production of crops. 
  • Aground 
    Touching or fast to the bottom 
  • Agt. 
    Agent: A person authorized to transact business for and in the name of another person or company. Types of agents are: (1) brokers (2) commission merchants (3) resident buyers (4) sales agents (5) manufacturer’s representatives 
  • AGW WP 
    All going well weather permitting 
  • AH 
    Range of ports between and including Antwerp and Hamburg 
  • AH 
    Aft hatch 
  • AH 
    Anchor Handling 
  • AHL 
    Australian hold ladders 
  • AHS 
    Annual Hull Survey 
  • AHT 
    Anchor Handling Tug 
  • AHTS 
    Anchor Handling Towage and Supply-vessels which supply oil rigs, tow them to location and anchor them up. They can also be used for supply roles. 
  • AIMS 
    American Institute of Merchant Shipping 
  • Air Cushion Vehicle Crew Boat 
    An air cushioned vehicle or hovercraft specifically designed as a crew boat 
  • Air Cushion Vehicle Passenger 
    An air cushion vehicle or hovercraft used for the purpose of transporting passengers 
  • Air Cushion Vehicle Passenger/Ro-Ro Ship (Vehicles) 
    An air cushion vehicle or hovercraft used for the purpose of transporting passengers and ro-ro vehicles 
  • Air Cushion Vehicle Patrol Vessel 
    An air cushion vehicle or hovercraft used as a patrol vessel (perhaps change to work vessel) 
  • Air Cushion Vehicle Research 
    An air cushioned vehicle or hovercraft specifically designed as a research vessel 
  • Air Cushion Vehicle, work vessel 
    An air cushioned vehicle or hovercraft specifically designed as a work vessel 
  • Air Draft 
    The distance between the surface of navigable water, such as a channel, and the lowest point on some obstruction above it, a bridge for instance. A ship cannot use a waterway if it needs more vertical clearance than available. This consideration prevents
  • Air Draft 
    Ship Stability: The vertical distance from the vessel's actual waterline upward to a point on the vessel. 
  • Air Waybill 
    The forwarding agreement or carrying agreement between shipper and air carrier and is issued only in nonnegotiable form. 
  • Aircraft Carrier 
    A combat vessel designed to enable the carriage, take off and landing of aircraft 
  • AIS 
    Automatic Identification System - Real-time ship identification. All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards engaged on international voyages and cargo ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards not engaged on international voyages and passenger ships irrespe 
  • AL 
    Action Level. Certain OSHA regulations take effect if this exposure level is reached. These regulations include workplace air analysis, employee training, medical monitoring, and record keeping. This level is about half of the permissible exposure limit. 
  • Alcohol resistant foam 
    A foam that is resistant to "polar" chemicals such as ketones and esters which may break down other types of foam. 
  • Alcohol Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of alcohol 
  • Alcohols 
    Alcohols are amongst the most common organic compounds. Well-known alcohols include methanol (methyl alcohol, or wood alcohol), ethanol (ethyl alcohol, or grain alcohol) and isopropyl alcohol (the common alcohol known as rubbing alcohol and used as a germ
  • Aldehyde 
    An important starting material and intermediate in organic synthesis. Many aldehydes of industrial significance are used as solvents, perfumes, and flavoring agents or as intermediates in the manufacture of plastics, dyes, and pharmaceuticals. 
  • Aliphatic 
    Any organic compound in which the main structure is a chain of carbon atoms joined to each other is classified as being aliphatic. 
  • Alkali 
    A substance having a pH between 7 and 14 
  • Alkali Refining 
    The traded quality of oils and fats is determined primarily by the level of free fatty acids present. In crude oils, this may be as low as 0.5% as in soya, or as high as 6.0% as in the case of palm oil. Removal of this impurity is the major source of calc
  • Alkryd Resin 
    The reaction product of polyols, diacids, acids and anhydrides used primarily in the surface coating industry in which fatty acids, oils and glycerine are used to impart properties, e.g. chemical resistance, hardness, drying speed and flexibility. 
  • Alkyl benzene 
    One of the most important organic raw material for the production of synthetic detergents. 
  • Alkylate 
    A high-quality motor gasoline component made by combining isobutene and propylene or butylene. Butylene alkylate has a particularly high motor octane rating which suits it well for blending lead-free grades of automobile fuel and aviation gasoline. Both b
  • Alkylation 
    Olefins such as propylene and butylene are produced by catalytic and thermal cracking. Alkylation refers to the process using sulfuric or hydro-fluoric acid as a catalyst to combine these olefins with isobutane to produce a high octane product known as al
  • Alkylation unit 
    A piece of refining equipment that combines isobutane and an olefinic stream, usually butylene-rich, to make motor alkylate. 
  • Alkylphenol 
    Alkylphenol is produced using phenol as a starting material. It is mainly used as a stabilizer for rubbers and plastics, as a surfactant, as an industrial detergent, and in the mining and textile industries. 
  • All at Sea 
    This dates to the time when accurate navigational aids weren’t available. Any ship that was out of sight of land was in an uncertain position and in danger of becoming lost.. 
  • All In 
    The total price to move cargo from origin to destination, inclusive of all charges. 
  • Allision 
    When a moving vessel strikes a fixed object. 
  • Aloft 
    Above the deck of the ship 
  • Alongside 
    A phrase referring to the side of a ship. Goods delivered “alongside” are to be placed on the dock or barge within reach of the transport ship’s tackle so that they can be loaded. 
  • Aloof 
    Now means to stand apart or be indifferent, but it came from the Old Dutch word loef which meant “windward” and was used to describe a ship within a fleet which sailed higher to the wind and was thus drawn apart from the rest of the fleet. 
  • Alternative Rates 
    Privilege to use the rate producing the lowest charge. 
  • Always Accessible 
    ALWAYS ACCESSIBLE shall mean that the charterer undertakes that an available loading or discharging Berth be provided to the Vessel on arrival at the Port which the Vessel can reach safely without delay. The charterer additionally undertakes that the Vess
  • Always Afloat Or Always Safely Afloat 
    A charter party clause which requires that a ship is to berth for loading or discharging without touching the bottom of the sea / river / lake, etc. 
  • Ambient Temperature 
    The temperature of a surrounding body. The ambient temperature of a container is the atmospheric temperature to which it is exposed, 
  • AMD 
    Average Most Probable Discharge 
  • America's Inland Waterways System 
    America's 12,000 mile navigable inland waterways system is the envy of the world because it allows the safe, economical, and environmentally friendly transportation of commodities that are essential to the nation's economic well-being. For example, barges
  • American Bureau of Shipping 
    U.S. classification society which certifies seagoing vessels for compliance to standardized rules regarding construction and maintenance. 
  • AMI 
    American Methanol Institute 
  • Amidships 
    In or toward the centre of the ship 
  • Amine 
    A chemical grouping based on a nitrogen atom linked to an aliphatic or aromatic structure 
  • Amines 
    Amines are produced from fatty acids for use as surface-active compounds. The primary and secondary amines can be converted to tertiary amines, quats and amine oxides, all of which have valuable surface-active properties. Based on their cationic nature an
  • Amino Acids 
    Chief components of proteins which are the building blocks of living tissues. Eighteen different amino acids commonly occur in our food supply and eight are considered essential because the body cannot make them from other materials. 
  • AMS 
    Annual Machinery Survey 
    Americanised welsh coal charter party 
  • Anchor Handling Tug Supply 
    An offshore tug/supply ship equipped with a high bollard pull and a stern roller for anchor handling 
  • Anchor handling Vessel 
    A vessel equipped to assist with the handling of anchors in coastal waters 
  • Anchor Piling 
    Mooring point on the sea bed 
  • Anchorage 
    An area inside a water body providing the ships some protection from the weather while lying at anchor to stand by, load or unload cargo, await repairs, etc. They are protected areas where shippers lay down their anchors and wait to exit the harbor. 
  • Anhydride 
    Any chemical compound obtained, either in practice or in principle, by the elimination of water from another compound.  
  • Anhydrous-Free of Water 
    Anhydrous means dry or free from water. Oils are essentially anhydrous after refining and deodorisation, the usual specified maximum moisture level being 0.1%. Butter, made from dairy cream, consists of an emulsion with up to 16% of water. Margarine is fo
  • Aniline 
    An organic base used to make dyes, drugs, explosives, plastics, and photographic and rubber chemicals. Aniline owes its name to the indigo-yielding plant, Indigofera anil, from the distillation of which aniline was first obtained. 
  • Aniline point 
    A specification, quoted in degree Fahrenheit in the USA and Centigrade elsewhere, which reports the aromatics content of a hydrocarbon mixture. This quality consideration indicates the susceptibility of a vacuum gasoil to catalytic cracking because paraff
  • Anisidine Value 
    The anisidine value is a measure of the amount of aldehydes, principally 2-alkenals, present in oils. This gives a qualitative assessment of the amount of secondary oxidation products present in the oil. The anisidine value is determined by reacting a tes
  • Anode 
    Electrode at which the anodic reaction predominates 
  • Anodic protection 
    Electrochemical protection achieved by increasing the corrosion potential to a value within the potential range of the passive state 
    Antwerp - Hamburg range 
  • Anthracene 
    Anthracene is a solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon consisting of three benzene rings derived from coal tar. Anthracene is used in the artificial production of the red dye alizarin. It is also found in some coal tar oils which are used for example as wo
  • Antifoam 
    Foam is a two phase system consisting of liquid and gas wherein gas is distributed in the form of small bubbles throughout the liquid. Formation of foam is quite common in some oils and fats during prolonged heating/frying. To overcome or minimise foaming
  • Antifouling 
    Normally contains toxic compounds to prevent marine growth. Non-toxic products are gradually being introduced to the market 
  • Antiknock index 
    The average of a motor gasoline's or blending component's RON and MON (RON + MON)2, sometimes written (R + M)2. 
  • Antioxidants 
    Substances which inhibit the oxidation of fats and oils. They are added to fats and oils or fatcontaining products to provide greater stability and longer shelf-life by delaying the onset of oxidative rancidity. 
  • AOCS 
    American Oil Chemists Society. One of the largest professional bodies for oils and fats technologists. It has a large international membership and publishes a comprehensive book of analytical methods and two journals - "Lipids" and "Journal of the America
  • AOH 
    After office hours 
  • APA 
    Aromatics Producers Association, a sector group of the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). 
  • APBS 
    Accident prevention on board ships at sea and in port (second edition) International Labour Office, Geneva (ILO) 
  • API Degrees (API) 
    The units of API's density scale. 
  • API Gravity 
    A density scale expressed in API degrees. The following formula relates this representation of density to specific gravity: API = (141.5specific gravity @ 60`F)-131.5. AR: American rate. Tanker hire prices according to the American Tanker Rate Schedule. T
  • APLA 
    Latin American Petrochemical Association 
  • Apparent draft 
    Ship Stability: The drafts obtained form reading the draft at the draft marks. 
  • Apparent Good Order 
    When freight appears to be free of damage so far as a general survey can determine. 
  • APPE 
    Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe 
  • Appraisement 
    Determination of the dutiable value of imported merchandise by a Customs official who follows procedures outlined in their country’s tariff, such as the U.S. Tariff Act of 1930. 
  • Appraiser’s Stores 
    The warehouse or public stores to which samples of imported goods are taken to be inspected, analyzed, weighed, etc. by examiners or appraisers. 
  • AQ 
    Any Quantity: Usually refers to a rating that applies to an article regardless of size or quantity. 
  • Aquabreak PX 
    Product name for an environmentally-adapted cleaning agent which can be used throughout the ship 
  • aquatuff 
    Product name for an environmentally-adapted cleaning agent used in cargo holds 
  • ARAGH 
    Antwerp - Rotterdam - Amsterdam - Ghent range 
  • Arbitrary 
    A stated amount over a fixed rate to one point to make a rate to another point. 
  • Arbitration 
    Method of settling disputes which is usually binding on parties concerned. A clause usually in a charter party 
  • Area of water plane 
    Ship Stability: Area of WP= 420*TPI 
  • ARH 
    Antwerp - Rotterdam - Hamburg range 
  • ARHB 
    Antwerp - Rotterdam - Hamburg - Bremen range 
  • Aromatic 
    Aromatics are a highly reactive group of hydrocarbons with unsaturated rings of carbon atoms, producing a great variety of products. As their name implies, they have a strong odor, which is not unpleasant. 
  • Aromatics 
    A family of hydrocarbons characterized by a single or multiple ring structure containing unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds. Common aromatics which boil in the gasoline range (benzene, toluene, and xylenes, in particular) have a very high octane rating. Refo
  • Arrival Notice 
    A notification by carrier of ship’s arrival to the consignee, the “Notify Party,” and – when applicable – the “Also Notify Party.” These parties in interest are listed in blocks 3, 4 and 10, respectively, of the Bill of Lading. 
  • ARTD 
    After right and true delivery 
  • Articulated Tug Barge (ATB) 
    The articulated tug barge is a new state-of-the-art design aimed to increase efficiency and safety in ocean towing by eliminating the long towline. Instead, the tugboat fits into a notch designed into the stern of the barge and the two units are tightly c
  • As the Crow Flies 
    When lost or unsure of their position in coastal waters, ships would release a caged crow. The crow would fly straight towards the nearest land thus giving the vessel some sort of a navigational fix. The tallest lookout platform on a ship came to be know
  • ASBA 
    Association of Shipbrokers and Agents 
  • ASC X12 
    American Standards Committee X12 responsible for developing EDI standards for the United States. 
  • ASEAN 
    Association of south-east Asian Nations 
  • ASF 
    Asian Shipowners'' Forum 
  • ASG  
    Acetyls Sector Group. A sector group of the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • Ash 
    Carbonaceous residue produced by burning crude oil and petroleum products. The industry tests fuels and other hydrocarbon mixtures in order to determine how much of this combustion by-product will form in ordinary use of its products. Refiners and others
  • Asphalt 
    A mixture of heavy carbon-based compounds containing a high percentage of multiple-ring aromatics, many of them involving sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms. Some folks use the word, asphalt, interchangeably with bitumen, the name of its characteristic co
  • Asphalt cement 
    A derivative, nearly or completely solid at room temperature, of certain crude oils. This black, tarry material usually comes from vacuum residue. It has several industrial applications. Pavers heat it to liquid form and mix in gravel to make road surface
  • Asphalt/Bitumen Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of asphalt/bitumen at temperatures between 150 and 200 deg C 
  • Asphaltenes 
    Complex molecules which reveal their ring-structures by dissolving in aromatic liquids but not in paraffins. These compounds may influence the burning and blending characteristics of residual oils, if present in sufficient concentrations. They contribute
  • ASPW 
    Any Safe Port in the World 
  • Assay 
    An elaborate laboratory report describing in detail the quality of grades of crude oil. The data presented includes, among other items, density, sulfur, naphthenicity, pour point, viscosity, distillation, and information on the quality of individual fract
  • Assignment 
    A term commonly used in connection with a bill of lading. It involves the transfer of rights, title and interest in order to assign goods by endorsing the bill of lading. 
  • Astern 
    – Behind a vessel – Move in a reverse direction. 
  • ASTM 
    American Society for Testing and Materials. An organization which determines and publishes consensus standards of suitability and quality for a wide variety of materials including petroleum and refined products. ASTM develops and endorses methods of testi
  • At Loggerheads 
    An iron ball attached to a long handle was a loggerhead. When heated it was used to seal the pitch in deck seams. It was sometimes a handy weapon for quarrelling crewmen. 
  • ATDN 
    Any Time Day or Night 
    Any Time Day or Night Sundays and Holidays Included 
  • ATDON 
    At day or night 
  • Athwartships 
    A direction across the width of a vessel. 
  • Atmos 
    Abbreviation of atmospheric-pressure distillation, as in atmos bottoms and atmos gasoil. 
  • Atmospheric corrosion 
    Corrosion with the earth's atmosphere at ambient temperature as the corrosive environment 
  • Atmospheric corrosion test 
    Field trials in the atmosphere 
  • Atmospheric distillation 
    A technique for separating hydrocarbon mixtures which uses distillation apparatus operated at atmospheric pressure. Generally, the industry specifies ambient pressure to distinguish products of crude distillers, atmospheric fractions, from the products of
  • Atmospheric gasoil 
    The heaviest product boiled by a crude distillation unit operating at atmospheric pressure. This fraction ordinarily sells as distillate fuel oil, either in pure form or blended with cracked stocks. In blends atmospheric gasoil, often abbreviated AGO, usu
  • Atmospheric residue 
    The portion of crude oil taken as a bottoms product in a crude distillation unit which operates at atmospheric pressure under several other names apply to this product including atmos (atmospheric) reside, atmos bottoms, atmospheric fuel oil long reside,
  • Atom 
    The smallest unit into which matter can be divided without the release of electrically charged particles, and also the smallest unit of matter that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by ordinary chemical processes. Hence the atom is the basic bu
  • ATRS 
    American Tank Rate Schedule 
  • ATSB or ATSBE 
    All time saved both ends 
  • ATSDO 
    All time saved discharging only 
  • Attack Vessel, Naval 
    A combat vessel which is designed for high speed with a limited weaponry for rapid attack manoeuvres 
  • Auditing 
    The process carried out to assess the operating standards of a company or a business and the degree of compliance. 
  • Auto Oil programme 
    A technical work programme launched in 1992 by the European Commission and in which the European automobile and oil industries participated. The aim of this programme was to assess the most cost-effective measures for reducing emissions from the road tran
  • Automated Identification System (AIS) 
    It is a system used by ships and Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) principally for the identification and the locating of vessels. AIS provides a means for ships to electronically exchange ship data including: identification, position, course, and speed, with
  • Aviation gasoline 
    High-grade motor fuel blended to meet the requirements of piston-type aero plane engines. This specialty product differs in all critical respects from aviation turbine fuel (jet). 
  • Aviation turbine fuel (ATF) 
    The fuel burned by aero planes jet engines. Civilian aircrafts consumes a kerosene-range product variously known as jet kero, jet A-1, avtur, DERD-2494, and JP1. Warplanes needed special fuels. Two military grades, JP-4 and JP-5 fall within the common not
  • AWB 
    Air waybill : Shipping document specifying terms for the courier and instructions for the airline. 
  • AWES 
    Association of Western European Shipbuilders 
  • AWH 
    Available workable hatches 
  • AWIWL 
    Always Within Institute Warranty Limits 
    All working time saved both ends 
    All working time saved discharging only 
  • AWWL 
    Always within Institute Warranties Limits (Insurance purpose). 
  • B TO B 
    Both to blame (collision clause) 
  • B.H.(range) 
    Range of ports between and including Bordeaux & Hamburg 
  • B/D 
    Bar draught or Banker's draft or Barrels per day 
  • B/E 
    Bill of Exchange or Bill of Entry 
  • B/E or BENDS 
    Both ends 
  • B/F 
    Brought forward 
  • B/H 
    Bill of health 
  • B/H 
    Bordeaux/Hamburg range of ports or Barrels per hour 
  • BA 
    British Admiralty or Buenos Aires or Bale (cap. of vessel) or Breathing apparatus or Bunker Surcharge 
  • BA/BB 
    Buenos Aires/Bahia Blanca Range 
  • Back and Fill 
    A technique of tacking when the tide is with the ship but the wind is against it. 
  • Backhaul 
    A tanker's revenue-producing return voyage. Some ships shuttle between two tankers ports. They travel in one direction as dictated by normal oil flow patterns or refining system's needs. Often, they have no natural employment from when they discharge to t
  • Baking or Frying Fats (Shortening) 
    Baking or frying fats are products which meet all of the following conditions - a. manufactured from vegetable oils, meat fats or marine oils, singly or in combination; b. deodorised or hydrogenated and deodorised; c. containing a significant amount of gl
  • Bale Capacity 
    Bale Capacity -cargo ship space 
  • Ballast 
    Water taken aboard a vessel to increase its draft, steady its motion, correct its trim, or otherwise make it more seaworthy when sailing without cargo. The trade uses this word to describe repositioning voyages or empty backhauls forced on ship. Hence, ph
  • Ballast Bonus 
    Special payment above the Chartering price when the ship has to sail a long way on ballast to reach the loading port. 
  • Balloon Freight 
    Light, bulky articles. 
    Time charter party 
  • Bareboat 
    Method of chartering of the ship leaving the charterer with almost all the responsibilities of the owner. 
  • Bareboat Charter  
    Bareboat Charter Owners lease a specific ship and control its technical management and commercial operations only 
  • Barge 
    A flatbottom boat for transporting freight that is generally unpowered and towed or pushed by other craft 
  • Barge Carrier 
    A cargo vessel arranged for the carriage of purpose built barges (lighters) loaded with cargo. Typically loading is by way of a gantry crane. Also known as Lighter Aboard SHip vessels (LASH) 
  • Barge Carrier, semi submersible 
    A barge carrier which is semi submersible for the float on loading/unloading of the barges 
  • Barge Carriers 
    Ships designed to carry barges; some are fitted to act as full container- ships and can carry a varying number of barges and containers at the same time. At pres- ent this class includes two types of vessels LASH and Sea-Bee. 
  • Barge lots 
    Quantities of petroleum product accommodated in the sizes of barges in common use in a particular area. This term usually applies to small (less than cargo-size) volumes of product intended for regional distribution. On the US Gulf Coast, for instance, pe
    Fraudulent of Master/Crew against ship/cargo 
  • Barrel (BBL)  
    Common unit of measurement of liquids in the petroleum industry that equals 42 U.S. standard gallons or 35 imperial gallons. 
  • Base chemicals 
    A group of chemicals produced in bulk from raw materials such as oil, gas and coal. Other chemicals are derived from base chemicals 
  • Base Rate 
    A tariff term referring to ocean rate less accessorial charges, or simply the base tariff rate. 
  • Base stock 
    A hydrocarbon mixture which makes up much of the volume of a gasoline blend. Usually such stocks have properties not too far removed from finished fuel because the minor components have to bring the entire blend within accepted limits of gasoline quality.
  • BAT 
    Best Available Techniques. The EU Directive (96/61 EC) on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) allows local authorities to grant environmental permits to process industries, including new and existing petrochemical and chemical installations
  • BB 
    Bahia Blanca 
  • BC 
    Bulk Carrier or British Columbia or British Channel 
  • BCH 
    Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IMO) 
  • BCO 
    Beneficial Cargo Owner: Refers to the importer of record, who physically takes possession of cargo at destination and does not act as a third party in the movement of such goods. 
  • BDI 
    Both dates (days) Included 
  • BDR 
    Bunker Delivery Receipt: The purpose of the Bunker Delivery Receipt (BDR) is to record what has been transferred. Various factors are recorded including: - Location and time of transfer  - Details of product delivered - Temperature of product delivered -
  • BE 
    Benzene or Both ends 
  • Beam 
    The breadth of a ship at its widest point 
  • Bear Down 
    To sail downwind rapidly towards another ship or landmark. 
  • Beer Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of beer 
  • BEH 
    Basis empty holds 
  • Belt Line 
    A switching railroad operating within a commercial area. 
  • BENDS 
    Boths Ends 
  • Beneficial Owner 
    The registered owner of a vessel who can charter the vessel out to others 
  • Beneficiary 
    – Entity to whom money is payable. – The entity for whom a letter of credit is issued. – The seller and the drawer of a draft. 
    Belguim, the Netherlands and Luxembourg 
  • Benzene 
    Benzene is the simplest aromatic compound, with a ring of six carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms. It is a colorless liquid occurring naturally in fossil raw materials such as crude oil and coal, produced during processing of petroleum liquids and through
  • Benzene Ring 
    6 carbon atoms in the form of a ring structure with a hydrogen atom attached to each carbon and is the basic building block of all aromatic chemicals 
  • Berth 
    BERTH shall mean the specific place where the Vessel is to load or discharge and shall include, but not be limited to, any wharf, anchorage, offshore facility or other location used for that purpose. 
  • Berth Terms 
    Shipped under rate that includes cost from end of ship’s tackle at load port to end of ship’s tackle at discharge port. 
  • Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea 
    The devil seam was the curved seam in the deck planking closest to the side of the ship and next to the scupper gutters. If a sailor slipped on the deck, he could find himself between the devil and the deep blue sea. 
  • Bext 
    Breadth extreme 
  • Beyond 
    Used with reference to charges assessed for cargo movement past a line–haul terminating point. 
  • BFC 
    Baltimore form C (charter party) 
  • BFI 
    Baltic Freight Index 
  • BH or BHD 
  • BHF 
    Bulk harmless fertilizers 
  • BHP 
    Brake horse power 
  • BI 
    Both inclusive 
  • BIBO or "Bulk In, Bags Out" 
    Bulkers are equipped to bag cargo as it is unloaded. The CHL Innovator, shown in the photo, is a BIBO bulker. In one hour, this ship can unload 300 tons of bulk sugar and package it into 50 kg sacks. 
  • BIC 
    APPE Business Intelligence Committee. For more information, click here 
  • BIFA 
    British International Freight Association 
    Baltic International Freight Futures Exchange 
  • Bilateral 
    A contract term meaning both parties agree to provide something for the other. 
  • Bill of Exchange 
    In the United States, commonly known as a “Draft.” However, bill of exchange is the correct term. 
  • Bill of Lading (B/L) 
    A document that establishes the terms of a contract between a shipper and a transportation company. It serves as a document of title, a contract of carriage and a receipt for goods. 
  • Bill of Lading B/L BL BOL 
    Bill Of Lading: A legal document between the shipper of a particular good and the carrier detailing the type, quantity and destination of the good being carried. The bill of lading also serves as a receipt of shipment when the good is delivered to the pre
  • Bill of Lading Port of Discharge 
    Port where cargo is discharged from means of transport. 
  • Bill of Sale 
    Confirms the transfer of ownership of certain goods to another person in return for money paid or loaned. 
  • Billed Weight 
    The weight shown in a waybill and freight bill, i.e, the invoiced weight. 
  • BIMCO 
    Baltic & International Maritime Council. From 16 to 18 February 1905, 112 distinguished gentlemen assembled in Copenhagen and formed what is today the world’s largest and most diverse private shipping organisation. BIMCO has come a long way since then an 
  • Bioaccumulation 
    General term describing a process by which chemicals are taken up by aquatic organisms directly from water as well as through exposure through other routes, such as consumption of food or sediment containing the chemicals.  
  • Bioconcentration 
    A process by which there is a net accumulation of a chemical directly from water into aquatic organisms resulting from simultaneous uptake (e.g., by gill or epithelial tissue) and elimination.  
  • Bioconcentration factor 
    A term describing the degree to which a chemical can be concentrated in the tissues of an organism in the aquatic environment as a result of exposure to water-borne chemical. At steady state during the uptake phase of a bioconcentration test, the BCF is a
  • Biodegradation 
    The transformation of a material resulting from the complex enzymatic action of microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, fungi). It usually leads to disappearance of the parent structure and to the formation of smaller chemical species, some of which are used for
  • Biofuel 
    Biofuels are gas or liquid fuel (alcohols, ethers, esters, and other chemicals) made from plant material, agricultural and forestry residues, and a large portion of municipal solid and industrial waste. Biofuels include material as diverse as wood, wood w
  • Biomagnification 
    Result of the processes of bioconcentration and bioaccumulation by which tissue concentrations of bioaccumulated chemicals increase as the chemical passes up through two or more trophic levels. The term implies an efficient transfer of chemical food to co
  • Biotechnology 
    The use of living organisms or other biological systems to develop food, drugs and other products. 
  • BISCO 
    British Iron and Steel Corporation 
  • Bitumen 
    Mineral pitch rich in asphaltenes and other complex, high-molecular-weight molecules. These mixtures of heavy hydrocarbons and resins form the base of, and impart adhesive, semi-solid consistency to asphalt cement and tar. 
  • Bitumen Tank Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled tank barge for the carriage of bitumen/asphalt 
  • Blanket Rate 
    – A rate applicable to or from a group of points. – A special rate applicable to several different articles in a single shipment. 
  • Blanket Waybill 
    A waybill covering two or more consignments of freight. 
  • BLC 
    Bank Confirmation Letter : Bank letter confirming that the account holder has certain funds available. Mostly used to verify that a buyer has sufficient funds for a given transaction. 
  • Bleaching 
    This is a process whereby coloured pigments, impurities, trace metals, gums and oxidised materials are removed from oils and fats by adsorptive cleansing using bleaching clays and/or activated carbons. Bleaching is carried out on highly degummed oils, or
  • Bleaching Earth 
    Bleaching earths are montmorillonite clays which, in their natural state or after chemical or physical activation, have the capacity to adsorb colouring matters from oils. They are finely-crystalline silicates of aluminium and/or magnesium with variable a
  • Blender 
    someone or some organization which combines various components to produce motor gasoline. The term may accurately apply to refiners for they blend motor fuel from blendstock they produce or purchase. In many cases, however, the word designates gasoline ma
  • Blendstock 
    A component combined with other materials to produce a finished petroleum product. The term applies most frequently to motor gasoline ingredients. 
  • Blepharitis 
    Inflammation of the eyelids 
  • Blind Shipment 
    A B/L wherein the paying customer has contracted with the carrier that shipper or consignee infor- mation is not given. 
  • Block Stowage 
    Stowing cargo destined for a specific location close together to avoid unnecessary cargo movement. 
  • Blocked Trains 
    Railcars grouped in a train by destination so that segments (blocks) can be uncoupled and routed to different destinations as the train moves through various junctions. Eliminates the need to break up a train and sort individual railcars at each junction.
  • Blocking or Bracing 
    Wood or metal supports to keep shipments in place to prevent cargo shifting. See also Dunnage. 
  • BM 
    (Beam) breadth moulded or Board measurement 
  • BM 
    Ship Stability: Symbol for transverse metacentric radius; distance between B and M. 
  • BMM 
    British Marine Mutual 
  • BO 
    Bad Order or Branch Office 
  • BOA 
    Berthing on arrival 
  • Board Feet 
    The basic unit of measurement for lumber. One board foot is equal to a one–inch board, 12 inches wide and 1 foot long. Thus, a board 10 feet long, 12 inches wide, and 1 inch thick contains 10 board feet. 
  • Bobtail 
    Movement of a tractor, without trailer, over the highway. 
  • Bogie 
    A set of wheels built specifically as rear wheels under the container. 
  • Boiling range 
    The temperature spread between the points where a material starts and finishes evaporating. This term has an abstract usage- naphtha-range, for example. It also has a specific one, such as "naphtha with a 140-350 F range." 
  • Bollard pull 
    The thrust developed at zero ahead speed. Bollard pull is the most commonly used measure of ship-assist tugs performance which have propellers optimized for maximum thrust at close to zero speed. 
  • Bolster 
    A device fitted on a chassis or railcar to hold and secure the container. 
  • Bond 
    Linkage between atoms which holds together molecules. The basic bond involves two atoms connected by a pair of shared electrons. A double bond requires linkage by two pairs (four electrons). A triple bond puts six electrons between two atoms. 
  • Bonded Freight 
    Freight moving under a bond to U.S. Customs or to the Internal Revenue Service, to be delivered only under stated conditions. 
  • Bonded Warehouse 
    A warehouse authorized by Customs authorities for storage of goods on which payment of duties is deferred until the goods are removed. 
  • Booby Hatch 
    Aboard ship, a booby hatch s a sliding cover or hatch that must be pushed away to allow access or passage. 
  • Booking 
    Arrangements with a carrier for the acceptance and carriage of freight; i.e., a space reservation. 
  • Boom defence Vessel 
    A naval vessel for laying harbour defence booms 
  • Bottom Side Rails 
    Structural members on the longitudinal sides of the base of the container. 
  • Bottom wash 
    Crude oil washing operations restricted to the lower parts of the tank bulkheads, internal structures and bottom of tanks. This can only be carried out by vessels equipped with programmable tank washing machines. 
  • Bottom–Air Delivery 
    A type of air circulation in a temperature control container. Air is pulled by a fan from the top of the container, passed through the evaporator coil for cooling, and then forced through the space under the load and up through the cargo. This type of air
  • Bottoms 
    Unvaporized material drawn from the lowest point of a fractionation column. 
  • Bow 
    Forward most point of a ship. 
  • Bow Thruster 
    a device built into, or mounted to, the bow of a ship to make it more maneuverable. 
  • Boxcar 
    A closed rail freight car. 
  • BPA 
    Bisphenol A. An industrial chemical used to make polycarbonate plastic used for structural parts, impact-resistant glazing, street-light globes, household appliance parts, components of electrical/electronic devices, compact discs, automotive applications
  • BPA Bisphenol-A 
    (4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol) An intermediate used in the production of epoxy, polycarbonate and phenolic resins. The name was coined after the condensation reaction by which it may be formed-two (bis) molecules of phenol with one of acetone (A). (Whittin
  • BPC 
    British Phosporous Commission 
  • BPG 
    International Chamber of Shipping Bridge Procedure Guide 
  • BR 
    Bulgarian Register of Shipping or Brazil or Builder's risk 
  • Break Bulk 
    – To unload and distribute a portion or all of the contents of a rail car, container, trailer, or ship. – Loose, non–containerized mark and count cargo. – Packaged cargo that is not containerized. 
  • Breakwater 
    Structures designed to provide shelter from waves and improve navigation conditions. Such structures may be combined with jetties where required (EM 1110-2-2904). 
  • BREF 
    BAT Reference Documents, prepared by a European IPPC Bureau in Seville, in which BATs are defined. See BAT. 
  • Brent 
    The most commonly traded North Sea crude oil. Technically, it is a mix of crude from the UK Brent field and the Ninian field. 
  • Bridge Point 
    An inland location where cargo is received by the ocean carrier and then moved to a coastal port for loading. 
  • Bridge Port 
    A port where cargo is received by the ocean carrier and stuffed into containers but then moved to another coastal port to be waded on a vessel. 
  • Bright annealing 
    Annealing in inert gas or vacuum to minimize oxidation of the surface 
  • Broken Stowage 
    – The loss– The loss of space caused by irregularity in the shape of packages. – Any void or empty space in a vessel or container not occupied by cargo. of space caused by irregularity in the shape of packages. 
  • Broker 
    A person who arranges for transportation of loads for a percentage of the revenue from the load. 
  • Brokerage 
    Freight forwarder/broker compensation as specified by ocean tariff or contract. 
  • Bromine number 
    A measure of the olefins content of a hydrocarbon mixture. In the petroleum intermediates trade, it serves primarily to indicate the presence of cracked stock in a cargo or stream. California air pollution laws also make it an important specification for
  • BS 
    Broken Stowage or Balance Sheet 
  • BSA 
    British Shipbrokers Association 
  • BSC 
    British Shippers Council 
  • BSI 
    British Standards Institution 
  • BST 
    British Summer Time, British Standard Time 
  • BT 
    Berth Terms or Bow Thruster 
  • BT 
    Bow Thruster room 
  • BTU 
    British Thermal Unit - 0.252 kcal or Bow Thrust Unit 
  • BTX 
    Abbreviation of the aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene and xylene 
  • BTX extraction 
    A solvent recovery process for capturing benzene, toluene, and xylenes from refinery and petrochemical plant process streams (reformate and pyrolysis gasoline.) 
  • BU 
  • BUA 
    Beratergrenium für Umweltrelevante Altstoffe (the German Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance) 
  • Bucket Dredger 
    A vessel equipped to obtain material from the sea bed by use of circulating buckets. The material may be carried on board, transferred to other vessels, pumped ashore or deposited elsewhere using a spray 
  • Bucket Dredger Pontoon 
    A non propelled dredger pontoon fitted with an endless chain of buckets lowered to the sea bed 
  • Bulk Aggregates Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled barge for the carriage of bulk aggregates 
  • Bulk Barge, propelled 
    A self propelled barge with an arrangement of topside ballast tanks for the carriage of bulk dry cargo of a homogeneous nature 
  • Bulk Cargo 
    Not in packages or containers; shipped loose in the hold of a ship without mark and count.” Grain, coal and sulfur are usually bulk freight. 
  • Bulk Cargo Barge, self discharging, propelled 
    A self propelled bulk barge fitted with a conveyor belt (or similar system) and a boom which can discharge cargo alongside or to shore without the assistance of any external equipment 
  • Bulk Cargo Carrier, self discharging 
    A bulk carrier fitted with self trimming holds, a conveyor belt (or similar system) and a boom which can discharge cargo alongside or to shore without the assistance of any external equipment 
  • Bulk Cargo Carrier, self discharging, Laker 
    A Great Lakes bulk carrier fitted with a conveyor belt (or similar system) and a boom which can discharge cargo alongside or to shore without the assistance of any external equipment 
  • Bulk Carrier 
    A single deck cargo vessel with an arrangement of topside ballast tanks for the carriage of bulk dry cargo of a homogeneous nature 
  • Bulk Carrier (with Vehicle Decks) 
    A bulk carrier with movable decks for the additional carriage of new vehicles 
  • Bulk Carrier, Laker Only 
    A single deck cargo vessel with dimensions suited to the limitations of Great Lakes of North America trade, unsuitable for open sea navigation. Hatches are more numerous than standard bulk carriers, and much wider than they are long 
  • Bulk Carriers 
    Ships designed to carry dry or liquid bulk cargo. Category includes: ore/bulk/oil carriers (OBO) and other combination bulk/oil carriers. 
  • Bulk Cement Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled barge for the carriage of bulk cement 
  • Bulk Cement Barge, propelled 
    A self propelled barge fitted with pumping arrangements for the carriage of cement in bulk. There are no weather deck hatches. May be self discharging 
  • Bulk Cement Carrier, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel designed for the bulk transport of cement cargoes. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • Bulk Cement Storage Ship 
    A stationary storage vessel for bulk cement cargo 
  • Bulk Dry Storage Ship 
    A stationary storage vessel for bulk dry cargo 
  • Bulk/Oil Carrier (OBO) 
    A bulk carrier arranged for the alternative (but not simultaneous) carriage of crude oil 
  • Bulk–Freight Container 
    A container with a discharge hatch in the front wall; allows bulk commodities to be carried. 
  • Bulkhead 
    similar to a seawall, it is a constructed barrier in the water 
  • Bull Rings 
    Cargo–securing devices mounted in the floor of containers; allow lashing and securing of cargo. 
    This is the assembly of pieces of cargo, secured into one manageable unit. This is a very flexible description, a rule of thumb is to present cargo at a size easily handled by a large (20 ton) fork lift truck 
  • Bunker Charge 
    An extra charge sometimes added to steamship freight rates; justified by higher fuel costs. Also known as Fuel Adjustment Factor or FAF. 
  • Bunkering Tanker 
    A tanker equipped to supply other vessels with bunker fuels 
  • Bunkers 
    Fuel, usually residue grades, burned by ships' main engines. The most familiar kind, called bunker C may contain a high concentration of sulfur and have a high specific gravity but must meet a viscosity specification which assures free flow at the tempera
  • Buoy 
    Floating marker, secured to bottom of the sea, which is used as a navigational aid to mariners. 
  • Buoy & Lighthouse Tender 
    A vessel equipped for buoy laying and/or maintenance and for supply of stores and personnel to lighthouses 
  • Buoyed Up 
    Using a buoy to raise the bight of an anchor cable to prevent it from chafing on a rough bottom. 
  • Bureau Veritas 
    A French classification society which certifies seagoing vessels for compliance to standardized rules regarding construction and maintenance. 
  • Burn 
    Refers to either a chemical or thermal burn, the former may be caused by corrosive substances and the latter by liquefied cryogenic gases, hot molten substances, or flames. 
  • Burnback 
    The distance a flame will travel from the ignition source back to the aerosol container 
  • Butadiene 
    A four-carbon olefin. More precisely, a di-olefin because the molecule has two double bonds. Synthetic rubber production consumes much of the butadiene supply. Smaller amounts find an outlet in high-strength resins manufacturing. 
  • Butadiene 
    A flammable gaseous olefin used in making synthetic rubbers. Butadiene rubber has now completely displaced natural rubber in the manufacture of automobile tires. 
  • Butane 
    Butanes are colorless, odorless, gaseous hydrocarbons. The compound in which the carbon atoms are linked in a straight chain is called normal butane, or n-butane; the branched-chain form is isobutane. Both occur in natural gas and in crude oil and are for
  • Butanol 
    An alcohol derived from butane and used as solvents and in organic synthesis. 
  • Butter 
    Made by churning cream, often after a refining process. Cream is an emulsion of very small fat droplets in water. Milk proteins and salts are dissolved in the water. During churning, the small fat droplets coalesce until they form a continuous fat phase,
  • Butyl acetate 
    A volatile ester used as solvents for resins, lacquers, paints, and varnishes. 
  • Butyl rubbers 
    Butyl rubbers are a type of synthetic rubber prepared by polymerization of butylenes. They are a preferred option in the manufacture of automobile tires thanks to their leak-proof qualities. 
  • Butylene 
    Also called butene, any of four isomeric compounds belonging to the series of olefinic hydrocarbons. They are formed during the cracking of petroleum to produce gasoline; they can also be prepared commercially by the catalytic dehydrogenation of butanes.
  • Butyraldehyde 
    Butyraldehyde is a clear, colorless, flammable liquid, used chiefly as an intermediate in the manufacture of resins. 
  • Buy/sell 
    A swap in which, for accounting purposes or other reasons, company A sells a parcel to company B while B sells a second parcel to A. Each party buys one and sells another. 
  • BW 
    Brackish water 
  • BWA 
    Brackish water allowance 
  • BWAD 
    Brackish Water Arrival Draft 
  • BWDD 
    Brackish water departure draft 
  • BWSC 
    Baltic and White Sea Conference 
  • By and Large 
    Currently means in all cases or in any case. From the nautical: by meaning into the wind and large meaning with the wind: as in, "By and Large the ship handled very well." 
  • C and/or J 
    China and/or Japan 
  • C ORE 7 
    Ore charter party 
  • C&F 
    Cost & Freight 
  • C&F FO 
    Cost & Freight Free Out 
  • C&F or CFR 
    Cost and Freight (named port of destination) Seller must pay the costs and freight to bring the goods to the port of destination. However, risk is transferred to the buyer once the goods are loaded on the vessel (this rule is new!). Maritime transport onl
  • C&F Terms of Sale, or INCOTERMS 
    Obsolete, although heavily used, term of sale meaning “cargo and freight” whereby Seller pays for cost of goods and freight charges up to destination port. In July, 1990 the International Chamber of Commerce replaced C&F with CFR. 
  • C.A.S. Number 
    Chemical Abstracts Service, a service of the American Chemical Society, identifies particular chemicals with a number. 
  • C.I.S 
    Commonwealth Independent States (ex Soviet Republics) 
  • C/C 
  • C/P (CP) 
  • C/X 
    sshinC / ssheX 
  • C–TPAT (Customs–Trade Partnership Against Terrorism) 
    A voluntary supply chain security partnership established by U.S. Customs and Border Protection in November 2001. Meeting the C–TPAT standards allows cargo owners faster processing through cus- toms formalities and inspections. 
  • C4 
    C4 derivatives are among the main olefin products coming from the steam cracker, along with ethylene and propylene. Butadiene is the most valuable product from the C4 fraction. 
  • CA 
    Condition of Authorities 
  • Cable Repair Ship 
    A vessel equipped for the retrieval and repair of underwater cables 
  • Cabotage 
    Refers to the coastal trades of a particular nation. Cabotage is often governed by statutes requiring that only ships flying the flag of the coastal state concerned may engage in the coastal trades between ports of that state, unless "waivers" are obtaine
  • Cadet 
    A student who is training to be a marine officer. 
  • Calendar Day 
    CALENDAR DAY shall mean a period of twenty-four (24) consecutive hours running from 0000 hours to 2400 hours. Any part of a Calendar Day shall be counted pro-rata. 
  • Call 
    this denotes when a ship is coming to visit a port and berth 
  • Call Sign 
    Unique sequence of letters and numbers assigned to a ship for identification and communication purposes. 
  • CALM 
    Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring 
  • CALM Buoy 
    Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring Buoy - Simple system to which a tanker moors and then either loads or discharges its cargo. Buoy is moored by chains anchored to the seabed. 
  • CAP 
    CAP (Condition Assessment Programme).- Independent and thorough scheme of inspections of the actual condition of a vessel. It is applicable as established in the present Rules and procedures and as defined in the Rules of the Classification Societies memb
  • Capesize 
    Capesize vessels are typically above 150,000 long tons deadweight (DWT). Capesize ships are cargo ships originally too large to transit the Suez Canal (i.e., larger than both Panamax and Suezmax vessels). To travel between oceans, such vessels used to hav
  • Capesize Vessel 
    A dry bulk vessel above 80,000dwt or whose beam precludes passage via the Panama Canal and thus forces them to pass around Cape Horn or the Cape of Good Hope. 
  • Caprolactam 
    One of the ingredients that are used to synthesize the most common nylon. Caprolactam is made from phenol. 
  • Caprolactam Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of caprolactam, a chemical used in the plastics industry for the production of polyamides 
  • Captain’s Protest 
    A document prepared by the captain of a vessel on arriving at port; shows conditions encountered during voyage, generally for the purpose of relieving ship owner of any loss to cargo and shifting responsibility for reimbursement to the insurance company. 
  • Car Carrier 
    A vehicles carrier for the carriage of new cars which are loaded via ramps 
  • Car Pooling 
    Use of individual carrier/rail equipment through a central agency for the benefit of carriers and ship- pers. 
  • Car Seal 
    Metal strip and lead fastener used for locking freight car or truck doors. Seals are numbered for record purposes. 
  • Carbohydrate 
    Any member of a very abundant and widespread class of natural organic substances, compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, that includes the sugars, starch, and cellulose. 
  • Carbon 
    An element forming a large number of compounds, many of which have important uses. Diamond and graphite are amongst the main forms of carbon. Coals are elemental carbon mixed with varying amounts of carbon compounds; coke and charcoal are nearly pure carb
  • Carbon residue 
    The solid, impure carbon deposits (coke) left behind by burned hydrocarbon fuels. The industry uses two tests, Conradson carbon (Con Carbon) and Ramsbottom carbon to measure oils' tendency to form such solids. 
  • Carcinogen 
    A substance or physical agent that is capable of causing cancer. For the purposes of classification by the GESAMP experts they are subdivided into the following three categories Animal Carcinogen- a substance that has been shown to cause cancer in laborat
  • Carfloat 
    A barge equipped with tracks on which up to approximately 12 railroad cars are moved in harbors or inland waterways. 
  • Cargo 
    Freight loaded into a ship. 
  • Cargo Manifest 
    A manifest that lists all cargo carried on a specific vessel voyage. 
  • Cargo NOS 
    Cargo Not Otherwise Specified. Usually the rate entry in a tariff that can apply to commodities not covered under a specific item or sub– item in the applicable tariff. 
  • Cargo Preference 
    Cargo reserved by a Nation’s laws for transportation only on vessels registered in that Nation.Typically the cargo is moving due to a direct or indirect support or activity of the Government. 
  • Cargo Tonnage 
    Most ocean freight is billed on the basis of weight or measurement tons (W/M). Weight tons can be expressed in short tons of 2000 pounds, long tons of 2240 pounds or metric tons of 1000 kilos (2204.62 pounds). Measurement tons are usually expressed as car
  • Caribbean Trading Area 
    is the area bounded by the east coasts of North, Central and South America; and a line from the east coast of the United States in latitude 32 o 30'N to a point 20oN: 60 o W, thence to a point 10oN : 50 oW , and thence south to the coast of South America.
  • Carnet 
    A customs document permitting the holder to temporarily carry or send merchandise into certain for- eign countries (for display, demonstration or similar purposes) without paying duties or posting bonds. Any of various Customs documents required for cross
  • Carotene 
    A natural constituent which gives crude palm oil its bright orange-red colour and which is normally destroyed by the high temperatures in the refining and/or deodorisation processes. It is also partially destroyed by oxidation under adverse conditions of
  • Carrier 
    Any person or entity who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of carriage by rail, road, sea, air, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes. 
  • Carrier’s Certificate 
    A certificate required by U.S. Customs to release cargo properly to the correct party. 
  • Cartage 
    Usually refers to intra–city hauling on drays or trucks. Same as drayage. 
  • Cartment 
    Customs form permitting in–bond cargo to be moved from one location to another under Customs control, within the same Customs district. Usually in motor carrier’s possession while draying cargo. 
  • Cash Against Documents (CAD) 
    Method of payment for goods in which documents transferring title are given the buyer upon payment of cash to an intermediary acting for the seller, usually a commission house. 
  • Cash in Advance (CIA) 
    A method of payment for goods in which the buyer pays the seller in advance of the shipment of goods. Usually employed when the goods, such as specialized machinery, are built to order. 
  • Cash With Order (CWO) 
    A method of payment for goods in which cash is paid at the time of order and the transaction becomes binding on both buyer and seller. 
  • Castor Oik 
    Oil from Ricinus communis produced mainly in India, Brazil and China. Castor oil differs from all other common oils in being rich (~90%) in the hydroxyl acid, ricinoleic. Castor oil is a source of several important oleochemicals including Turkey-red oil,
  • Cat gasoline 
    The motor fuel-blending component produced by catalytic cracking units. 
  • Cat naphtha 
    see CAT GASOLINE. Some refiners could, if their markets made it desirable, hydrotreat cat gasoline to make a naphtha suitable for some use other than motor fuel blending, such as steam cracker feedstock. 
  • Catalyst 
    A catalyst is a substance which, when added to the components of a chemical reaction, speeds up the rate of that reaction but does not itself become involved chemically. An example of such compounds in the edible oil context is nickel used in hydrogenatio
  • Catalytic cracker 
    These refinery units, also widely known as cat crackers and FCC's (for fluid catalytic crackers) or FCCU's, convert heavy distillate, most commonly vacuum gasoil, to lighter fractions. Refiners use them, basically, to break molecules which boil in the hea
  • Catalytic cracking 
    The process of breaking up heavier hydrocarbon molecules into lighter hydrocarbon fractions by use of heat and catalysts. See also cracking. 
  • Catfeed 
    The charge fed to a catalytic cracker. Common usage generally restricts this term to describing vacuum gasoils 
  • Cathode 
    Electrode at which the cathodic reaction predominates 
  • Cathodic Protection 
    Electrochemical protection achieved by decreasing the corrosion potential to a level at which the corrosion rate of the metal is significantly reduced 
  • Caustic 
    NaOH = Sodium hydroxide. A corrosive substance due to its high pH 
  • CB & H Cont. 
    (BH) Continent between Bordeaux and Hamburg 
  • CBS 
    Cyprus Bureau of Shipping 
  • CBT 
    Clean Ballast Tanks: Applies only to Pre-MARPOL vessels which adopted COW instead of converting to SBT when MARPOL 73/78 entered into Force. When operating as a "Products" tanker (typically with Fuel Oil), COW is not available so vessel adopts "CBT" mod 
  • CC/HR 
    Cubic centimeter per hour 
  • CCC Mark 
    A mark or label indicating the cargo conforms to standards required by China for certain products. 
  • CD 
    Chart Datum; Customary Despatch 
  • CDI 
    Chemical distribute Institute: A chemical industry ship inspection process and database. Managed through joint representation by charterers and ship managers. 
  • CE 
    Consumption Entry: The process of declaring the importation of foreign–made goods for use in the United States. 
  • CE Mark 
    A mark or label indicating the cargo conforms to standards required by the European Union for certain products. 
  • CEFIC 
    European Chemical Industry Council 
  • Cells 
    The construction system employed in container vessels; permits ship containers to be stowed in a vertical line with each container supporting the one above it 
  • Cement Carrier 
    A single deck cargo vessel fitted with pumping arrangements for the carriage of cement in bulk. There are no weather deck hatches. May be self discharging 
  • Cement Storage Barge, non propelled 
    A barge with pumping facilities for loading & discharging cement. 
  • CENSA 
    Council of European National Shipowners Associations 
  • Center of Gravity 
    The point of equilibrium of the total weight of a containership, truck, train or a piece of cargo. 
  • Centigrade degrees (C) 
    Also known as Celsius degrees. A temperature scale according to which water boils at 100 and freezes at 0. Centigrade, or Celsius, degrees convert to Fahrenheit degrees by the following formula: (C x 1.8) + 32=F. 
  • Centistoke 
    The unit, commonly abbreviated cSt, of kinematic viscosity which reports a liquid's resistance to flow in terms of its measured viscosity divided by its density. 
  • Centrifuging 
    Substances having different densities will separate by gravity. For example, oil is lighter than water and easily forms a separate upper layer. The effect of gravity can be accentuated by increasing the strength of the gravitational force, for example by
  • CEPE 
    European Council of the Paint, Printing Ink and Artists' Colors Industry, an association affiliated to Cefic. 
  • Certificate of Inspection 
    – A document certifying that merchandise (such as perishable goods) was in good condition immediately prior to its shipment. – The document issued by the U.S. Coast Guard certifying an American – Flag vessel’s compliance with applicable laws and regulatio
  • Certificate of Origin 
    A certified document showing the origin of goods; used in international commerce. 
  • Cetane index (CI) 
    An estimated diesel fuel performance rating which relies on samples' API gravity and mid-point CI=-420.34 + 0.016G2 + 0192G log M + 65.01 (LOG M)2-0.0001809M2 where G= API gravity and M=mid-point in F 
  • Cetane number 
    A performance indicator for diesel fuel analogous to the octane rating applied to gasolines. The more paraffinic the gasoil, the higher its cetane number. 
  • CF/H 
    Cubic feet per hour 
  • CFC 
    Chloro/Fluoro Compound 
  • CFG 
    China Focus Group 
  • CFG/H 
    Cubic feet of gas per hour 
  • CFR 
    Cost and Freight (named port of destination) Seller must pay the costs and freight to bring the goods to the port of destination. However, risk is transferred to the buyer once the goods are loaded on the vessel (this rule is new!). Maritime transport onl
  • CFR (Cost and Freight) (...Named Port of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale where the seller pays the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destina- tion, Terms of Sale but the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as (continued) well as any additional costs due to events occurring a
  • CFS 
    Container freight station 
  • CFS 
    Cubic Feet per Second or Container Freight Station 
  • CH 
    Chain locker (OCIMF acronym) 
  • CH & H 
    Continent between Le Havre and Hamburg 
  • CHA 
    Customs house agent 
  • CHABE 
    Charterer’s agents both ends 
  • Chains 
    This terms has a chemical and commercial usage in the oil business. It describes the strands of carbon atoms (carbon chains) fundamental to hydrocarbon molecules. It also serves as a designation for the strings of transactions assembled to settle a 
  • Channel 
    a natural or man-made deeper course through a reef, bar, bay, or any shallow body of water, often used by ships. 
  • Charge 
    see Feedstock 
  • Charter Party 
    A written contract between the owner of a vessel and the person desiring to employ the vessel (char- terer); sets forth the terms of the arrangement, such as duration of agreement, freight rate and ports involved in the trip. 
  • Charter, Bareboat 
    A charter where the owner provides his ship to the Charterer who then provides his own officers and crew and operates the vessel as if it were a unit of his own fleet. Hire is usually paid on a daily rate, monthly in advance, and the owner retains rights 
  • Charter, Time 
    The chartering of a vessel for a fixed period of time with the vessel delivering and re-delivering at agreed dates and at agreed zones or places though usually with an option to the Charterer to extend the period of charter. It is really a contract for t 
  • Charter, Trip 
    A contract where the vessel has specific beginning and end ports but where the route and time taken may vary. 
  • Charterer 
    A person or firm who enters into a contract with a shipowner for the transportation of cargo or passengers for a stipulated period of time, i.e. a shipowner's customer 
  • Chartering 
    Commercial leasing of a vessel or space on a vessel. 
  • Chassis 
    A frame with wheels and container locking devices in order to secure the container for movement. 
  • ChE inhibitor 
    Cholinesterase inhibitor. A substance which produces inhibition of the cholinesterase group of enzymes, that play a vital role in nerve impulse transmission and other biological functions. Also known as anticholinesterase. 
  • Chem 
  • Chemical Carrier 
  • Chemical intermediate 
    A chemical intermediate is any substance generated by one step in a synthetic process and used for the succeeding step. 
  • Chemical oxygen demand 
    When organic materials are not easily degraded by microorganisms, strong oxidizing agents (e.g., potassium permanganate) are used to enhance oxidation. COD is thus measured instead of BOD (see BOD). COD values will be larger than BOD values. 
  • Chemical reaction 
    A chemical process in which substances are changed into different substances. Chemical reactions are manifested by the disappearance of properties characteristic of the starting materials and the appearance of new properties that distinguish the products.
  • Chemical Refining 
    Refers particularly to the removal of free fatty acids by alkali. The alkali used is usually sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) or sodium carbonate (soda ash), either singly or in combination. One novel chemical refining technique uses aqueous ammonia as the
  • Chemical Tank Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled tank barge for the carriage of chemicals 
  • Chemical Tanker 
    A tanker built to comply with either the International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IBC Code) or the Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (BCH Code)
  • Chemical Tanker Barge, propelled 
    An self propelled tanker barge for the bulk carriage of chemical cargoes, lube oils, vegetable/animal oils and other chemicals as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code 
  • Chemical Tanker, Inland Waterways 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of chemical cargoes, lube oils, vegetable/animal oils and other chemicals as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code which is not suitable for trading in open waters. Tanks are coated with suitable materials which ar
  • Chemical/Products Tank Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled tank barge for the carriage of chemicals or oil products 
  • Chemical/Products Tanker 
    A chemical tanker additionally capable of the carriage of clean petroleum products 
  • Chemical/Products Tanker Barge, propelled 
    An self propelled chemical tanker barge additionally capable of the carriage of clean petroleum products 
  • Chemical/Products Tanker, Inland Waterways 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of chemical cargoes, lube oils, vegetable/animal oils and other chemicals as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code or Petroleum Products which is not suitable for trading in open waters.  
    China Sea, Indian and Pacific Oceans 
  • Chlorides 
    Chlorine-containing compounds. The oil trade pays most attention to these substances when discussing naphtha. Reformers need a specific amount of chloride on their catalyst to perform properly, any more or any less amounts to poison. Naphtha feedstock con
  • Chlorine 
    Chlorine, an inorganic chemical that can be obtained both naturally and synthetically, has a huge variety of uses, as a disinfectant and purifier, in plastics and polymers, solvents, agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals, as well as an intermediate in manufac
  • Chlorobenzene 
    A colorless, liquid organic compound used as a solvent and starting material for the manufacture of other organic compounds, such as phenol. 
  • Chloroethylene 
    See Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) 
  • Chlorophyll 
    A natural, green colouring agent vital to a plant's photosynthesis process which is removed from vegetable oils through bleaching and refining processes. 
  • CHN 
  • Chock 
    A piece of wood or other material placed at the side of cargo to prevent rolling or moving sideways. 
  • Chock-a-Block 
    Meaning something is filled to capacity or over loaded. If two blocks of rigging tackle were so hard together they couldn't be tightened further, it was said they were "Chock-a-Block". 
  • Cholesterol 
    Cholesterol is one of a class of compounds known as sterols. It is an important component in animal tissues and cell membranes but found only in trace amounts in plant tissues. While many vegetable oils are known to contain traces of cholesterol, the amou
  • CHOPT 
    Charterers Option (As opposed to owner's option) 
  • Chromatography 
    Chromatography is a separation process used to analyse mixtures. The mixture, dissolved in a mobile phase, is contacted with a stationary phase, usually a fine powder. The components of the mixture are adsorbed or retained by the stationary phase to varyi
  • Chronic 
    A long time period of action in weeks, months, or years 
  • Chronic Effects of Overexposure 
    The adverse effects that develop slowly over a long period of time or upon repeated prolong exposure to a hazardous material without implying a degree of severity 
  • Chronic toxicity 
    Effects resulting from repeated exposure to a material for the lifespan of the species, or the greater part thereof. 
  • CHRTS 
  • CHS 
    Continuous Survey of Hull 
  • CI 
    Cost and Insurance: A price that includes the cost of the goods, the marine insurance and all transportation charges except the ocean freight to the named point of destination. 
  • CIA 
    UK Chemical Industries Association 
  • CIF 
    Cost, Insurance and Freight (named port of destination)  Exactly the same as CFR except that the seller must in addition procure and pay for the insurance. Maritime transport only. The four rules defined by Incoterms 2010 for international trade where tra
  • CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight) (...Named Place of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale where the seller has the same obligations as under the CFR but also has to procure marine insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premi
  • CIF (Named Port) 
    Cost, Insurance, Freight (Named Port). Same as C&F or CFR except seller also provides insurance to named destination. 
  • CIF&E 
    Cost, insurance, freight and exchange 
  • CIFCI 
    Cost, insurance, freight, commission and interest 
  • CIFFO 
    Cost, insurance, freight, and free out 
  • CIFI&E 
    Cost, insurance, freight, interest and exchange 
  • CIFLT 
    Cost, insurance and freight, London terms 
  • CIM 
    International Convention Concerning the Carriage of Goods by Rail 
  • CIP 
    Carriage and Insurance Paid to (named place of destination) The containerized transport/multimodal equivalent of CIF. Seller pays for carriage and insurance to the named destination point, but risk passes when the goods are handed over to the first carrie
  • CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid To) (...Named Place of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale which means the seller has the same obligations as under CPT, but with the addition that the seller has to procure cargo insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts for insu
  • CIRFS 
    Comité International de la Rayonne et des Fibers Synthétiques (International Rayon and Synthetic Fibers Committee) 
  • CIS 
    The term applied to a geometric isomer of an unsaturated fatty acid where the hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon atoms comprising the double bond are on the same side of the carbon chain. 
  • CIS 
    Commonwealth of Independent States 
  • Claim 
    A demand made upon a transportation line for payment on account of a loss sustained through its alleged negligence. 
  • Class 
    Classification society which has inspected and certified the vessel from construction, launch and periodically throughout a vessel''s trading life, including re-classification after any incident of grounding, stranding or collision. 
  • Class 1 [Deck] 
    Master or Captain: Entitles the holder to act as Master on a ship of any size, with unlimited trading range. 
  • Class 1 [Engineer] 
    Chief Engineer: Entitles the holder to act as Chief Engineer on a ship of any power. 
  • Class 2 [Deck] 
    1st Mate, Chief Mate or Chief Officer: Entitles the holder to act as Chief Mate on a ship of any size with unlimited trading or may entitle the holder to act as Master on a ship but with restrictions on size or trading area. 
  • Class 2 [Engineer] 
    2nd Engineer: Entitles the holder to sail as Second Engineer on a ship of any power but may also entitle the holder to act as Chief Engineer on a ship with a restriction on power. 
  • Class 3 [Deck] 
    2nd Mate: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of a navigational watch on a ship of any size with unlimited trading but may also entitle the holder to act as Chief Mate, or possibly Master, on a ship but with restrictions on size or trading are
  • Class 3 [Engineer] 
    3rd Engineer: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of an engineering watch on a ship of any power but may also entitle the holder to act as Second Engineer, or possibly Chief Engineer, on a ship with a restriction on power. 
  • Class 4 [Deck] 
    3rd Mate: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of a navigational watch on any ship. 
  • Class 4 [Engineer] 
    4th Engineer: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of an engineering watch on a ship of any power. 
  • Classification 
    A publication, such as Uniform Freight Classification (railroad) or the National Motor Freight Clas- sification (motor carrier), that assigns ratings to various articles and provides bill of lading descriptions and rules. 
  • Classification Rating 
    The designation provided in a classification by which a class rate is determined. 
  • Classification Society 
    An organization maintained for the surveying and classing of ships so that insurance underwriters and others may know the quality and condition of the vessels offered for insurance or employment. See also ABS, BV, DNV, LR and NK. 
  • Classification Yard 
    A railroad yard with many tracks used for assembling freight trains. 
  • Clastogen 
    A substance capable of causing structural injury to chromosomes. 
  • Clayton Act 
    An anti–trust act of the U.S. Congress making price discrimination unlawful. 
  • Clean 
    Unleaded, when used to describe motor gasoline or blendstock. 
  • Clean Ballast 
    Ballast contained in cargo tanks that have been COW'd and thoroughly water washed. It may be discharged to sea and meets MARPL requirements. 
  • Clean Bill of Health 
    A certificate signed by a port authority attesting that no contagious disease existed in the port of departure and none of crew were infected with a disease at the time of sailing. Shore-side, it means in good shape.. 
  • Clean Bill Of Lading 
    A bill of lading issued by a carrier declaring that the goods have been received in an appropriate condition, without the presence of defects. The product carrier will issue a clean bill after thoroughly inspecting the packages for any damage, missing qua
  • Clean fuels 
    So-called clean fuels are among the instruments introduced by EU Member States to combat air pollution problems arising from increases in road transport. See Auto-Oil Programme. 
  • Cleaning in Transit 
    The stopping of articles, such as peanuts, etc., for cleaning at a point between the point of origin and destination. 
  • Clear Point 
    The clear point is the temperature at which a fat sample in a closed capillary tube or a U-tube becomes completely clear on warming. 
  • Clear the Deck 
    One of the things done in preparation for battle. Current usage similar to "Batten down the hatches".. 
  • Clearance Limits 
    The size beyond which cars or loads cannot use bridges, tunnels, etc. 
  • Cleat 
    A strip of wood or metal used to afford additional strength, to prevent warping, or to hold in place. 
  • Climate change 
    The term "climate change" is used to imply a significant change from one climatic condition to another. Sometimes, climate change is used synonymously with the term global warming; scientists however, tend to use the term in the wider sense to also includ
  • Clingage 
    Material which adheres to the surface of tank walls and structures, both horizontal and vertical, within empty and part empty tanks, other than bottom surfaces. 
  • Clip–On 
    Refrigeration equipment attachable to an insulated container that does not have its own refrigeration unit. 
  • Close Quarters 
    In the 17th century the barriers that sailors laid across a ship’s deck in order to provide a safe haven from the enemy were called close-fights. By the mid 18th century that confined defensive space became called ‘close quarters’, i.e. close dwellings. T
  • Closed Operations 
    The procedure to prevent the release of cargo vapours at deck level on vessels during loading, ballasting and discharging. This is essential when handling toxic, volatile or noxious cargoes to prevent injury to personnel and risk of ignition. "Closed Ope 
  • Cloud Point 
    The cloud point is the temperature at which the oil begins to cloud resulting from crystallisation under controlled cooling. The cloud point is related to the unsaturation of the oil. In general, the higher the unsaturation of an oil, the lower will be it
  • Cloud point 
    The temperature where wax crystals begin to appear in a cooled hydrocarbon mixture. This quality consideration, usually applied to gasoil, indicates how cold the air must become to make a stream form solids which block filters halting fuel delivery. Cloud
  • CMR 
    Convention on the Contract for International Carriage of Goods by Road 
  • CMS 
    Continuous Survey of Machinery 
  • CNG Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of Compressed Natural Gas. Cargo remains in gaseous state but is highly compressed 
  • CNR 
    Charterers not reported; Charter not reported 
  • Co-products 
    substances made in one processing unit at the same time. A lot of refining hardware, especially crackers, cannot help making an assortment of hydrocarbons. The industry uses "co product" when it does not want to designate one material a plant's 
  • CO2 
    Carbon Dioxide. A colorless, non-poisonous gas that is a normal part of the ambient air. Carbon dioxide is formed in combustion of fossil fuel and carbon-containing materials, in fermentation, and in respiration of animals and employed by plants in the ph
  • CO2 Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of liquefied carbon dioxide 
  • COA 
    Contract of Affreightment: A cargo transportation arrangement whereby the owner agrees to transportation of a specified quantity of cargo over a set period of time in a vessel or series of vessels for the Charterer. It consists of the base terms of agre 
  • COA 
    Contract of affreightment. An arrangement between a ship owner and a charterer for the carriage of a certain amount of specified grade or grades of cargo on named routes over a period of time. Owners may use any suitable ships at their disposable to meet
  • COACP 
    Contract of Affreightment Charter Party 
  • Coal 
    A black or brownish black solid, combustible carbon-rich substance formed by the partial decomposition of vegetable matter without access to air. Coal is one of the most important of the primary fossil fuels. It is indispensable to life and constitutes hu
  • Coal tar 
    Coal tar is a principal liquid product resulting from the carbonization of coal, i.e. the heating of coal in the absence of air at temperatures ranging from about 900º to 1,200ºC (1,650º to 2,200ºF). Many commercially important compounds are derived from
  • Coal/Oil Mixture Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of a cargo of coal and oil mixed as a liquid and maintained at high temperatures 
  • Coast Guard-AWO Safety Partnership 
    The Coast Guard-AWO Safety Partnership, the first formal industry-Coast Guard partnership of its kind, has launched more than 25 quality action teams that address the most pressing industry safety issues. The Partnership is responsible for improving safet
  • Coastal 
    Smallest tankers and are generally used in coastal waters requiring a shallow draft. (3,001 dwt - 10,000 dwt approx ) 
  • Coastal amenity 
    Beach, mudflat, wharf, boardwalk or any other feature of the coastline considered of public value 
  • Coastal Waters 
    an area designated as such by the Administration and where this is not so designated it means an area not more than 20 miles from a safe refuge. 
  • Coastwise 
    Water transportation along the coast. 
  • COC 
    Certificate of Compliance means a certificate issued by the Coast Guard to a foreign flag vessel after it is examined and found to comply with regulations in this chapter. 
  • Cocoa Butter 
    The seed fat of ""Theobroma Cacao"", a small tree growing in tropical climates. Normally the cocoa beans are fermented and roasted to develop the desirable cocoa flavour. The beans are then milled to produce cocoa mass. Pressing of the cocoa mass gives co
  • Cocoa Butter Equivalent 
    Fats which behave like cocoa butter in all respects and are able to mix with cocoa butter in any proportion without altering the melting, rheological and processing characteristics of cocoa butter in all types of formulation. These fats have the physico-c
  • Cocoa Butter Substitute 
    Fats which have a very limited compatibility with cocoa butter as mixing with cocoa butter adversely affects the rheological, melting and processing characteristics of the product. These fats on their own and also with a limited amount of cocoa butter hav
  • Coconut Oil 
    Coconut oil is the oil obtained from copra - dried coconut meat. An edible oil, coconut oil is distinguished from other edible oils by its high content of short chain saturated acids (predominantly lauric) and its low unsaturated acid content. Susceptible
  • COD 
    Cash on delivery : Financial transaction wherein the payment for goods/services is done at the time of delivery/execution rather than in advance. 
  • Codex Alimentarius 
    A Commission operating under the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations/World Health Organisation (FAO/WHO) auspices, which has the task of preparing model standards and codes of practice for edible products and for food processes. It ope
    Void space in a vessel to separate cargo tanks from each other or from the engine room 
  • COGS 
    Cost of Goods Sold : Aka Direct Costs, the sum of all expenditures for materials and labour to produce a product or provide a service. 
  • COH 
    Cuba, Orinoco River and Haiti 
  • Coiled 
    Tankers fitted with tubes which carry hot water or steam through viscous cargoes, such as heavy fuel oil and certain crudes, to keep them fluid. 
  • Coke 
    solid, almost hydrogen-free carbon made on purpose in fuel oil destruction units called cokers or inescapably in other processing hardware. Coke forms on the catalyst in cat crackers and in the furnaces of ethylene plants. The coke manufactured intentiona
  • Coker 
    A thermal processing unit which cracks heavy refinery streams, such as vacuum still bottoms, into light products while reducing much of that feedstock to solid carbon. The liquids yielded by these units, often called coker naphtha and coker gasoil, usuall
  • Coking 
    A thermal cracking process to break up large molecules into smaller ones with the generation of quantities of petroleum coke. 
  • Cold blender 
    see blender. European producers of motor gasoline who have no distillation or other refining equipment go by this name. They make their product by mixing purchased "cold" components. This term has the advantage over the simple "blender" used in the USA of
  • Cold filter plugging point 
    A measure of diesel fuel's suitability for use in cold weather. Usually called by its initials, CFPP, this specification reports the temperature where clotted wax stops fuel from passing through a test filter. CFFP goes beyond cloud point, which indicates
  • Cold zone 
    Area where the command post and support functions that are necessary to control the incident are located. This is also referred to as the clean zone or support zone in other documents. (NFPA 472) 
  • Collecting 
    A bank that acts as an agent to the seller’s bank (the presenting bank). The collecting bank assumes no responsibility for either the documents or the merchandise. 
  • Collection 
    A draft drawn on the buyer, usually accompanied by documents, with complete instructions concerning processing for payment or acceptance. 
  • collision 
    when two moving vessels strike each other 
  • Colonial grade 
    Light petroleum product which conforms to one of the specifications of Colonial Pipeline Company. 
  • Colonial pipeline 
    The on-land pipeline system connecting US Gulf Coast refineries to Southeast and Atlantic Coast markets. The main artery runs from Deer Park, Texas, to Linden, NJ. It has the effective capability to carry roughly 2.1 million barrels per day of clean produ
  • Color 
    A spectrum which extends from absolutely colorless (usually described as water white) to dirty (black and opaque). This property only pertains usefully to light refined products and gas liquids. It makes a handy indicator of contamination or poor distilla
  • Color 
    Most oil products are preferred as colourless as possible. In the oils and fats trade, the colour of oils is usually measured by the Lovibond Comparator. Alternatively, a spectrophotometer may be used to record the variation of light absorbence over the v
  • Column Chromatography 
    This is a laboratory technique by which two or more substances in a mixture are separated due to their differential affinities for a solid adsorbent. The adsorbent is filled into a column and a solution of the mixture is washed down the column with solven
  • Combination carriers 
    Vessels fitted to transport more than one type of cargo. The petroleum industry uses a good-sized fleet of OBO's, ships which transport dry cargo or oil. 
  • Combination Carriers 
    Ships designed to carry either a liquid cargo or a dry cargo on different voyages. This concept was developed to shorten ballast voyages. 
  • Combination Carriers (O/O) 
    Ore Oil (O/O) carriers have twin longitudinal bulkheads (similar to a conventional tanker) but have been additionally equipped with large deck hatches and strengthened double bottoms in way of the centre cargo tanks. This arrangement allows dry bulk carg 
  • Combination Carriers (OBO) 
    Oil Bulk Ore (OBO) carriers have a large central hold similar to a conventional dry bulk carrier but are also equipped to operate as an oil tanker. The large cargo "hold" (as opposed to a cargo "tank") means that lighter cargo such as grain etc. can be c 
  • Combination Export Manager 
    A firm that acts as an export sales agent for more than one non–competing manufacturer. 
  • Combination Passenger and Cargo Vessels 
    Ships with a capacity for 13 or more passengers and any form of cargo or freight. 
  • Combination Rate 
    A rate made up of two or more factors, separately published. 
  • Combined Carriers 
    Designed to transport both liquid and dry bulk cargoes. If both are carried simultaneously, they are segregated in separate holds and tanks. Combined carriers require special design and are expensive. They were prevalent in the 1970s, but their numbers ha
  • Combustible liquid 
    Liquids which have a flash point greater than 60.5°C (141°F) and below 93°C (200°F). U.S. regulations permit a flammable liquid flashing between 38°C (100°F) and 60.5°C (141°F) to be reclassed as a combustible liquid. 
  • Commercial Invoice 
    Represents a complete record of the transaction between exporter and importer with regard to the goods sold. Also reports the content of the shipment and serves as the basis for all other documents relating to the shipment. 
  • Commercial Management 
    Service where a hired agent operates a ship and receives a fee in return. 
  • Commercial Transport Vessel 
    Any ship which is used primarily in commerce: (1) For transporting persons or goods to or from any harbor(s) or port(s) or between places within a harbor area; (2) In connection with the construction, change in construction, servicing, mainte- nance, repa
  • Commodity 
    Article shipped. For dangerous and hazardous cargo, the correct commodity identification is critical. 
  • Commodity Rate 
    A rate published to apply to a specific article or articles. 
  • Common Carrier 
    A transportation company which provides service to the general public at published rates. 
  • Common Law 
    Law that derives its force and authority from precedent, custom and usage rather than from statutes, particularly with reference to the laws of England and the United States. 
  • Company Security Officer 
    Is the person designated by the company for ensuring that a ship security assessment is carried out and that a ship security plan is developed, submitted for approval and thereafter implemented and maintained for liaison with port facility security office
  • Compatibility 
    The suitable of two or more residues for blending. Some stocks--certain visbroken resides and hydrotreated bottoms, for instance--do not combine well enough to yield stable fuel oils. 
  • Complex Triglyceride 
    A triglyceride where one or two fatty acid structures differ from the third fatty acid. 
  • Component 
    One part of a blend. The word most commonly names streams combined to make motor gasoline. In that usage, it serves as short version of "mogas component". Though not used casually, "gasoil component," “heavy fuel oil component" and similar designations ma
  • Compound 
    A compound (or molecule) is a combination of two or more chemical elements (atoms) held together by chemical bonds. 
  • Compulsory Ship 
    Any ship which is required to be equipped with radiotelecommunication equipment in order to comply with the radio or radio-navigation provisions of a treaty or statute to which the vessel is subject. 
    Sub-Committee on Radiocommunications and Search and Rescue 
    The Oil Companies' European Organization for Environment, Health and Safety 
  • Concealed Damage 
    Damage that is not evident from viewing the unopened package. 
  • Condensate 
    Natural gas liquids heavier than butane. The term condensates commonly covers two quite different kinds of streams: natural gasolines and heavy condensates. Natural gasolines come from LPG or LNG plants. They have properties similar to naphthas. Heavy con
  • Confectionary Fats 
    Fats used for the manufacture of sugar and/or chocolate based confectionery products. These fats generally have sharp melting behaviour, having a very low solid fat content at body temperature. The physico-chemical properties of these fats and hence, thei
  • Conference 
    An association of ship owners operating in the same trade route who operate under collective condi- tions and agree on tariff rates. 
  • Confirmed Letter of Credit 
    A letter of credit, issued by a foreign bank, whose validity has been confirmed by a domestic bank. An exporter with a confirmed letter of credit is assured of payment even if the foreign buyer or the foreign bank defaults 
  • Confirming Bank 
    The bank that adds its confirmation to another bank’s (the issuing bank’s) letter of credit and promises to pay the beneficiary upon presentation of documents specified in the letter of credit. 
  • Conjugated Fatty Acids 
    Polyunsaturated fatty acids exhibiting pairs of unsaturated carbons not separated by at least one saturated carbon. 
  • Conjunctoblepharitis 
    Inflammation of the conjuctiva and eyelids 
  • Connecting Carrier 
    A carrier which has a direct physical connection with, or forms a link between two or more carriers. 
  • Connecting Carrier Agreement 
    A connecting carrier agreement is a contract between the originating carrier and a second party, where the second party agrees to carry goods to a final destination on a through Billof Lading. 
  • Conradson carbon (ConCarbon) 
    A measurement of hydrocarbon mixtures tendency to leave carbon deposits (coke) when burned as fuel or subjected to intense heat in a processing unit such as a catalytic cracker. The ConCarbon test involves destructive distillation -subjection to high temp
  • Consignee 
    A person or company to whom commodities are shipped. 
  • Consignee Mark 
    A symbol placed on packages for identification purposes; generally a triangle, square, circle, etc. with letters and/or numbers and port of discharge. 
  • Consignment 
    (1) A stock of merchandise advanced to a dealer and located at his place of business, but with title remaining in the source of supply. (2) A shipment of goods to a consignee. 
  • Consignor 
    A person or company shown on the bill of lading as the shipper. 
  • Consolidation 
    Cargo containing shipments of two or more shippers or suppliers. Containerload shipments may be consolidated for one or more consignees, often in containerload quantities. 
  • Consolidator 
    A person or firm performing a consolidation service for others. The consolidator takes advantage of lower full carload (FCL) rates, and passes on the savings to shippers. 
  • Construction Differential Subsidy 
    A program whereby the U.S. government attempted to offset the higher shipbuilding cost in the U.S. by paying up to 50% of the difference between cost of U.S. and non–U.S. construction. The differ- ence went to the U.S. shipyard. It is unfunded since 1982.
  • Consul 
    A government official residing in a foreign country who represents the interests of her or his country and its nationals. 
  • Consular Declaration 
    A formal statement describing goods to be shipped; filed with and approved by the consul of the country of destination prior to shipment. 
  • Consular Invoice 
    A document, certified by a consular official, is required by some countries to describe a shipment. Used by Customs of the foreign country, to verify the value, quantity and nature of the cargo. 
  • Consular Visa 
    An official signature or seal affixed to certain documents by the consul of the country of destina- tion. 
  • Consumption Entry (CE) 
    The process of declaring the importation of foreign–made goods into the United States for use in the United States. 
  • Container 
    A truck trailer body that can be detached from the chassis for loading into a vessel, a rail car or stacked in a container depot. Containers may be ventilated, insulated, refrigerated, flat rack, vehicle rack, open top, bulk liquid or equipped with interi
  • Container Barge, propelled 
    A self propelled cargo vessel with boxed holds fitted with fixed cellular guides for the carriage of containers 
  • Container Booking 
    Arrangements with a steamship line to transport containerized cargo. 
  • Container Freight Station 
    See CFS. 
  • Container Load 
    A load sufficient in size to fill a container either by cubic measurement or by weight. 
  • Container Manifest 
    Document showing contents and loading sequence, point of origin, and point of destination for a container. Vessels are required by law to carry such a document for each container carried. 
  • Container Pool 
    An agreement between parties that allows the efficient use and supply of containers. A common supply of containers available to the shipper as required. 
  • Container Security Initiative (CSI) 
    A U.S. cargo security program whereby containerized cargoes destined for the United States may be inspected on a selective basis at many foreign ports before loading on a vessel. As of October 2007, there were 51 approved ports. A multinational program, a
  • Container Ship (Fully Cellular with Ro-Ro Facility) 
    A container ship with the additional capability to be loaded and unloaded by ro-ro access to a limited portion of the cargo space 
  • Container Ship (Fully Cellular) 
    A single deck cargo vessel with boxed holds fitted with fixed cellular guides for the carriage of containers 
  • Container Ship (Fully Cellular), Inland Waterways 
    A vessel designed for the transportation of fully cellular Containers. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • Container Terminal 
    An area designated for the stowage of cargoes in container; usually accessible by truck, railroad and marine transportation. Here containers are picked up, dropped off, maintained and housed. 
  • Container Vessels 
    Ships equipped with permanent container cells that hold containers 
  • Container Yard (CY) 
    A materials–handling/storage facility used for completely unitized loads in containers and/or empty containers. Commonly referred to as CY. 
  • Container-on-Barge 
    Using deck barges, shipping by container-on-barge is becoming more prevalent as a means to mitigate truck traffic congestion on the nation's highways. 
  • Container/Ro-Ro Cargo Ship 
    A hybrid of a container ship and a ro-ro cargo ship in independent sections 
  • Containerizable Cargo 
    Cargo that will fit into a container and result in an economical shipment. 
  • Containerization 
    Stowage of general or special cargoes in a container for transport in the various modes. 
  • Contraband 
    Cargo that is prohibited. 
  • Contract Carrier 
    Any person not a common carrier who, under special and individual contracts or agreements, transports passengers or property for compensation. 
  • Control zones 
    Designated areas at dangerous goods incidents, based on safety and the degree of hazard. Many terms are used to describe control zones; however, in this guidebook, these zones are defined as the hot, warm, and cold zones. (NFPA 472) 
  • Controlled Atmosphere 
    Sophisticated, computer–controlled systems that manage the mixtures of gases within a container throughout an intermodal journey reducing decay. 
  • Conventional Day 
    CONVENTIONAL DAY shall mean a period of twenty-four (24) consecutive hours running from any identified time. Any part of a Conventional Day shall be counted pro-rata. 
  • Conventional Tanker 
    Crude tankers used for deep sea transportation of unrefined oil from producing countries to refineries, ranging in size from 55,000 to 500,000 deadweight tonnes. 
  • Conversion 
    Cracking molecules which boil above the threshold temperature into smaller ones which boil below it. Traditionally, the term applied to catalytic crackers. They convert oil which boils above 430 F to hydrocarbons which boil below that point. In other word
  • Conversion 
    In the plastics industry, conversion is the processing of raw materials into usable forms, e.g. the conversion of plastic pellets into films or the conversion of films into food containers. The steps involved include compounding (the mixing together of va
  • Convulsant 
    A material which causes seizures. 
  • COP 
    Custom of the Port 
  • Copper-Bottomed 
    Copper-bottomed described ships that were fitted with copper plating on the underside of their hulls. The process was first used on ships of the British Navy in 1761 to defend their wooden planking against attack by Shipworms and to reduce infestations by
  • Copra 
    The fruit of the tree ""Cocos Nucifera"" is the well known coconut. The white meat of the coconut, when removed and dried to between 4% to 7% moisture, is called copra. Drying may be either by sun drying where the moisture is allowed to evaporate naturall
  • Corn Oil 
    Corn oil is obtained from the germ of the corn (or maize) cob, the germ being separated as a byproduct from the manufacture of starch from corn. The corn oil is extracted from the germ and, after refining, it has a number of uses such as frying and as a g
  • Corner Posts 
    Vertical frame components fitted at the corners of the container, integral to the corner fittings and connecting the roof and floor structures. Containers are lifted and secured in a stack using the castings at the ends. 
  • Correspondent Bank 
    A bank that, in its own country, handles the business of a foreign bank. 
  • Corrosion 
    Physiochemical interaction between a metal and its environment that results in changes in the properties of the metal and which may lead to significant impairment of the function of the metal, the environment or technical system, of which these form a par
  • Corrosion fatigue 
    Process involving conjoint corrosion and alternating straining of the metal, often leading to cracking 
  • corrosive environment 
    Environment that contains one or more corrosive agents 
  • Corvette 
    A combat vessel smaller than a destroyer, often armed for antisubmarine operations 
  • Cost, Insurance and Freight (CIF) 
    Cost of goods, marine insurance and all transportation (freight) charges are paid to the foreign point of delivery by the seller. 
    European Federation of Tanneries and Leather Care in Europe 
  • COTP 
    Captain Of The Port (Coast Guard) 
  • Cottonseed Oil 
    Records show that cotton has been grown for nearly 3,000 years as a source of fibre to be spun and woven into textiles. The seed is a by-product which yields 20-24% of useful food oil. 
  • Countervailing Duty 
    An additional duty imposed to offset export grants, bounties or subsidies paid to foreign suppliers in certain countries by the government of that country for the purpose of promoting export. 
  • Couple 
    Ship Stability: A moment created by two equla forces exerted in opposite directions and along parallel lines. In transverse stability a couple is created by the forces of G and B acting parallel to each other in opposite direction 
  • Covered Bulk Cargo Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled covered barge for the carriage of bulk cargoes 
  • COW 
    Crude Oil Washing: The operation carried out on crude oil ships as a statutory requirement under Marpol 73/78 to reduce the quantity of residual oil left in cargo tanks that will or might contain ballast. The operation is also employed to maximise the o 
  • COW 
    Crude oil wash. A cleaning technique used by some ships. They spray a few tons of crude around their tanks to rinse off the remains of previous cargoes. This method cannot make a dirty vessel clean. But it can do enough good to prevent excessive darkening
  • CP or C/P 
    Charter Party 
  • CPD 
    Charterers Pay Dues 
  • CPMA 
    Chemicals and Petrochemicals Manufacturers Association (India) 
  • CPT 
    Carriage Paid To (named place of destination) The seller pays for carriage. Risk transfers to buyer upon handing goods over to the first carrier.  Incoterms 2010
  • CPT (Carriage Paid To) (...Named Place of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale which means the seller pays the freight for the carriage of the goods to the named destination. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time the goods have been delivered
  • CQD 
    Customary Quick Despatch 
  • Cracked 
    Broken by a thermal or catalytic process. This term frequently describes an oil product which contains cracked components made by such a process. 
  • Cracked component 
    An ingredient in a hydrocarbon blend produced by a cracking process. The opposite of a virgin or straight-run component. Blends containing any cracked components do not qualify as straight-run. The presence of cracked components makes refinery streams uns
  • Cracked cutters 
    Cycle oils used to reduce the sulfur content or, especially, the viscosity of fuel oil. 
  • Cracked fuel 
    Fuel oil containing molecules broken in a cracking unit. The term most frequently applies to residue. It distinguishes streams unsuitable for upgrading from straight-run material of interest as feedstock. 
  • Cracked naphtha 
    General term for any naphtha-range fraction produced by a molecule breaking process. The category includes cat gasoline from a catalytic cracker, visbroken naphtha from a visbreaker, and coker naphtha from a coking unit. In ordinary usage, this term signi
  • Cracked Stock 
    see CRACKED COMPONENT. Cracking units produce cracked stocks such as cycle oils and cat naphthas used for blending finished products. 
  • Cracker 
    A processing unit which breaks molecular bonds, usually to produce lighter hydrocarbons with lower boiling points. Commercial crackers (cracking units) include cat crackers, hydrocrackers, thermal crackers, visbreakers, and stream crackers. 
  • Cracking 
    The process of breaking down large molecules of oil into smaller ones. When this process is achieved by the application of heat only, it is known as thermal cracking. If a catalyst is used as well it is known as catalytic cracking. It is known as hydrocra
  • Cracking-Cracker 
    The process of breaking down large molecules of oil into smaller ones. When this process is achieved by the application of heat only, it is known as thermal cracking. If a catalyst is used as well it is known as catalytic cracking. Cracking causes molecul
  • Crane Platform, jack up 
    A jack up offshore crane platform 
  • Crane Platform, semi submersible 
    A semi submersible offshore crane platform 
  • Crane Pontoon 
    A pontoon with a jib crane 
  • Crane Ship 
    A vessel equipped with a large crane for lifting operations 
  • Crane Vessel, Naval Auxiliary 
    A naval auxiliary vessel constructed or adapted for crane operations, with limited cargo capability 
  • CRD 
    Current rate discharge 
  • Crevice corrosion 
    Localized corrosion associated with, and taking place in, or immediately around, a narrow aperture or clearance formed between the metal surface and another surface (metallic or non-metallic) 
  • Crew 
    The body of people manning a ship, excluding the master, officers and any passengers. 
  • Crew Boat 
    A vessel equipped for the transportation of crew to ships and/or installations 
  • Crew/Supply Vessel 
    A typically high speed vessel primarily for the transportation of crew to offshore facilities; may also have limited stores carriage capability on an open deck 
  • Cross Member 
    Transverse members fitted to the bottom side rails of a container, which support the floor. 
  • Crude Oil 
    Oil or condensates that have not undergone any refining processes. 
  • Crude Oil Tank Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled tank barge for the carriage of crude oil 
  • Crude Oil Tanker 
    A tanker built to comply with Annex 1 of Marpol 73/78 for the carriage of oil and conforming to the requirements for the carriage of crude oil. 
  • Crude Vegetable Oil 
    Extracted vegetable oils which have had no further processing or refining except possibly that of being degummed or filtered, settled or both. 
  • Crude/Oil Products Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of crude oil but also for carriage of refined oil products 
  • Cruise Ship, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel used for leisure cruising on rivers/lakes/canals, not suitable for open sea voyages. 
  • Cruiser 
    A combat vessel of medium tonnage with a long cruising radius and less armor and firepower than a battleship 
  • Cryogenic liquid 
    A refrigerated, liquefied gas that has a boiling point colder than -90°C (-130°F) at atmospheric pressure. 
  • Crystallization  
    A substance can exist in three states, namely gaseous, liquid and solid states. When a liquid is cooled sufficiently, it solidifies and the process is called crystallisation. Crystallisation is the formation of crystals from a melt or a solution. The proc
  • CSD 
    Closed shelter deck 
  • CSH 
    Cargo ship 
  • CT 
    Chemical Tanker or Cargo Tank or Center Tank 
  • Cube Out 
    When a container or vessel has reached its volumetric capacity before its permitted weight limit. 
  • Cubic Foot 
    1,728 cubic inches. A volume contained in a space measuring one foot high, one foot wide and one foot long. 
  • Cumene 
    Cumene is an aromatic derived from benzene and used in turn to produce polycarbonates, phenolic resins and essential healthcare products such as aspirin and penicillin. 
  • Curing 
    The chemical reaction that takes place after the mixing of 2 component paints which results in a chemically resistant film 
  • Customhouse 
    A government office where duties are paid, import documents filed, etc., on foreign shipments. 
  • Customhouse Broker 
    A person or firm, licensed by the treasury department of their country when required, engaged in entering and clearing goods through Customs for a client (importer). 
  • Customs 
    Government agency charged with enforcing the rules passed to protect the country’s import and ex- port revenues. 
  • Customs Bonded Warehouse 
    A warehouse authorized by Customs to receive duty–free merchandise. 
  • Customs Entry 
    All countries require that the importer make a declaration on incoming foreign goods. The importer then normally pays a duty on the imported merchandise. The importer’s statement is compared against the carrier’s vessel manifest to ensure that all foreign
  • Customs Invoice 
    A form requiring all data in a commercial invoice along with a certificate of value and/or a certificate of origin. Required in a few countries (usually former British territories) and usually serves as a seller’s commercial invoice. 
  • Customs of the Port (COP) 
    A phrase often included in charter parties and freight contracts referring to local rules and practices which may impact upon the costs borne by the various parties. 
  • Customs–Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C–TPAT) 
    It is a voluntary supply chain security program, launched in November 2001 and led by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) which focuses on improving the security of private companies’ supply chains with respect to terrorism. In exchange for companies
  • Cut 
    To divide a hydrocarbon mixture into fractions by distillation. Also a name for the fractions obtained, as in kerosene cut or naphtha cut. 
  • Cut and Run 
    Most often thought to mean the cutting of an anchor line in an effort to make a quick getaway. Hard to imagine that many ship’s masters enjoyed routinely losing an anchor or two, so it is probably more likely referring to the practice of securing the sail
  • Cut of his Jib 
    Warships many times had their foresails or jib sails cut thinly so that they could maintain point and not be blown off course. Upon sighting thin foresails on a distant ship a captain might not like the cut of his jib and would then have an opportunity to
  • Cut–Off Time 
    The latest time cargo may be delivered to a terminal for loading to a scheduled train or ship. 
  • Cutaneous Hazards 
    Chemicals which affect the skin. Signs and symptoms are defatting the skin, rashes, irritation 
  • Cutter (cutter stock) 
    A refinery stream used to thin a fuel oil or gasoil. Viscosity reduction and sulfur level adjustment provide most of the requirement for the cutter. 
  • Cutter stock 
    Diluent material used for tank washing, acting as a solvent or viscosity reducer to enable better recovery or ROB. 
  • Cutter Suction Dredger 
    A vessel equipped to obtain material from the sea bed by use of a cutter wheel, which loosens the material, and a suction pipe. The material may be carried on board, transferred to other vessels, pumped ashore or deposited elsewhere using a spray 
  • Cwt 
    Hundred weight 
  • Cycle oil 
    Cat cracking unit produced in the fuel oil or gasoil boiling range. The term light cycle oil generally describes products of this kind suitable for blending into diesel or home heating oil. Heavy cycle oil, accordingly, refers to the cat cracked material
  • Cyclohexane 
    Cyclohexane is an aromatic derived from benzene used as an intermediate to produce nylon. 
  • D or DPT 
  • D&H 
    Dangerous and Hazardous (cargo) 
  • D/P 
    Discharging Port, Documents against payment 
  • NULL
    On the Ship – Owner's instruction the agent in charge of the ship will have to pay, at the expense of the ship, all established duties and dues of the port as well as cover bills for work and services done on the master's demand. On the basis of the bills
  • DAA 
    Discharge always afloat 
  • DAF 
    Previous terms eliminated from Incoterms 2000 DAF – Delivered At Frontier (named place of delivery) This term can be used when the goods are transported by rail and road. The seller pays for transportation to the named place of delivery at the frontier. T
  • DAF (Delivered At Frontier) (...Named Place) 
    A Term of Sale which means the sell- ers fulfill their obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available, cleared for export, at the named point and placed at the frontier, but before the customs Terms of Sale border of the adjoining country. 
  • Damages for Detention 
    Penalty if cargo is not ready when 
  • DAP 
    Diamonium Phosphate 
  • DAP 
    Delivered at Place (named place of destination) Seller pays for carriage to the named place, except for costs related to import clearance, and assumes all risks prior to the point that the goods are ready for unloading by the buyer. Incoterms 2010 
  • DAP or DAPS 
    Days all Purposes (Total days for loading & discharging) 
  • DAT 
    Delivered at Terminal (named terminal at port or place of destination) Seller pays for carriage to the terminal, except for costs related to import clearance, and assumes all risks up to the point that the goods are unloaded at the terminal. Incoterms 201
  • Day 
    DAY shall mean a period of twenty-four (24) consecutive hours. Any part of a Day shall be counted pro-rata. 
  • DBE 
    Despatch payable both ends 
    Despatch (payable) both ends, all time saved 
    Despatch (payable) both ends, working time saved 
  • DC 
    Discharge Capacity 
  • DD 
    Dry Dock or Daily Discharge 
  • DDC 
    Destination Delivery Charge: A charge, based on container size, that is applied in many tariffs to cargo. This charge is considered accessorial and is added to the base ocean freight. This charge covers crane lifts off the vessel, drayage of the container
  • DDC 
    Deck Decompression Chamber 
  • DDO 
    Despatch discharging only 
  • DDP 
    Delivered Duty Paid (named place of destination) Seller is responsible for delivering the goods to the named place in the country of the buyer, and pays all costs in bringing the goods to the destination including import duties and taxes. This term places
  • DDP (Delivered Duty paid) (...Named Port of Destination) 
    “Delivered Duty Paid” means that the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been made avail- able at the named place in the country of importation. The seller has to bear the risks and costs, including duties, taxes and other charge
  • DDU 
    Previous terms eliminated from Incoterms 2000 Delivered Duty Unpaid (named place of destination) This term means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer to the named place of destination in the contract of sale. The goods are not cleared for impor
  • DDU (Delivered Duty Unpaid) (...Named Port of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale where the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available at the named place in the country of importation. The seller has to bear the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods thereto (excluding dutie
  • De-Slopping 
    Whereby a vessel discharges a quantity of slops to a dedicated slop receiving vessel within Port Limits or at a safe anchorage. 
  • De-Storing Operations 
    Whereby a vessel lands a quantity of items for the purpose of repair or storage ashore, or crew effects for personnel assigned to the vessel. 
  • DEA 
    Diethanolamine. See ethanolamine 
  • Deadhead 
    One leg of a move without a paying cargo load.Usually refers to repositioning an empty piece of equipment 
  • Deadweight Cargo 
    A long ton of cargo that can be stowed in less than 40 cubic feet. 
  • Deadweight tonnage (DWT) 
    The standard measure of ships' carrying capacity. The trade usually abbreviates this term to speak simply of tankers "deadweight." This specification reports total weight, usually in long tons, of fresh water, stores, bunkers, and cargo a vessel can carry
  • Debottlenecking 
    Increasing production capacity of existing facilities through the modification of existing equipment to remove throughput restrictions. Debottlenecking generally increases capacity for a fraction of the cost of building new facilities. 
  • Deck Barge 
    Deck barges are flat barges that are able to transport unusually bulky cargoes. 
  • Deck Cargo Pontoon, non propelled 
    A non propelled pontoon for the carriage of general deck cargoes 
  • Deck Cargo Pontoon, semi submersible 
    A non propelled semi submersible pontoon for the carriage of general deck cargoes 
  • Deck Cargo Ship 
    A vessel arranged for carrying unitised cargo on deck only. Access may be by use of a ro-ro ramp 
  • Deck Officer 
    Officer responsible for the safe navigation of a ship, as well as communications and safe loading, carriage and discharging of cargo and ship stability. 
  • Decomposition products 
    Products of a chemical or thermal break-down of a substance. 
  • Deconsolidation Point 
    Place where loose or other non–containerized cargo is ungrouped for delivery. 
  • Decontamination 
    The removal of dangerous goods from personnel and equipment to the extent necessary to prevent potential adverse health effects. Always avoid direct or indirect contact with dangerous goods; however, if contact occurs, personnel should be decontaminated a
  • Deep Draft 
    The "deep draft" of a vessel is measured from the surface of the water to the deepest part of the hull below the surface. 
  • Defatting 
    The removal of natural oils from the skin by a fat-dissolving solvent 
  • Deficit Weight 
    The weight by which a shipment is less than the minimum weight. 
  • DEG 
    Diethylene Glycol 
  • Degaussing Vessel 
    A naval vessel that can neutralise the magnetic field of a vessel. Used in magnetic mine detection 
  • DEGBE 
    Diethylene Glycol Butyl Ether 
    Diethylene Glycol Butyl Ether Acetate 
    Diethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether 
    Diethylene Blycol Monomethyl Ether 
  • Degummed Oil 
    The product resulting from washing crude vegetable oil with water and/or steam for a specified period of time and then centrifuging the oil-and-water mixture to remove the phosphatides etc. The US Bureau of the Census requires crushers degumming crude soy
  • Degumming 
    All fats and oils contain small quantities of various non-glyceride entities. Included in this group are complex organo-phosphorus compounds referred to as phosphatides or more usually as gums. They are removed during processing by a variety of treatments
  • Dehydrogenation 
    An organic chemical reaction in which a pair of hydrogen atoms are removed from a molecule. 
  • Delayed coker 
    A coking unit (coker) which provides a drum where heated molecules crack and coke forms. 
  • Delayed lung injury 
    A condition in which there is a delay (usually hours or a few days) between acute exposure to a chemical and the subsequent development of lung injury. 
  • Delivery Instructions 
    Order to pick up goods at a named place and deliver them to a pier. Usually issued by exporter to trucker but may apply to a railroad, which completes delivery by land. Use is limited to a few major U.S. ports. Also known as shipping delivery order. 
    Demurrage and dispatch 
    Demurrage/Despatch money. (Under vessel chartering terms, the amount to be paid if the ship is loading/discharging slower/faster than foreseen.) 
  • Demurrage 
    The cost of delaying a ship. Busy channels, occupied berths, commercial considerations, lack of shore tankage, pumping limitations, and a host of other eventualities related to how or where a charterer uses a vessel can prevent it from loading or unloadin
  • Demurrage 
    (Quay Rent). Money paid by the shipper for the occupying port space beyond a specified _Free Time period. 
  • Density 
    The mass of a substance per unit volume. The density of a substance is usually compared to water, which has a density of 1. Substances which float on water have densities less than 1; substances which sink have densities greater than 1 
  • Density 
    A descripton of oil by some measurement of its volume to weight ratio. The industry usually relies on two expressions of oil's volume-weight relationship-specific gravity and API degrees. The larger a specific gravity number and the smaller an API number,
  • Density (liter weight in air) 
    Density is the mass of a unit volume of a substance. The density of an oil or fat is usually measured by determining its specific gravity. 
  • Density / Specific Gravity 
    Tank cleaning: Is the ratio of the mass of a volume of a product to the mass of an equal volume of freshwater (1.0). For a product with limited or no solubility in water the specific gravity indicates whether the product will float on water or sink. 
  • Deodorization 
    Deodorisation is the removal of those trace components, present in all edible oils, which give rise to odours and flavours. Accomplished by the application of heat, steam and vacuum, deodorisation should be the final stage of treatment before packing or d
  • Depot, Container 
    Container freight station or a designated area where empty containers can be picked up or dropped off. 
  • Depth 
    The depth to which a ship is immersed in water. 
  • DEQ 
    Previous terms eliminated from Incoterms 2000 DEQ – Delivered Ex Quay (named port of delivery) This is similar to DES, but the passing of risk does not occur until the goods have been unloaded at the port of destination. 
  • DEQ (Delivered Ex Quay, [Duty Paid]) (...Named Port of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale which means the DDU term has been fulfilled when the goods have been available to the buyer on the quay (wharf) at the named port of destination, cleared for importa- tion. The seller has to bear all risks and costs including duties, taxes
  • Dermatitis 
    An inflammation of the skin 
  • DES 
  • DES 
    Previous terms eliminated from Incoterms 2000 DES – Delivered Ex Ship (named port of delivery) Where goods are delivered ex ship, the passing of risk does not occur until the ship has arrived at the named port of destination and the goods made available f
  • DES (Delivered Ex Ship) (...Named Port of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale where the seller fulfills his/her obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available to the buyer on board the ship, uncleared for import at the named port of destination. The seller has to bear all the costs and risks involved i
  • Desalination Pontoon, non propelled 
    A non propelled pontoon for the provision of desalination facilities 
  • Design Draft 
    The design draft of a vessel is the maximum draft a vessel could potentially reach fully loaded whereas the operating draft is the typical draft that is employed since it is rare that vessels will sail at their maximum design draft. 
  • DESP 
  • Despatch on all time saved 
    DESPATCH ON ALL TIME SAVED shall mean that Despatch Money shall be payable for the time from the completion of loading or discharging to the expiry of the Laytime including periods excepted from the Laytime. 
  • Despatch on all workding time saved or Despatch on all time saved 
    DESPATCH ON ALL WORKING TIME SAVED or ON ALL LAYTIME SAVED shall mean that Despatch Money shall be payable for the time from the completion of loading or discharging until the expiry of the Laytime excluding any periods excepted from the Laytime. 
  • Despatch or Despatch Money 
    DESPATCH MONEY or DESPATCH shall mean an agreed amount payable by the owner if the Vessel completes loading or discharging before the Laytime has expired. 
  • Destination 
    – The place to which a shipment is consigned. – The place where carrier actually turns over cargo to consignee or his agent. 
  • Destination Control Statements 
    Various statements that the U.S. government requires to be displayed on export shipments. The statements specify the authorized destinations. 
  • Destroyer 
    A combat vessel, which is small, fast, highly manoeuverable. Armed with guns, torpedoes, depth charges, and guided missiles 
  • Det Norske Veritas 
    A Norwegian classification society which certifies seagoing vessels for compliance to standardized rules regarding construction and maintenance. 
  • DETA 
    Diethylenetriamine. See ethyleneamines 
  • Detention 
    A penalty charge against shippers or consignees for delaying carrier’s equipment beyond allowed time. Demurrage applies to cargo; detention applies to equipment. See Per Diem. 
  • Detergent 
    In simple terms a detergent is an aid to separation whether it be the separation of soil from a piece of cloth or the separation of olein from stearin in a fractionation plant. Alternatively classified as surface active agents, they work by lowering surfa
  • Deterioration 
    Chemically, oils and fats are quite stable, neutral substances. However, during storage and transport two types of deterioration can occur - a. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen. This reaction is accelerated by high temperature, strong light and the presenc
  • Devanning 
    The unloading of a container or cargo van. 
  • Developmental toxicity 
    Capable of causing abnormalities in the implantation of the developing conceptus and/or causing structural or injury to the foetus. 
  • DF 
    Dead Freight or Direction Finder 
  • DF Car 
    Damage–Free Car. Boxcars equipped with special bracing material. 
  • DFD 
    Demurrage, free dispatch 
  • DFDE propulsion 
    DFDE propulsion is a relatively new technology for LNG carriers. Utilising electrical generators to drive the propeller, DFDE vessels are more fuel efficient and have lower carbon emissions compared to the conventional steam propelled vessels. The DFDE pr
  • DFT or DRFT 
    Draft (also spelt, draught) 
  • DH 
    Double hull 
  • DHD 
    Demurrage, half dispatch; Despatch money payable at half demurrage rate 
    Dispatch Half Demurrage on All Time Saved Both Ends 
    Demurrage Half Dispatch on All Time Saved Both Ends 
    Demurrage Half Dispatch on Laytime Saved Both Ends 
    Dispatch Half Demurrage on Working Time Saved Both Ends 
    Demurrage Half Dispatch on Working TIme Saved Both Ends 
  • Dibasic Acids 
    Refers to acids with two carboxyl groups, of which the most common have the general structure HOOC(CH2)nCOOH. They include (value of n in parenthesis): oxalic* (0), malonic* (1), succinic* (2), glutaric* (3), adipic* (4), suberic* (6), azelaic (7), sebaci
  • Diethylene glycol 
    Diethylene glycol is a colorless liquid used as a solvent and in the manufacture of unsaturated polyester resins, polyurethanes and plasticizers. 
  • Diethylene glycol ether acetates 
    Glycol ethers are manufactured from either propylene oxide or ethylene oxide reacted with an alcohol. Glycol ethers and glycol ethers acetates are both hydrophilic (soluble in water) and lipophilic (soluble in oils). They are excellent co-solvents, enabli
  • Diethylene glycol ethers 
    Glycol ethers are manufactured from either propylene oxide or ethylene oxide reacted with an alcohol. Glycol ethers and glycol ethers acetates are both hydrophilic (soluble in water) and lipophilic (soluble in oils). They are excellent co-solvents, enabli
  • Differential 
    An amount added or deducted from base rate to make a rate to or from some other point or via an- other route. 
  • Digylceride 
    The ester resulting from the chemical combination of glycerol and two fatty acids. 
  • Dilation/Dilatometry 
    When an oil or fat is heated it expands and the expansion is called dilation. Dilation is the change in volume with varying temperature. The technique of observation is termed dilatometry. From the dilation observed on warming a solidified fat to a define
  • Dipropylene glycol 
    One member of the propylene glycols family, the most important of which is monopropylene glycol. Dipropylene glycol is used primarily as an industrial intermediate, but is also used as a substance in consumer products, and as an ingredient in pesticidal f
  • Dipropylene glycol ether acetate 
    Glycol ethers are manufactured from either propylene oxide or ethylene oxide reacted with an alcohol. Glycol ethers and glycol ethers acetates are both hydrophilic (soluble in water) and lipophilic (soluble in oils). They are excellent co-solvents, enabli
  • Dipropylene glycol ethers 
    Glycol ethers are manufactured from either propylene oxide or ethylene oxide reacted with an alcohol. Glycol ethers and glycol ethers acetates are both hydrophilic (soluble in water) and lipophilic (soluble in oils). They are excellent co-solvents, enabli
  • DirectENC 
    DirectENC or dENC is a chart format which is specific to ECDIS or ECS systems that use the SevenCs EC2007 ECDIS Kernel AND that have been enabled by their manufacturer for SENC data. 
  • DIS 
    Danish International Ship Register 
  • Disbursements 
    Expenses incurred in a port against the general expenses of the vessel these include wages , loading and /or discharging bunkers, water, provisions, customs clearance, port and quay dues, pilotage, tugs and other pertinent costs. 
  • DISCH 
  • Discrepancy Letter of Credit 
    When documents presented do not conform to the requirements of the letter of credit (L/C), it is referred to as a “discrepancy.” Banks will not process L/C’s which have discrepancies. They will refer the situation back to the buyer and/or seller and await
  • Dispatch 
    See Despatch. 
  • Displacement 
    The weight, in tons of 2,240 pounds, of the vessel and its contents. Calculated by dividing the volume of water displaced in cubic feet by 35, the average density of sea water. 
  • Disponent Owner 
    Company that control the commercial operation of a vessel under a bareboat or Time charter party. The person who by reason of a contract or charter party assumes responsibility for a vessel as if he were the owner. 
    Discharge port 
  • Distillate 
    The liquid obtained through distillation. 
  • Distillation 
    Process in oil refining where heat is used to separate the various components of crude oil. Because each component has a different boiling point, gradual heating allows them to be separated through evaporation and collection of the vapors. 
  • Distillation curve 
    The boiling temperature distribution of a material's component molecules. Tests report this characteristic as temperature at which various percentages of a sample have boiled or as the percentages which have boiled at various temperatures. 
  • Distillation unit 
    separation equipment that heats a mixture and divides its ingredients according to the temperature where they boil. 
  • Distiller 
    see DISTILLATION UNIT. A term most often used as shorthand for "crude oil distillation unit." 
  • Distributors 
    Inland wholesalers. 
  • Diversion 
    A change made either in the route of a shipment in transit (see Reconsignment) or of the entire ship. 
  • Diving Support Vessel 
    A vessel primarily equipped with decompression chambers for air dive operation. Does not include vessels which can only operate submersibles 
  • Diving Vessel, Naval Auxiliary 
    A naval auxiliary vessel designed and fitted with equipment to support diver operations. May have cranes for construction/maintenance work. 
  • Division 
    Carriers’ practice of dividing revenue received from rates where joint hauls are involved. This is usually according to agreed formulae. 
    Discountless and Non-Returnable Cargo and/or Ship Lost or Not Lost. (ie for the payment of voyage freight in the charter party) 
    Discountless and Non-Returnable Ship and/or Cargo Lost or Not Lost 
  • Dock 
    – For ships, a cargo handling area parallel to the shoreline where a vessel normally ties up. – For land transportation, a loading or unloading platform at an industrial location or carrier terminal. 
  • Dock Receipt 
    A form used to acknowledge receipt of cargo and often serves as basis for preparation of the ocean bill of lading. 
  • Dockage 
    Refers to the charge assessed against the vessel for berthing at the facility or for morring to a vessel so berthed. 
  • Doctor test 
    An indicator to detect the presence of significant amounts of mercaptan sulfur in light hydrocarbon mixture. Materials passing this test carry the designation, "Doctor negative." Doctor negative stocks have sufficiently low mercaptan levels for use in mot
  • Documents Against Acceptance (D/A) 
    Instructions given by a shipper to a bank indicating that documents transferring title to goods should be delivered to the buyer only upon the buyer’s acceptance of the attached draft. 
  • Documents Against Payment (D/P) 
    An indication on a draft that the documents attached are to be released to the drawee only on pay- ment. 
  • DOHP 
    Dropping outward harbor pilot 
  • Dolly 
    A set of wheels that support the front of a container; used when the automotive unit is disconnected. 
  • Door–to–Door 
    Through transportation of a container and its contents from consignor to consignee. Also known as House to House. Not necessarily a through rate. 
  • Double bond 
    The chemical bond between two carbon atoms can involve one, two or three pairs of electrons, producing a single (C-C), double (C=C) or triple (C≡C) bond. While the extra pairs of electrons give the bond more energy they also make it more chemically reacti
  • Downstream 
    A relative term, which indicates greater removal from origins than some point of reference. For example, a petrochemical plant which cracks naphtha lies downstream from a refinery. Money made by marketing products constitutes downstream profits compared t
  • DP 
    Dynamic Positioning - DP allows a vessel to remain in the same location, even in harsh weather, through the combined use of rudders, thrusters, propellers, a position reference system and a computer. 
  • DPA 
    Designated person ashore (ISM) 
  • DPD 
    Discharge port disbursements 
  • DPGEE 
    Dipropylene Glycol Ethyl Ether 
  • DPGME 
    Dipropylene Glycol Methyl Ether 
  • Draft 
    The distance between a ship's keel and waterline. The lowest part of a vessel lies this far below the surface of the water. Every ship's draft changes with the amount of cargo aboard it, its trim and the temperature and salt content of the water in which
  • DRAFT 
    Depth to which a ship is immersed in water. The depth varies according to the design of the ship and will be greater or lesser depending not only on the weight of the ship and everything on board, but also on the density of the water in which the ship is
  • Draft or Draught 
    The draft (or draught) of a vessel is one of the most common pieces of information used in Corps navigation studies and can be defined as the distance between the waterline and the bottom of the ship’s hull (keel) (see Figure A-1). In other words, it is t
    Depth of water from waterline to lowest point of vessel's hull 
  • Draft, Bank 
    An order issued by a seller against a purchaser; directs payment, usually through an intermediary bank. Typical bank drafts are negotiable instruments and are similar in many ways to checks on checking accounts in a bank. 
  • Draft, Clean 
    A draft to which no documents are attached. 
  • Draft, Date 
    A draft that matures on a fixed date, regardless of the time of acceptance. 
  • Draft, Discounted 
    A time draft under a letter of credit that has been accepted and purchased by a bank at a discount. 
  • Draft, Sight 
    A draft payable on demand upon presentation. 
  • Draft, Time 
    A draft that matures at a fixed or determinable time after presentation or acceptance. 
  • DRATE 
    Discharge rate 
  • Drawback 
    A partial refund of an import fee. Refund usually results because goods are re–exported from the country that collected the fee. 
  • Drawee 
    The individual or firm that issues a draft and thus stands to receive payment. 
  • Drayage 
    Charge made for local hauling by dray or truck. Same as Cartage. 
  • Dredger (unspecified) 
    A vessel equipped to obtain material from the sea bed by an unspecified means. The material may be carried on board, transferred to other vessels, pumped ashore or deposited elsewhere using a spray 
  • Dredging Pontoon, unknown dredging type 
    A non propelled pontoon with an unknown dredging mechanism 
  • Dressing Down 
    Thin and worn sails were often treated with oil or wax to renew their effectiveness. This was called "dressing down". An officer or sailor who was reprimanded or scolded received a dressing down. 
  • DRFS 
    Destination Rail Freight Station. Same as CFS at destination, except a DRFS is operated by the rail carrier participating in the shipment. 
  • Drilling 
    Process of boring a hole into the earth to remove oil and gas. 
  • Drilling Rig, jack up 
    A jack up offshore drilling rig 
  • Drilling Rig, semi submersible 
    A semi submersible offshore drilling rig. 
  • Drilling Ship 
    A vessel primarily equipped for offshore drilling operations. May also be able to obtain cores for research purposes 
  • DRK 
    Derrick Materials of various types, often timber or matting, placed among the cargo for separation, and hence 
  • Drop Point 
    The drop point is an analysis related to the melting point of oils and fats. The sample is solidified in a small cup with a hole. As the cup is warmed and as the fat starts to melt a drop is formed. The drop point is the temperature at which the drop fall
  • DRX 
    Hellenic Drachma (currency) 
  • Dry Cargo 
    Cargo that is not liquid and normally does not require temperature control. 
  • Dry Cargo Barge 
    Dry cargo barges, or hopper barges, transport solid cargo commodities like grain, coal, sugar, sand, gravel, etc. Depending on the cargo, dry cargo barges may be open or covered. For example, sugar would likely be transported in a covered hopper barge, wh
  • Dry chemical 
    A preparation designed for fighting fires involving flammable liquids, pyrophoric substances and electrical equipment. Common types contain sodium bicarbonate or potassium bicarbonate. 
  • Dry–Bulk Container 
    A container constructed to carry grain, powder and other free–flowing solids in bulk. Used in conjunction with a tilt chassis or platform. 
  • Drydock 
    Dock area that is drained of water so a ship can be repaired or serviced below the waterline. Ships are also built in drydocks. 
  • Drying Oils 
    Oils that have the ability to polymerize or "dry" by oxidation after they have been applied to a surface to form tough, adherent, impervious and abrasive resistant film. Their film forming properties are closely related to their degree of unsaturation. Ty
  • DSL 
    Direct Shuttle Loading - Use of two submerged turret loading systems for direct loading of oil, eliminating the need for a storage vessel. 
  • DSRK 
    Deutche-Schiffs-Revision Und-Klassifkation 
  • DSU 
    Delay in Startup Insurance is a policy to protect the seller of a construction project from penalties if the project is not completed on time. See “Liquidated Damages.” 
  • Dumping 
    Attempting to import merchandise into a country at a price less than the fair market value, usually through subsidy by exporting country. 
  • Dunnage 
    Protection from damage, for ventilation and, in the case of certain cargoes, to provide space in which the types of a fork lift truck may be inserted. 
  • Dutch Courage 
    Dates to the 1600s Anglo-Dutch wars and was likely British propaganda claiming that the Dutch troops were so cowardly they wouldn’t fight unless fortified with copious amounts of schnapps. The term has come to mean false courage induced by drink, or the d
  • Dutiable Value 
    The amount on which an Ad Valorem or customs duty is calculated. 
  • DWAT (or DWT) 
    Deadweight. Weight of cargo, stores and water, i.e. the difference between lightship and loaded displacement 
  • DWAT or DWT 
    DeadWeight All Told or DeadWeight Tonnage of a vessel. Weight of cargo, stores and water, i.e. the difference between lightship and loaded displacement 
  • DWCC 
    Deadweight cargo capacity 
  • DWCT 
    Deadweight cargo tons 
  • DWOC 
    Decline without counter 
  • DWT 
    Deadweight Tonnage-the carrying capacity of a vessel in tons (most references now show metric tons). It is the difference between the light and loaded displacement (weight of the ship itself vs. ship plus cargo, fuel, stores and water). 
  • E&P 
    Exploration and Production function of the Shell Group 
  • e.o.h.p. 
    Except otherwise herein provided 
  • EA 
    Ethyl alcohol = ethanol 
  • EBAM 
    European Basic Acrylic Monomer Group, a sector group of the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • EBIS 
    EBIS, the European Barge Inspection Scheme: Started operations on 1st July 1998. The Scheme has been developed by oil and chemical companies as part of their commitment to improving the safety of tanker barging operations within Europe. The main aim of E 
  • EBK 
    Ethyl Butyl Ketone, solvent 
  • EC50 
    Effective concentration 50%: The concentration of a material which produces 50% response in the defined end-point. The EC50 should be cited for a specific exposure period.  
  • ECD 
    Electronic Chart Display 
  • ECDIC 
    Electronic Chart Display and Information System 
  • ECDIS 
    Electronic Chart Display and Information System - An ECDIS is a ship borne electronic navigational device designed to display digital nautical charts that is tested and type-approved to international standards and may be used, in conjunction with appropri
  • ECG 
    Existing Chemicals Group 
  • ECH 
  • ECMC 
    The U.S. Exporters Competitive Maritime Council. An association primarily of U.S. engineering, procurement and construction companies and their freight forwarders that was formed jointly by the Maritime Administration in 1997 to seek solutions to transpor
  • ECNA 
    East Coast of North America 
  • ECS 
    Electronic Chart System 
  • ECS 
    Electronic Chart System - An ECS is any ship borne electronic navigational device that is designed to display digital nautical charts but is not tested and type-approved as an ECDIS. An ECS may be used as an aide to navigation by a SOLAS vessels but canno
  • ECSA 
    East Coast of South America 
  • Edema 
    The accumulation of an excessive amount of watery fluid in cells and tissues. Pulmonary edema is an excessive buildup of water in the lungs, for instance, after inhalation of a gas that is corrosive to lung tissue. 
  • Edge Protector 
    An angle piece fitted over the edge of boxes, crates, bundles and other packages to prevent the pressure from metal bands or other types from cutting into the package. 
  • EDI 
    Electronic data interchange 
  • Edible Oil Tanker 
    A cargo ship designed for the bulk transport of Edible Oils in tanks. Tanks will be stainless steel or lined. New vessels will be classified as chemical carriers 
  • Edible Oil Tanker, Inland Waterways 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of edible oils which is not suitable for trading in open waters. New vessels will be classified as chemical tankers as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code 
    International data interchange standards sponsored by the United Nations. See UN/EDIFACT. 
  • EDTA 
    Ethylenediamine Tetraacetic Acid. See Ethyleneamines 
  • EEPC 
    European Ethylene Producers Committee (a sub-group of LOSG). For more information, click here. 
  • Effluent carrier 
    A vessel equipped for the transportation of effluents. Discharge at sea is now illegal 
  • EFOA 
    European Fuel Oxygenates Association, a sector group of the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). 
  • EFPIA 
    European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations 
  • EG 
    Ethylene Glycol. Generic term for a family of ethylene glycols, the most important of which is monoethylene glycol.  
  • EGBE 
    Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether 
  • EGBEA 
    Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether Acetate 
  • EGC 
    Code for Existing Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk 
  • EGC 
    Enhanced Group Calling 
  • EGMBE 
    Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether 
    European IPPC Bureau (See Best Available Techniques) 
  • EIUBE 
    Even if used both ends 
  • Elastomer 
    A polymer that forms a disorganized molecular pile capable of uncoiling and recoiling in response to physical force and its removal. This ability to yield and recover makes a substance rubbery. Industry turns molecules into flexible, strectchable, compres
  • Elastomer 
    A polymer with the properties of rubber. Polymers that can be formulated as elastomers are polyurethane, butyl rubber, silicones and specially treated ethylene-propylene copolymers. 
  • Electricity Generating Pontoon, non propelled 
    A non propelled pontoon used for the purpose of electricity generation 
  • Electrochemical corrosion 
    corrosion involving at lest one anodic reaction and one cathodic reaction 
  • Electrochemical protection 
    Corrosion protection achieved by electrical control of the corrosion potential. See also anodic protection and cathodic protection 
  • Electrode 
    Electronic conductor in contact with an electrolyte 
  • Electrode potential 
    voltage measured in the external circuit between an electrode and reference electrode in contact with the same electrolyte 
  • Electrode reaction 
    Interfacial reaction which gives rise to a transfer of charge between an electronic conductor and an electrolyte 
  • Electrolyte 
    Medium in which electric current is transported by ions 
  • Elemica 
    Elemica is a trademark of the Elemica group of companies. 
  • Elevating 
    – A charge for services performed in connection with floating elevators. – Charges assessed for the handling of grain through grain elevators. 
  • Elkins Act 
    An act of Congress (1903) prohibiting rebates, concession, misbilling, etc. and providing specific penalties for such violations. 
  • Embargo 
    Order to restrict the hauling of freight. 
  • Eminent Domain 
    The sovereign power to take property for a necessary public use, with reasonable compensation. 
  • Empty Repo 
    Contraction for Empty Repositioning. The movement of empty containers. 
  • Emulsifier 
    Agents which markedly lower the interfacial tension between oil and water or other liquid, thus permitting them to mix or form emulsions. Lecithin and mono and diglycerides are emulsifiers derived from fats and oils and are widely used in food products (m
  • Emulsifiers 
    Additives that allow oils to be mixed with water and water to be mixed with oils. They alter the surface properties of materials they contact because of their amphiphilic nature. That is to say, they have chemical affinity to both lipid and aqueous phases
  • ENC 
    Electronic Navigational Charts 
  • Endocrine disruptor 
    An exogenous substance or physical agent that causes adverse health effects in the intact organism or its progeny through changes in endocrine function.  
  • Endorsement 
    A legal signature usually placed on the reverse of a draft; signifies transfer of rights from the holder to another party. 
  • ENE 
    East North-East 
  • Engine Officer 
    Officers responsible for operation and maintenance of complex electric and mechanical plant and associated control systems throughout the vessel including the main engine, boilers, pumps, electrical generators, refrigeration plant and fresh water generato
  • Engler 
    A not particularly popular method of measuring and reporting viscosity. 
  • Enhanced Survey 
    A survey carried out on tankers over 5 years of age, under the enhanced programme of inspection required by Marpol Annex 1 Reg. 13G. The Enhanced Programme of Surveys has been introduced to address the structural problems associated with "old" ships. Th 
  • Entrance Channel 
    A navigable channel connecting the ocean or lake to an enclosed water body such as a bay, estuary, river, or mouth of a navigable stream (EM 1110-2-1613). 
  • Entry 
    Customs documents required to clear an import shipment for entry into the general commerce of a country. 
  • EO 
    Ethylene Oxide. A chemical intermediate used in the manufacture of glycol ethers, ethoxylates and ethylene glycol. Ethylene oxide derivatives have a wide range of applications, from detergents and cosmetics to antifreeze; they are also used in the manufac
  • EOOW 
    Engineer Officer of the Watch 
  • EPC 
    Ethylene Producers Committee 
  • EPCA 
    European Petrochemical Association 
  • Epoxidation 
    The reaction by which unsaturated acids are converted to epoxy acids. This is a cis addition of oxygen to the double bond, usually affected by a peroxy acid such as peroxyformic or peroxyacetic. The reaction is carried out on an industrial scale to produc
  • Epoxy resins 
    A flexible resin made using phenols and used chiefly in coatings, adhesives, electrical laminants and composites for its excellent adhesion, strength and chemical resistance. 
  • EPRA 
    European Phenolic Resins Association, an afficiliated sector group of the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • EPS 
    Expanded Polystyrene. Manufactured from styrene, is a thermal plastic material supplied to moulders in the form of a polystyrene bead. The beads, which contain a blowing agent, are processed and moulded into low-density foam articles, such as protective p
  • EPSDG 
    Ethyleneamines Product Stewardship Discussion Group 
  • Equalization 
    A monetary allowance to the customer for picking up or delivering at a point other than the destination shown on the bill of lading. This provision is covered by tariff publication. 
    Equasis aims at collecting and disseminating quality and safety-related information on the world’s merchant ships provided to it by holders of such information. 
  • Equipment Interchange Receipt (EIR) 
    A document transferring a container from one carrier to another, or to/from a terminal. 
  • Equity holders 
    Companies entitled to some portion of an oil field's production due to their investment in its development. See producers. 
  • Equity Lifting 
    The lifting of a quantity of cargo to which the lifter is entitled by reason of its ownership of an interest in the field producing the cargo. 
  • Erosion 
    The progressive loss of material from a solid surface due to mechanical interaction between that surface and a fluid, a multi-component fluid, or solid particles carried with the fluid 
  • Erucic Acid 
    Erucic acid consists of a 22 carbon chain with one double bond on the thirteenth carbon atom. It is a major component of seed oils of the brassica family such as rapeseed or mustard seed. High levels of erucic acid in the diet have been found to have unde
  • ERV 
    Each round voyage.(usually in Tanker Trade) 
  • Erythema 
    Excess of reddening of a tissue due to increased flow of blood. 
  • ES-VOC-CG 
    European Solvent Volatile Organic Compounds Co-ordination Group, a cross industry group of solvents producers, users' trade associations and national chemical associations aiming to address the VOC Directive. 
  • Escort 
    A combat vessel used to escort other vessels and protect them from attack 
  • ESD 
    Emergency Shut-down 
  • ESIG 
    European Solvents Industry Group, a group within the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE) gathering manufacturers and users of oxygenated and hydrocarbon solvents. 
  • ESP 
    Enhanced Survey Program 
  • ESPH 
    Evaluation of Safety and Pollution Hazards 
  • ESRA 
    European Synthetic Rubber Association, an affiliate of Cefic. 
  • Essential Oil 
    A volatile oil obtained as an extract from herbs, spices, flower petals etc and used for its perfume or flavour properties. 
  • Ester 
    Any of a class of organic compounds made from the chemical reaction between an alcohol and an organic acid. 
  • Ester Value 
    The ester value is the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to saponify the neutral oil in one gram of fat. It is equal to the saponification value minus the acid value. 
  • Esterification  
    The reaction by which esters are formed from alcohols and acids, usually in the presence of an acidic catalyst, or with the more reactive acid anhydrides or chlorides for which no catalyst is required. Esters can also be changed to other ester by alcoholy
  • ETA, C, D, R, S 
    – Estimated Time of Arrival, Completion, Departure, Readiness, or Sailing – Estimated Time of Availability. That time when a tractor/partner carrier is available for dispatch. 
  • ETBE 
  • ETF 
    Expected time of finishing 
  • Eth 
  • Ethane 
    A gaseous hydrocarbon, the second most important constituent of natural gas, it also occurs dissolved in petroleum oils and as a by-product of oil refinery operations and of the carbonization of coal. Ethane is a major raw material for the huge ethylene p
  • Ethanol 
    Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol is manufactured by synthesis from ethylene. It is an oxygenated hydrocarbon used in a wide variety of high performance solvent applications (toiletries and cosmetics, paints, lacquer thinners, printing inks, dyes, dete
  • Ethanolamine 
    Ethanolamines are prepared by the reaction of ammonia and ethylene oxide. They include monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA) and triethanolamine (TEA). The three are widely used in industry, principally as absorbents for acidic components of natura
  • Ethene 
    See Ethylene 
  • Ether 
    Ethers, like alcohols and phenols are oxygenated derivatives. An ether has two hydrocarbon groups bonded to the oxygen atom. Diethyl ether (also called simply ether) is the most common variety. It is widely used as a solvent and as a volatile, combustible
  • Ethyl acetate 
    A volatile ester used as solvents for resins, lacquers, paints, and varnishes. 
  • Ethyl acrylate 
    Ethyl acrylate is a colorless liquid used in the production of polymers, water-based latex paints and adhesives, textile and paper coatings, leather finish resins, and in the production of acrylic fibers 
  • Ethyl alcohol 
    See Ethanol 
  • Ethyl hexanol 
    2-Ethyl hexanol (2EH) is an higher aliphatic alcohol.. 2EH is also used as a solvent and has a particular niche use in the formation of lacquers and coatings when slow evaporation is desired 
  • Ethylbenzene 
    Ethylbenzene is formed by combination of ethylene and benzene, and is then dehydrogenated to styrene for use in the production of plastics and synthetic rubber. For more information click website. 
  • Ethylene 
    Also called ethene, ethylene is the simplest member of the olefinic hydrocarbon series and one of the most important raw materials of the organic chemical industry. It occurs in both petroleum and natural gas, but the bulk of the industrial material is pr
  • Ethylene 
    Two-carbon olefin used to make plastic films, fibers, molding compounds, and other products. 
  • Ethylene dichloride 
    Liquid, most commonly used in the production of vinyl chloride monomer, starting material for chlorinated solvents such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, vinylidene chloride, trichloroethylene, and perchloroethylene, solvent for processing pharmaceutical products
  • Ethylene plant 
  • Ethylene Tanker 
    A semi-pressurised LPG tanker specifically for the bulk carriage of ethylene. Cargo is refrigerated at -104 deg C 
  • Ethyleneamine 
    Ethyleneamines are organic compounds essential in the manufacture of a wide range of products from detergents, paints and fuel oils to pharmaceuticals, soaps, asphalt and paper. Ethyleneamines include ethylenediamine (EDA), diethylenetriamine (DETA) and h
  • ETPs 
    Engineering thermoplastics 
  • Evaporation of volatile substances 
    Tank Cleaning: Cargoes consisting of mixtures with different vapor pressures should neither be cleaned by evaporation, nor prewashed hot. The evaporation of the light substances from a mixture could result in non-volatile residues, which are very difficul
  • Evaporation Rate 
    The rate at which a product will vaporize when compared to the rate of vaporization of a known material (usually Butyl Acetate with rate designated as 1.0). Evaporation rate can be useful in evaluating the health and fire hazards of a material. Rates are
  • EWIB 
    Eastern Weighing and Inspection Bureau. 
  • Ex - “From” 
    When used in pricing terms such as “Ex Factory” or “Ex Dock,” it signifies that the price quoted applies only at the point of origin indicated. 
  • Ex Dec 
    Contraction for “Shipper’s Export Declaration.” 
  • Ex-Works 
    An Incoterm of sale meaning the seller delivers to the buyer at seller’s named premises. 
  • Excepted or Excluded 
    EXCEPTED or EXCLUDED shall mean that the Days specified do not count as Laytime even if loading or discharging is carried out on them. 
  • Exception 
    Notations made when the cargo is received at the carrier’s terminal or loaded aboard a vessel. They show any irregularities in packaging or actual or suspected damage to the cargo. Exceptions are then noted on the bill of lading. 
  • Exhibition Vessel 
    A mobile vessel used for exhibitions, trade fairs and the like 
  • EXIM Bank 
    Export–Import Bank of the United States: An independent U.S. Government Agen- cy which facilitates exports of U.S. goods by providing loan guarantees and insurance for repayment of bank–provided export credit. 
  • Existing chemicals 
    Chemical substances, which were deemed to be on the European Community market between 1 January 1971 and 18 September 1981. An "existing" chemical substance is in the EU defined as any chemical substance listed in the European Inventory of Existing Commer
  • Expiry Date 
    Issued in connection with documents such as letters of credit, tariffs, etc. to advise that stated provisions will expire at a certain time. 
  • Export 
    Shipment of goods to a foreign country. 
  • Export Declaration 
    A government document declaring designated goods to be shipped out of the country. To be completed by the exporter and filed with the U.S. Government. 
  • Export License 
    A government document which permits the “Licensee” to engage in the export of designated goods to certain destinations. 
  • Export Rate 
    A rate published on traffic moving from an interior point to a port for transshipment to a foreign country. 
  • Exposed Waters 
    any waters that are more than 20 nautical miles from a harbour or safe refuge, or those waters which are less than 20 nautical miles from a harbour or safe refuge and which are not designated coastal or protected waters. 
  • Exposure assessment 
    The exposure assessment is the determination of the emissions in order to estimate the concentrations/doses of a substance to which human populations or environmental spheres (water, soil and air) are or may be exposed. 
  • Extended Well Test 
    When oil is discovered the well must be tested to determine flow rates, reservoir performance and fluid/gas composition. In some complex reservoirs, it may be necessary to flow the well for a long time to determine whether a full field development can be
  • Extinguishing Media 
    Specifies the fire-fighting agents that should be used to extinguish fires 
  • Extraction (Solvent) 
    The process of obtaining oil from a seed or other source by the use of an organic solvent (usually hexane) is termed extraction. Following several pretreatment steps, culminating in the production of seed flakes, whose oil cell walls have been ruptured un
  • Extraneous rust 
    Rust not originating from the steel under consideration, e.g., rust brought to the site from a rusting iron object by means of a flowing liquid, or formed by rusting of iron particles brought to the steel surface 
  • EXW 
    Ex Works (named place of delivery) The seller makes the goods available at its premises. This term places the maximum obligation on the buyer and minimum obligations on the seller. The Ex Works term is often used when making an initial quotation for the s
  • EXW (Ex Works) (...Named Place) 
    A Term of Sale which means that the seller fulfills the obligation to deliver when he or she has made the goods available at his/her premises (i.e., works, factory, warehouse, etc.) to the buyer. In particular, the seller is not responsible for loading th
  • Fahrenheit; Fresh water load line mark 
  • F & D 
    Freight and demurrage 
  • F&D 
    Freight and demmurrage 
  • F.DESP (FD) 
    Free DESPatch 
  • F/R 
    Freight release 
  • Factor 
    A factor is an agent who will, at a discount (usually five to 8% of the gross), buy receivables. 
  • Factory Stern Trawler 
    A stern trawler fitted out with a factory for refrigerating, processing and possibly canning 
  • Fahrenheit degrees (F) 
    A temperature scale according to which water boils at 212 and freezes at 32 Fahrenheit degrees convert to Centigrade degrees (C) by the following formula: (F-32)1.8= C. 
  • FAK 
    Freight All Kinds (containtainers) 
  • fall foul of 
    Foul is an often used nautical term generally meaning entangled or impeded. An anchor tangled in line or cable is said to be a foul anchor. A foul berth is caused by another vessel anchoring too close wherein the risk of collision exists. A foul bottom of
  • False Billing 
    Misrepresenting freight or weight on shipping documents. 
  • FAME 
    Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), sometimes referred to as Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters (VOME), are used as transportation biofuels in varying proportions with diesel and as feed for the production of natural fatty alcohols. They are obtained by esterificat
  • FAS 
    Free Alongside Ship (named port of shipment) The seller must place the goods alongside the ship at the named port. The seller must clear the goods for export. Suitable only for maritime transport but NOT for multimodal sea transport in containers (see Inc
  • FAS (Free Alongside Ship) (...Named Port of Shipment) 
    A Term of Sale which means the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been placed along- side the vessel on the quay or in lighters at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of
  • Fat 
    A chemical unit resulting from the chemical combination or esterification of one unit of glycerine with three units of fatty acids. The special ester thus formed is a ""triglyceride"". A natural fat is a mixture of different triglycerides and may contain
  • Fat Splitting 
    Fats and oils are triglycerides which are split on hydrolysis to give glycerol and a mixture of fatty acids. The process is usually carried out with steam at high temperature and pressure (e.g. 260°C and 55 bar). Triglyceride + Water ? Glycerol + Fatty Ac
  • Fathom 
    A nautical measure equal to six feet, used to measure the depth of water at sea. The word was also used to describe taking the measure or “to fathom” something. Today when one is trying to figure something out, they are trying to fathom it or get to the b
  • Fats (and Oils) 
    Fats and oils are essentially similar in composition and synonymous. They are substances produced by plant and animal life, mainly as an energy store. However, certain components of fats perform essential metabolic functions. Many seeds are rich in fats,
  • Fatty Acid 
    A long chain (usually aliphatic) organic acid 
  • Fatty Acid Derivatives 
    Using fatty acids as starting materials, the oleochemicals industry makes mainly fatty alcohols, esters, amines, amides and soaps as derivatives. These compounds are often reacted further to produce a very wide range of chemicals for consumer or industria
  • Fatty Acid Fractionation 
    Fatty acids which have been "split" from triglycerides or hydrolysed can effectively be separated according to chain length, by distillation under vacuum, as their volatility varies. This is known as fractional distillation. For example, palmitic acid (C1
  • Fatty Acids 
    Alkanoic and alkenoic acids are saturated or unsaturated organic acids generally having an unbranched chain of an even number of carbon atoms. They are major components of most lipids and are primarily obtained directly from animal or vegetable sources. P
  • Fatty Alcohol 
    Fatty alcohol is derived from fatty acids. Two main routes are used to obtain fatty alcohols commercially - a. hydrogenolysis of either fats or fatty acids, usually as the methyl ester, and b. reduction of fatty esters with an alcohol and alkali metal (as
  • Fatty Alcohols 
    Medium- and long-chain alcohols related to the fatty acids that occur naturally in lauric oils and wax esters are produced commercially by the catalytic reduction of the acids or their methyl esters. Fatty alcohols (C12 and up) are vital components of sur
  • Fatty Amines 
    Fatty amines are useful fatty acid derivatives for cationic surfactants. All cationics modify surfaces, especially textile surfaces, which makes them useful as fabric softeners, dye fixatives or water repellents. They are also useful in ore flotation, cor
  • Fatty Matter 
    This term is used by the analytical chemist to describe the fatty component of a complex food such as milk, meat, cake or seeds. Fatty matter is usually measured by weight after a suitable extraction procedure. 
  • FBD 
    Freeboard. the freeboard of a ship is the distance above the waterline and represents a margin of safety for vessel loading. 
  • FC/LCL 
    One shipper/more than one receiverFrowa 
  • FCA 
    Free Carrier (named place of delivery) The seller hands over the goods, cleared for export, into the disposal of the first carrier (named by the buyer) at the named place. The seller pays for carriage to the named point of delivery, and risk passes when t
  • FCA 
    First Carrier or Free to Carrier or Fellow Chartered Accountant  
  • FCA (Free Carrier) (... Named Place) 
    A Term of Sale which means the seller fulfills their obligation when he or she has handed over the goods, cleared for export, into the charge of the carrier named by the buyer at the named place or point. If no precise point is indicated by the buyer, the
  • FCC 
    First Class Charterers 
  • FCS 
    Fresh of capture and seizure 
  • FCSSS 
    For Christ’s sake say something 
  • FD 
    Free Discharge (cost) or Free Delivery or Free Dispatch 
  • FD or FDESP 
    Free dispatch 
  • FD&D 
    Freight Demurrage & Deadfreight 
  • FDD 
    Freight Demurrage Defence (P&I) 
    Freight Deemed Earned Discountless and Non-Refundable Ship and or Cargo Lost Or Not Lost 
    Freight deemed earned on completion loading 
    Freight Deemed Earned on Shipment Ship and or Cargo Lost or Not Lost 
  • FDESP 
    Free Dispatch 
  • FDIS 
    Free Discharge 
  • Feeder Service 
    Cargo to/from regional ports are transferred to/from a central hub port for a long–haul ocean voy- age. 
  • Feeder Vessel 
    A short–sea vessel which transfers cargo between a central “hub” port and smaller “spoke” ports. 
  • Feedermax Vessel 
    a cellular containership that holds about 500 to 1,000 TEUs 
  • Feedstock 
    A product of oil or gas processing suitable for charging to (introduction into) an upgrading unit for further refining or transformation. In general, each stage of hydrocarbon processing regards the material, it receives for alteration as its feedstock an
  • Feedstock 
    Raw material used in a processing plant. The most important feedstock for the European petrochemical industry is naphtha. 
  • FEFC 
    Far East Freight Conference 
  • FEICA 
    Association of European Adhesives Manufacturers, an affiliate of Cefic. 
    Fertilliser charter party 
  • Fertilizer 
    Substance that adds inorganic or organic plant nutrients to soil and improves its ability to grow crops, trees, or other vegetation. 
  • FEU 
    Forty foot equivalent unit. This is an 40 X 8 X 8.5 feet dry cargo intermodal container used as a measurement of container volume. See also TEU, twenty-foot equivalent-unit. One FEU equals two TEU. 
  • FFA 
    Fat Free Acid or Fire Fighting Appliances  
  • FFA 
    Freight Future Agreement 
  • FFB 
    Fresh Fruit Bunch. The initials stand for "fresh fruit bunch" and refer to the bunch as harvested from the oil palm. Each bunch weighs 10-20 kg and may contain 1500 or more individual fruits. Calculation of oil yield and losses in the oil mill is often re
  • FFE 
    Fire Fighting Equipment 
  • FFI 
    For further instructions 
  • FH 
    First Half or Fore-hatch 
  • FHEX 
    Fridays & holidays excluded 
  • FHINC 
    Fridays & holidays included 
  • FICS 
    Fellow of The Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers 
  • FiFI 
    Fire Fighting 
  • FiFi 1 
    FiFi 1 is the lowest category, and the minimum requirements include two monitors, one to two fire pumps and water pumping capacity of 10,569 gpm. Additional firefighting equipment often includes water deluge spraying systems. 
  • FiFi 2 
    FiFi 2 rating requires two to four monitors, up to four fire pumps and total pumping capacity of 31,704 gpm. Additional firefighting equipment often includes water deluge spraying systems and high-expansion foam generators. 
  • FiFi 3 
    FiFi 3 vessels must have three to four monitors and two to four fire pumps capable of supplying a total 42,272 gpm. Additional firefighting equipment often includes water deluge spraying systems, high-expansion foam generators and foam monitors. 
  • Fifth Wheel 
    The semi–circular steel coupling device mounted on a tractor which engages and locks with a chassis semi–trailer. 
  • Figurehead 
    An ornamental figure placed on the front of a ship, under the bowsprit. Originally a religious and/or protective emblem. The custom continued but for purely decorative purposes. Hence the term figurehead – a leader with no real power or function except to
  • FILTD 
    Free in, liner terms discharge 
  • Filtration 
    Filtration refers to the separation of a component from another using a screening material or sieve such as paper, steel mesh or cloth. In the oils and fats industry, filtration is used to remove - a. bleaching earth and impurities from the bleached oil i
  • Final boiling point 
    The temperature where a natural material or fraction finishes boiling. This temperature also goes by the name, end point. Some folks use the phrase " full boiling point." This expression has fallen into disfavor, though. It implies complete evaporation of
  • Finished gasoline 
    Motor gasoline which meets the merchantability standards of a particular market. These specification fuels differ from blendstocks called gasoline which require the addition of other components to make it fit for retail sale in one country or another. 
  • Finishing component 
    Ingredients added to gasoline blends in small amounts to adjust the mixture to motor fuel standards. Finishing components include toluene and MTBE. 
  • FIOLS 
    Free in and out, lashed and secured 
    Free In/Out Stowed, Lashed, Secured and Dunnaged. As per FIO, but includes cost of lashing securing and dunnaging cargo to Masters satisfaction 
  • Fire Fighting Vessel 
    A vessel equipped for the primary function of fighting fires 
  • Fire Point 
    The temperature at which an oil sample, when heated under prescribed conditions, will ignite for a period of at least five seconds. 
  • Firkin 
    A capacity measurement equal to one–fourth of a barrel. 
  • Firm indication 
    A suggestion from a prospective buyer or seller feeling his way toward a possible deal. Firm indications carry more weight than the initial indications casually given in routine conversation. But they do not constitute an offer. They show distinct interes
  • First Rate 
    Implies excellence. From the 16th century on until steam powered ships took over, British naval ships were rated as to the number of heavy cannon they carried. A ship of 100 or more guns was a First Rate line-of-battle ship. Second rates carried 90 to 98
  • Fish Carrier 
    A refrigerated cargo vessel for the carriage of fish at a single temperature 
  • Fish Factory Ship 
    A vessel fitted out with a factory for refrigerating, processing and possibly canning. The catch is from other vessels 
  • Fish Farm Support Vessel 
    A vessel for the support of fish farming activities 
  • Fish Storage Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled barge for the storage of live fish 
  • Fishery Patrol Vessel 
    A vessel for the protection of fish stocks and fishing vessels 
  • Fishery Research Vessel 
    A vessel for research into fish stocks and conservation. The vessel may catch fish for scientific purposes 
  • Fishery Support Vessel 
    A vessel for supporting fishing activities 
  • Fishing Vessel 
    A vessel for catching fish whose method is other than trawling. Includes long liners, purse seiners etc 
  • Fishing, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel used for fishing. Not designed for operation in open sea 
    Free in, stowed, lashed, secured and dunnaged /liner out 
  • Fits the Bill 
    A Bill of Lading was signed by the ship’s master acknowledging receipt of specified goods and the promise to deliver them to their destination in the same condition. Upon delivery, the goods were checked against the bill to see if all was in order. If so,
  • Fix 
    When a shipowner and charterer make a deal, they say they have "fixed" a ship. They have settled all of the issues including the price, to employ the vessel. 
  • Fixed Costs 
    Costs that do not vary with the level of activity. Some fixed costs continue even if no cargo is carried. Terminal leases, rent and property taxes are fixed costs. 
  • Fixed price 
    The oil trade speaks of prices quoted in absolute figures, like $157 per ton and 44.875 cents per gallon, as fixed prices these numbers, and the transactions (called fixed-price deals) which use them, do not move with any price business in recent years. 
    Chartering a Vessel 
  • Flag 
    Flag of the country where a ship is registered. 
  • Flaking 
    A process used when extracting oil from seeds. The cooked seeds are usually passed through pairs of rolls which break them down and flatten them to a uniform thickness suitable for efficient solvent extraction. 
  • Flame Extension 
    The distance a flame will travel from the aerosol container when exposed to an ignition source 
  • Flammable liquid 
    A liquid that has a flash point of 60.5°C (141°F) or lower. 
  • FLASH 
    Feeder lighter aboard ship 
  • Flash point 
    The lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off sufficient vapour to form a flammable mixture near the surface of the liquid. 
  • Flash point 
    The temperature at which a hydrocarbon releases vapors in sufficient quantity to permit combustion. 
  • Flash Point Limit Test 
    ISO 15267 - Method to determine whether a sample of oil or fat at a given temperature will flash when a test flame is applied to the sample under specified conditions. 
  • Flash Point/Flammable Range 
    Tank cleaning: The flashpoint is the lowest temperature at which a product gives off sufficient gas to form a flammable gas mixture that can be ignited. The pre-cleaning temperature must be well below the flashpoint. If this is not possible, avoid any ign
  • Flasher 
  • Flat Car 
    A rail car without a roof and walls. 
  • Flat Rack/Flat Bed Container 
    A container with no sides and frame members at the front and rear. Container can be loaded from the sides and top. 
  • Flexibility 
    The degree to which a processing unit can make a desired product from various feed stocks. The term applies particularly to steam crackers. Some such plants can produce ethylene from a range of hydrocarbon streams spanning ethane to vacuum gasoil. Other u
  • Floating Dock 
    A submersible unit constructed and fitted out to dry dock ships whilst afloat. 
  • Floating price 
    A price tied to some sensitive reference quotation. The oil business took this approach when market volatility made fixed-price deals too risky. In the late 1980's the majority of crude and products deals which involve any substantial time exposure use ma
  • Flotsam and Jetsam 
    These are legal terms in maritime law. Flotsam is any part of the wreckage of a ship or her cargo that is lost by accident and found floating on the surface of the water. Jetsam are goods or equipment deliberately thrown overboard to make the ship more st
  • Fluid coker 
    A coking unit (coker) which makes coke in powdery, free-flowing form. 
  • Flux 
    Rate of material flow. Some refiners use this word when discussing the fluidity or viscosity of petroleum products, particularly heavy ones. 
  • Fly-by-Night 
    A large sail used only for sailing downwind and requiring rather little attention. 
  • Flying Colours 
    To come through a battle with flying colours means a ship has come through relatively unscathed and with her colours (flag) flying. 
  • FMS 
  • FMSS 
    Full Mission Shiphandling Simulator 
  • FO 
    Free on Board means that the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have passed over the ship's rail (vessel's flange for tankers) at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss or damage
  • FOB 
    Free on Board (named port of shipment) The seller must load themselves the goods on board the vessel nominated by the buyer. Cost and risk are divided when the goods are actually on board of the vessel (this rule is new!). The seller must clear the goods
  • FOB (Free On Board) (...Named Port of Shipment) 
    An International Term of Sale that means the seller fulfills his or her obligation to deliver when the goods have passed over the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks to loss of or damage to
  • FOC 
    Free of Conveyance or Free of Charge or Flag of Convenience 
  • FOL 
    Free On Lighter or Following 
  • FOM 
    Flag, ownership and management 
    Federation of National Association of Shipbrokers and Agents 
    The Federation of National Shipbrokers abd Agents 
  • Footloose 
    The bottom portion of a sail is called the foot. If it is not secured, it is footloose and it dances randomly in the wind. 
  • Foots 
    Visible Foots - The insoluble matter in crude fats and oils, together with occluded oil, which settles at 10-20 degrees C above the melting point of the fat or oil. Sediment - That part of the insoluble matter in a crude fat or oil which can be centrifuga
  • Force Majeure 
    Clause limiting responsibilities of the charterers, shippers and receivers due to events beyond their control 
  • Fore 
    Toward or at forward most area of a ship. 
  • Fore and Aft 
    The direction on a vessel parallel to the center line. 
  • Foreign Sales Corporation 
    Under U.S. tax law, a corporation created to obtain tax exemption on part of the earnings of U.S. products in foreign markets.Must be set–up as a foreign corporation with an office outside the USA. 
  • Foreign Trade Zone 
    A free port in a country divorced from Customs authority but under government control. Merchan- dise, except that which is prohibited, may be stored in the zone without being subject to import duty regulations. 
  • Fork Lift 
    A machine used to pick up and move goods loaded on pallets or skids. 
  • Formaldehyde 
    An organic compound, the lowest in the chain of the aliphatic aldehydes, used in large amounts in a variety of chemical manufacturing processes. It is produced principally by the vapor-phase oxidation of methanol. Large quantities of formaldehyde are used
  • Formul8 
    Polyurethane foam formulation software 
  • Forward Perpendicular 
    Ship Stability: Usually established at the intersection of the design waterline and the vessels stem on the bow. 
  • FOS 
    Free on ship 
  • Fossil fuel 
    A general term for buried combustible geologic deposits of organic materials occurring within the Earth's crust, that can be used as a source of energy. They all contain carbon and were formed as a result of geologic processes from decayed plants and anim
  • Foul Bill of Lading 
    A receipt for goods issued by a carrier with an indication that the goods were damaged when received. Compare Clean Bill of Lading. 
  • Four–Way Pallet 
    A pallet designed so that the forks of a fork lift truck can be inserted from all four sides. See Fork lift. 
  • FOW 
    First Open Water or Free on Waggon or Free on Wharf 
  • FP 
    Flash point; Fore Peak; Free Pratique 
  • FPPI 
    Foreign Principal Party of Interest. The party to whom final delivery or end use of the exported goods will be made, usually the buyer. 
  • FPSO, Gas 
    A vessel with the capability to control production rates from an gas field and to store gas produced prior to its transfer to another vessel for transportation. May be self or non propelled 
  • FPSO, Oil 
    A vessel with the capability to control production rates from an oilfield and to store oil produced prior to its transfer to another vessel for transportation. May be self or non propelled 
  • FR 
    France or Francs or Freight or Flat Rack (container) 
  • FR or FRGHT or FRT 
  • Fraction 
    In the oil industry, fraction refers to one of the portions of fractional distillation having a restricted boiling range. 
  • Fractionation 
    Division of a hydrocarbon mixture according to the boiling temperature of its component molecules. This general term describes both distillation, which puts heat into mixtures to separate them, and cooling techniques which work by heat removal. 
  • Fractionation 
    Fractionation involves the separation of an oil or fat into two or more fractions. The oil is cooled under controlled conditions and the fractions separated by filtration or centrifugation. Fractionation of a fat is made possible by the solubility differe
  • Fractions 
    Part of a hydrocarbon mixture isolated according to the temperature where it evaporates. Distillation units ordinarily divide a combination of liquid hydrocarbons, such as crude oil or the output stream of a cracker, by sorting its molecules into portions
  • Free Alongside (FAS) 
    The seller must deliver the goods to a pier and place them within reach of the ship’s loading equip- ment. See Terms of Sale. 
  • Free Astray 
    An astray shipment (a lost shipment that is found) sent to its proper destination without additional charge. 
  • Free Carrier (FCA) 
    An Incoterm of sale meaning the seller has delivered when the cargo is given to the carrier nominated by the buyer at the named place. 
    If loading/discharging achieved sooner than agreed, there will be no freight money returned. 
  • Free In and Out (FIO) 
    Cost of loading and unloading a vessel is borne by the charterer/shipper. 
  • Free In/Out and Trimmed 
    Charterer pays for cost of FIOST loading/discharging cargo, including stowage and trimming. 
  • Free of Particular Average (FPA) 
    A marine insurance term meaning that the assurer will not allow payment for partial loss or damage to cargo shipments except in certain circumstances, such as stranding, sinking, collision or fire. 
  • Free on Board (FOB – U.S. Domestic Use) 
    Shipped under a rate that includes costs of delivery to and the loading onto a carrier at a specified point. • FOB Freight Allowed: The same as FOB named inland carrier, except the buyer pays the transportation charge and the seller reduces the invoice by
    Free of discharge costs to owners. Includes sea freight only. 
  • Free Out (FO) 
    Cost of unloading a vessel is borne by the charterer. 
  • Free Port 
    A restricted area at a seaport for the handling of duty–exempted import goods. Also called a Foreign Trade Zone. 
  • Free Pratique 
    Permission given to a ship to use a port after it has been certified free of disease, in compliance with port state control, local authorities and other regulatory bodies. 
  • Free Sale Certificate 
    The U.S. government does not issue certificates of free sale. However, the Food and Drug Administra- tion, Silver Spring, Maryland, will issue, upon request, a letter of comment to the U.S. manufacturers whose products are subject to the Federal Food, Dru
  • Free Time 
    That amount of time that a carrier’s equipment may be used without incurring additional charges. (See Storage, Demurrage or Per Diem.) 
  • Free to Carrier 
    A modern equivalent of FAS used in FCA intermeddle transport where goods are transferred at a nominated forwarder premises, depot or terminal but not actually put on board vessel. 
  • Free Trade Zone 
    A port designated by the government of a country for duty–free entry of any non–prohibited goods. Merchandise may be stored, displayed, used for manufacturing, etc., within the zone and re–exported without duties. 
  • Freezing point 
    The temperature where aviation kerosene must remain free of wax crystals. These particles can clog jet engine fuel filters and nozzles. This specification, therefore, indicates the suitability of kerosene for propelling aeroplanes into the cold air at hig
  • Freight 
    Refers to either the cargo carried or the charges assessed for carriage of the cargo. 
  • Freight Bill 
    A document issued by the carrier based on the bill of lading and other information; used to account for a shipment operationally, statistically, and financially.An Invoice. 
  • Freight Forwarder 
    A person whose business is to act as an agent on behalf of the shipper. A freight forwarder frequently makes the booking reservation. In the United States, freight forwarders are now licensed by the FMC as “Ocean Intermediaries.” 
  • Freighters 
    Breakbulk vessels both refrigerated and unrefrigerated, containerships, partial containerships, roll-on/roll-off vessels, and barge carriers. A general cargo vessel de- signed to carry heterogeneous mark and count cargoes. 
  • Fresh Water Replenishment 
    Whereby a vessel loads a quantity of Fresh Water from a barge or lighter for consumption by the vessel and her assigned personnel. 
  • Frigate 
    A combat vessel, usually of 4,000 to 9,000 displacement tons, that is larger than a destroyer and smaller than a cruiser, used primarily for escort duty 
  • From Stern to Stern 
    From the front of a ship to the back. Now describes something in its entirety. 
  • Fronthaul 
    cargo that is carried on the trip out vs. return trip, opposite of backhaul 
  • FRT 
  • FRT FWD 
    Freight forward 
  • FRT PPD 
    Freight prepaid 
  • Fruit Juice Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of fruit juice concentrate in insulated tanks 
  • FS or F.DIS or FDIS 
    Free discharge 
  • FSO, Gas 
    A tanker purpose built or converted to store gas produced from a field prior to its transfer to another vessel for transportation. May be self or non propelled. This type does not include vessels which are temporarily being used for storage of gas 
  • FSO, Oil 
    A tanker purpose built or converted to store oil produced from a field prior to its transfer to another vessel for transportation. May be self or non propelled. This type does not include vessels which are temporarily being used for storage of oil 
  • FSRU 
    FSRU (Floating Storage Regasification Unit) is special floating vessel that stores gas and regasifies the LNG tanker. 
  • FTA 
    Free Trade Agreement or Freight Transport Association 
  • FTRR&I 
    For their respective rights and interests 
  • FTTM 
    First thing tomorrow morning 
  • Fuel 
    A material used to produce heat or power by burning.  
  • Fuel blending 
    Mingling two or more materials, refinery streams ordinarily, to make a mixture that meets a grade of fuel's legal and commercial requirements. Refineries almost always sell finished products made from more than one component. Modern motor gasoline, for al
  • Fuel oxygenate 
    Oxygenates are compounds containing oxygen in a chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Today, oxygenates are blended into gasoline in two forms: alcohols or ethers. Ethanol is the most commonly used alcohol oxygenate; methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether, or MTBE, is
  • Full and Down 
    An expression to describe a loaded vessel carrying cargoes of such a volume and weight that it fills all the vessel’s spaces and also brings her down to her tonnage loadline. A rare but optimum revenue condition for a vessel operator. 
  • Full Containerships 
    Ships equipped with permanent container cells, with little or no space for other types of cargo. 
  • Full Cycle Washing 
    Crude oil washing in which the complete cargo tank is washed. 
  • Full Shipload Lot 
    The amount of cargo a vessel carries or is able to carry. Practically, it is the amount of cargo which induces the specific voyage. While the cargo lot may take up the majority of the vessel’s space or ton- nage capacity, it does not require a vessel’s vo
  • Full-Range Naphtha 
  • Fully Hydrogenated 
    The terms describing a fat or oil which has been hydrogenated to the extent that the resultant product is solid at room temperature. Products containing hydrogenated fats include heavy duty frying fats for restaurant use, solid shortenings and solid marga
  • Fully Refined Oil 
    The term used to describe an oil which has been subjected to extensive processing methods to remove - (1) free fatty acids and other gross impurities (refine); (2) naturally occurring colour bodies such as chlorophyll (bleach), and (3) volatile trace comp
  • Fungible 
    Marketable product. Typically refers to petroleum products moved by pipeline. As long as a particular grade of gasoline meets Colonial pipeline specifications, for instance, it may travel and trade as fungible product. A fungible batch in the Colonial sys
  • Furnace oil 
    A term ordinarily reserved for the kind of gasoil used for household heating. The quality of this product can vary from place to place. The USA, for instance, uses a lighter distillate for this purpose than do some European countries. 
  • Futures 
    A type of contract established to pay today for something that will be delivered at a fixed future date. 
  • FV 
    Fishing vessel 
  • FW 
    Fresh water 
  • FW or Fr. wa. 
    Fresh water 
  • FWA 
    Fresh water allowance 
  • FWAD 
    Fresh Water Arrival Draft 
  • FWC 
    Fully loaded weight and capacity 
  • FWDD 
    Fresh Water Departure Draft 
  • FWE 
    Finished With Engine 
  • G-H 
    Ghent/Hamburg (range) 
  • G-H RGE 
    Gibraltar - Hamburg range 
  • g/t-km 
    denotes emissions in grams per tonne of cargo shipped over a kilometre 
  • Garbage Disposal Operations 
    Whereby the vessel lands a quantity of garbage for transfer to an approved garbage disposal location or facility ashore. 
  • Garbled 
    Garbling was the prohibited practice of mixing rubbish with the cargo. A distorted, mixed up message was said to be garbled. 
  • Gas Carrier 
    A specialised tanker built to comply with Marpol 73/78 Annex 1 and the appropriate IMO Code for Vessels Carrying Liquefied Gases in bulk. 
  • Gas Free 
    This refers to a steady state ‘gas free’ condition, meaning the atmosphere in the tank is “safe for man-entry”. The most common value taken for ‘gas free’ is that the atmosphere is below the LEL (Lower Explosive Limit) and that sufficient oxygen is presen
  • Gas plant 
    Facilities, which remove liquids from natural gas streams, bear this name. So do processing units in refineries which fractionate the light ends distilled from crude or produced by cracking and other upgrading equipment. In both cases, the plant separates
  • Gas to C4 
    An abbreviation for the percent mass of the hydrocarbon gases at normal temperature and pressure from C1 to C4 inclusive, present in crude oil. 
    Good And Safe (Port) Both ENDs 
  • Gasoil 
    An intermediate distillate product used for diesel fuel, heating fuel and sometimes as feedstock. 
  • Gasoil 
    A refined petroleum product denser than motor gasoline and kerosene but lighter than residual oil. This hydrocarbon mixture has two common uses: fuel for furnaces and for small diesel engines. It gets several popular names from these applications, includi
  • Gasoline 
    Also called gas or petrol, gasoline is a mixture of volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbons derived from petroleum, with or without small quantities of additives, and used as motor fuel. It is also used as a solvent for oils and fats. 
  • Gasoline extender 
    A component in motor gasoline blend added exclusively for volume. Ethanol, for example, often has this limited function in the USA. 
  • Gateway 
    Industry–related: A point at which freight moving from one territory to another is interchanged be- tween transportation lines. 
  • GCN 
    General cargo charter party 
  • GDSM 
    General Department Store Merchandise: A classification of commodities that includes goods generally shipped by mass–merchandise companies. This commodity structure occurs only in service contracts. 
  • GE 
    Glycol Ether. Manufactured from either propylene oxide or ethylene oxide reacted with an alcohol. They are mainly used as solvents, plasticizers and brake fluids. 
  • GEAR 
    A general term for ropes, blocks, tackle and other equipment 
  • Geared Bulk Carriers 
    Typically in the handysize to handymax size range although there are a small number of geared panamax vessels, like all bulkers they feature a series of holds covered by prominent hatch covers. They have cranes, derricks or conveyors that allow them to lo
  • Gearless Carriers 
    Bulkers without cranes or conveyors. These ships depend on shore-based equipment at their ports of call for loading and discharging. They range across all sizes, the larger bulk carriers (VLOCs) can only dock at the largest ports, some of these are design
    General cargo charter party 
  • GENCON'94 
    Gencon'94 charter party 
  • General Average Sacrifice 
    An extraordinary sacrifice intentionally and reasonably made to preserve from peril the property involved in a common maritime voyage. 
  • General Cargo 
    Goods unpackaged or packaged, but not shipped in bulk 
  • General Cargo Barge, non propelled 
    A barge without means of independent propulsion which carries break bulk cargoes, may be single or multi decked.  
  • General Cargo Barge, propelled 
    An self propelled barge with a single deck for the carriage of various types of dry cargo 
  • General Cargo Carriers 
    Breakbulk freighters, car carriers, cattle carriers, pallet carriers and timber carriers. A vessel designed to carry heterogeneous mark and count cargoes. 
  • General Cargo Ship 
    A single or multi deck cargo vessel for the carriage of various types of dry cargo. Single deck vessels will typically have box shaped holds. Cargo is loaded and unloaded through weather deck hatches 
  • General Cargo Ship (with Ro-Ro facility) 
    A general cargo ship with the additional capability to be loaded and unloaded by ro-ro access to a limited portion of the cargo space 
  • General Cargo, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel designed for the transportation of Break Bulk Cargoes, May Be Single Or Multi Decked. Not designed for operation in open sea. 
  • General Cargo/Passenger Ship 
    A general cargo ship with accommodation for the carriage of more than 12 passengers 
  • General Cargo/Passenger Ship, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel designed for the transportation of dry cargo and with capacity for carriage of passengers. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • General Cargo/Tanker 
    A general cargo ship fitted with tanks for the additional carriage of liquid cargo 
  • General Cargo/Tanker (Container/oil/bulk - COB ship) 
    A general cargo ship with reversible hatch covers; one side is flush and the other is fitted with baffles for use with liquid cargoes. Containers can be carried on the hatch covers in dry cargo mode 
  • Generator Set (Gen Set) 
    A portable generator which can be attached to a refrigerated container to power the refrigeration unit during transit. 
  • Genotoxic 
    Capable of causing injury to the genetic component of cells. 
  • GEO 
    Geographical (rotation) 
    In geographical rotation 
  • Geometric Isomer 
    An isomer differing because of the structural location of certain elements. 
    Geographical Rotation 
  • Ghee 
    A word derived from the Hindi word ""Chi"" meaning clarified and crystallised butter fat from buffalos or cows milk. Ghee made from buffalos milk is white, whereas that made from cows milk is yellow in colour. These products have a rich and pleasant flavo
  • GHG 
    Green House Gas 
  • GISIS 
    Global Integrated Shipping Information System 
  • Giving (someone) a Wide Berth 
    To anchor a ship far enough away from another ship so that they did not hit each other when they swung with the wind or tide. 
  • GL 
    Gearless or Germanischer Lloyd 
  • Global Maritime Intelligence Integration (GMII) 
    It is within the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, with the mission to ensure govern- ment–wide access to maritime information and data critical to intelligence production and to serve as the focal point and oversight agent for maritime spe
  • Glue Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of glue 
  • Glycerides (Triacylgycerols) 
    Natural fats and oils are mixtures of triglycerides. The esters of fatty acids combined with glycerol are often referred to as "triglyceride". Typical fatty acid compositions are tabled in Appendix B. In general solid fats contain a relatively high propor
  • Glycerol or Glycerine 
    Glycerol is an important structural component of fats and oils. A complete splitting (hydrolysis) of fats/oils results in glycerol and free fatty acids. Glycerol finds uses as a humectant, a food ingredient, in pharmaceutical products and in explosives. G
  • Glycol 
    Any of a class of organic compounds belonging to the alcohol family; in the molecule of a glycol, two hydroxyl (OH) groups are attached to different carbon atoms. The term is often applied to the simplest member of the class, ethylene glycol. See ethylene
  • Glyerol or Glycerine 
    Glycerol is an important structural compound of fats and oils. A complete splitting by hydrolysis of fats or oils results in glycerol and free fatty acids. Glycerol is used as a humectant, a food ingredient, in pharmaceutical products and in explosives. 
  • GM 
    General Manager; head of local entity 
  • GM 
    Ship Stability: Metacentric height; distance from the center of gravity to the transverse metacenter. 
    Guide to Manufacturing & Purchasing Hoses for Offshore Moorings 
  • GMT 
    Greenwich mean time 
  • GNC 
    Global Navigation Chart 
  • GNS 
    German North Sea 
  • Go–Down 
    In the Far East, a warehouse where goods are stored and delivered. 
  • Gone by the Board 
    Anything seen to have gone overboard or spotted floating past the ship (by the board) was considered lost at sea. 
  • Gooseneck 
    The front rails of the chassis that raise above the plane of the chassis and engage in the tunnel of a container leading to the connection to tractor. 
  • Gossypol 
    A natural constituent of cotton seeds which, if transferred to the crude oil, results in colour instability and an oil which is difficult to process. The cooking procedure of the cotton seeds is critical in determining whether gossypol is bound in the mea
  • GPCA 
    Global Petrochemical Competitive Analysis.  
  • GR 
    Geographical rotation. Ports in order of calling 
  • Grab Dredger 
    A vessel equipped to obtain material from the sea bed by use of a grab or backhoe. The material may be carried on board, transferred to other vessels, pumped ashore or deposited elsewhere using a spray 
  • Grab Dredger Pontoon 
    A non propelled dredger pontoon fitted with a system of grabs 
  • Grade trade 
    A swap of one kind of oil for another. Such business involves exchanges like sour crude for sweet and gasoil for gasoline. 
  • Grain Elevating Pontoon, non propelled 
    A non propelled pontoon used for the purpose of operating a grain elevator 
    Grain charter party 
  • Granularity 
    Agglomeration of crystals resulting in the formation of granules generally visible to the naked eye. There are a number of fat-based products, such as vanaspati and ghee, where a granular structure is very much appreciated by the consumers and is consider
  • Gravity 
    The density or weight to volume ratio of materials. The oil business usually expresses this quality in API degrees or specific gravity. 
  • Green Passport 
    A certificate which confirms which materials have been used in a vessel’s construction 
  • Greenhouse gases 
    Greenhouse gases are those gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and antropogenic, that absorb and emit radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface, the atmosphere and clouds. 
  • Gripe 
    A sailing vessel gripes when, by poor design or imbalance of sail, it tends to end up with its bow into the wind when sailing close-hauled. The sails flap around, forward progress is halted and she is very hard to steer. On land, the term means to complai
  • Groggy 
    In 1740, British Admiral Vernon (whose nickname was "Old Grogram" for the cloak of grogram which he wore) ordered that the sailors' daily ration of rum be diluted with water. The men called the mixture "grog". A sailor who drank too much grog was"groggy".
  • Gross Registered Tonnage (GRT) 
    Gross Register Tonnage. Internal cubic capacity of the ship expressed in tons on the basis of 100 cubic feet per ton. This differs from DWT because it measures the area versus the weight. NOTE: GRT was replaced by GT back in 1982. 
  • Gross Terms 
    Terms under which the carrier has to arrange and pay for cargo handling 
  • Gross Tonnage 
    (0.2+0.02*log10V)*V, where V is the volume in cubic metres of all enclosed spaces on board 
  • Gross Tonnage (GT, G.T. or gt) 
    Gross tonnage is calculated based on "the moulded volume of all enclosed spaces of the ship" and is used to determine things such as a ship's manning regulations, safety rules, registration fees and port dues, whereas the older gross register tonnage is a
  • Gross Weight 
    Entire weight of goods, packaging and freight car or container, ready for shipment. Generally, 80,000 pounds maximum container, cargo and tractor for highway transport. 
  • Grounding 
    when a vessel strikes the bottom of the sea or channel 
  • Groundnut Oil or Peanut Oil 
    The oil expressed or extracted from the seed of the groundnut ("Arachis Hypogaea") after removing the husk and the germ. Groundnuts are extensively cultivated in China, India, USA and in a number of African countries, for example Senegal, Nigeria and Suda
  • Groundswell 
    A sudden rise of water along the shore. It often happens when the weather is fine and the sea behind it appears calm. Said to occur when undulating water from a far away storm reaches the shoreline where friction causes the swell. In common use, the term
  • Groupage 
    A consolidation service, putting small shipments into containers for shipment. 
  • GRP 
    Geographic Response Plan (generally appended to ACPs) 
  • GRS 
    Geographic Response Strategies (generally appended to ACPs/GRPs) 
    Good safe always afloat always accessible berth 
  • GSB 
    Good Safe Berth 
  • GSBAA 
    Good and safe berth always afloat 
  • GSM 
    Good sound merchantable 
  • GSP 
    Government selling price. The price of crude or products established by a government marketing company. Sometimes written GEP, for government established price. See posted price. 
  • GSPD 
    Good safe port berth 
  • GSSL 
    Ports of Genoa, Savona, Spezia or Leghorn 
    Ports of Genoa, Savona, Spezia, Leghorn, Naples, Civetta or Vecchia 
  • GT, G.T. or G/T 
    Refers to any Gas Turbine tanker, i.e. tanker fitted with a Gas Turbine for propulsion. 
  • Guarantees 
    A seller promises to deliver oil at least as good as the guarantees--guaranteed specifications--he puts on it. When material sells on guarantees, the buyer can refuse to accept it, or demand a price adjustment, if it fails to meet any of them. 
  • Gunwale 
    The upper edge of a ship’s sides 
  • GVW 
    Gross vehicle weight 
  • GZ 
    Ship Stability: Symbol for righting arm; horizontal distance measured between the vertical lines of forces between G and B. GZ is measured horizontally from G to a point of intersection of the upward line of force from B at a point labeled Z. 
  • hour 
  • H AND M or H&M 
    Hull and Machinery 
  • H&M 
    Hull and machinery insurance 
  • H+M 
    Hull and machinery 
  • H-TYPE 
    Hakodate (vessel) type 
  • H.A. OR D. 
    Havre, Antwerp or Dunkirk 
  • H.S.A. 
    Hellenic Shipbrokers Association 
  • H/C 
    Held covered 
  • H/H 
  • H/V 
    Hague Visby Rules 
  • H2S 
    Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. It is a colorless, very poisonous, flammable gas with the characteristic foul odor of rotten eggs. 
  • HA 
  • Haematotoxic 
    Capable of causing injury to the blood and/or blood-forming tissues. 
    Hose Ancillary Equipment & Managing Hoses in the Field 
  • Hague Rules 
    A multilateral maritime treaty adopted in 1921 (at The Hague, Netherlands). Standardizes liability of an international carrier under the Ocean B/L. Establishes a legal “floor” for B/L. See COGSA 
  • Hallmarks 
    A mark indicating quality or excellence. 
  • Halon 
    Previously used on ships as an effective fire-extinguishing medium, harmful to the ozone layer in the atmosphere 
  • Hand over Fist 
    Hand over hand was a British term for the act of moving quickly up a rope or hoisting a sail, which was a matter of pride and competition among sailors. It is thought that American sailors changed this term to ‘hand over fist’, and the term now means to a
  • Handy 
    Vessel designed for carrying refined petroleum products in bulk tanks (19,001 dwt - 25,000 dwt approx ) 
  • Handy-sized vessel 
    A tankship suited to tie up at a T2 type pier. The mooring capacity of such berths restricts vessel length (LOA) to a maximum of 560-600 feet. In modern ship designs, this LOA allows a deadweight tonnage slightly exceeding 30,000. Such a tanker defines th
  • Handymax 
    Handymax or Supramax is a naval architecture term for a bulk carrier, typically between 35,000 and 60,000 metric tons deadweight (DWT). A handymax ship is typically 150–200 m (492–656 ft) in length, though certain bulk terminal restrictions, such as those
  • Handymax Vessel 
    A dry bulk vessel of 35,000 to 49,000dwt. (Note that a “Handy” drybulk carrier is from 10,000 to 34,000dwt.) A “Handymax Tanker” is a liquid bulk carrier of 10,000 to 60,000dwt. 
  • Handysize 
    Usually refers to a dry bulk vessel with deadweight of about 15,000–35,000 tons. The most common industry-standard specification handysize bulker is now about 32,000 metric tons of deadweight on a summer draft of about 10 metres (33 ft), and features 5 ca
  • Handysize Tanker 
    A product tanker that ranges in size between 27,000 and 39,999 deadweight tonnes. 
  • Harbor 
    A harbor is a sheltered part of a body of water deep enough to provide anchorage for ships or a place of refuge. Key features of all harbors include shelter from both long-and short period open ocean waves, easy safe access to the ocean in all types of we
  • Harbor and Ship Assist Tugs 
    Tugboats are designed to be powerful enough to push and pull objects many times their size. Harbor tugs are essential in every port to help maneuver large ships through narrow harbors and to assist them in docking and undocking from confined spaces. Harbo
  • Harbor Master 
    An official responsible for construction, maintenance, operation, regulation, enforcement, administra- tion and management pertaining to marinas, ports and harbors. 
  • Hard and Fast 
    A ship that was hard and fast was simply one that was firmly beached on land. Has come to mean ‘rigidly adhered to – without doubt or debate’. 
  • Hard Butter 
    A generic term used primarily in the confectionery industry to describe a class of fats with physical characteristics similar to those of cocoa butter or dairy butter. 
  • Hard Up 
    Hard is another often used nautical term. To put the helm hard over is to put it as far as it will go in that direction. Hard and fast describes a vessel firmly aground and unable to make progress and has come ashore to mean rigid. ‘Hard up in a clinch an
  • Harmonized System of Codes (HS) 
    An international goods classification system for describing cargo in international trade under a single commodity–coding scheme. Developed under the auspices of the Customs Cooperations Council (CCC), an international Customs organization in Brussels, thi
  • HAT 
    Highest astronomical tide 
  • Hatch 
    The opening in the deck of a vessel; gives access to the cargo hold. 
  • HAZ MAT 
    Hazardous Material 
  • Hazard 
    The hazard associated with a chemical is its intrinsic ability to cause an adverse effect. It should be compared to risk, which is the chance that such effects will occur. Whilst a chemical may have hazardous properties, provided it is handled safely unde
  • Hazardous Chemical 
    Any chemical that is a physical (i.e. -flammable, reactive) or health (i.e. irritant, carcinogen) hazard 
  • HBF 
    Harmless Bulk Fertilizer 
  • HBI 
    Hot Briquetted Iron 
  • HBL 
    Hydrostatic Balanced Loading (Marpol 13g): A process that may be adopted by single hull tankers if they wish to trade beyond 25 years of age through to final "phase-out" date at 30 years of age. This method of operation is designed to reduce the environ 
  • HBR 
    Hamburg range 
  • HC or H/C 
    Hatch cover; Hold cleaning 
  • HCFC 
    Hydro-chlorofluorocarbon compounds, such as freon 22 (R22) 
    Head charterers 
  • HCl 
    Hydrochloric Acid 
  • HCM 
    Ho Chi Minh City 
  • HD 
    Half DIspatch or Per hatch per day 
  • HDATS 
    Half dispatch all time saved 
    Half dispatch all time saved both ends 
  • HDL 
    Hatch delivery 
    Half Dispatch Lay Time Saved Both Ends 
  • HDPE 
    High-density polyethylene. A plastic that is used predominantly in the manufacture of blow-molded bottles for milk and household cleaners and injection-molded pails, bottle caps, appliance housings, and toys. 
  • HDWTS 
    Half Despatch Working Time Saved 
    Half dispatch working time saved both ends 
    Half despatch working time saved both ends 
  • Health Hazard 
    A chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees 
  • Heart cut 
    A distillation fraction restricted to a narrow range to meet specific needs. The navy, for instance, buys a heart cut of ordinary jet kero known as JP-5. 
  • Heat Bleaching 
    The process by which the natural carotene which colours crude palm oil is destroyed in the final stage of refining during deodorisation at temperatures above 240°C. Sometimes called "thermal bleaching". 
  • Heaving 
    Ship Stability: is the linear vertical (up/down) motion 
  • Heavy condensates 
  • Heavy Crude 
    Crude oil that is more difficult to pump and process due to a higher viscosity. 
  • Heavy fuel oil 
    A dense, opaque petroleum derivative made from the unboiled material, the bottoms or residue, from crude vacuum distillation units plus, perhaps heavy product from crackers. Blends made to meet market or specific customers standards often also include qua
  • Heavy Grade Oil 
    Heavy grade Oil: o crude oils, having a density at 15º C higher than 900 kg/m3; o oils, other than crude oils, having either a density at 15º C higher than 900 kg/m3 or a kinematic viscosity at 50 º C higher than 180 mm2/s; or; o bitumen, tar and their e
  • In-line blending 
    The practice of pumping various motor gasoline components from their individual storage tanks into a single pipe and mixing them in the process. Gasoline made in such fashion generally is intended for bulk in shipment. Typically it flows directly aboard a
  • IN. 
    Inch (-es) 
  • Incentive Rate 
    A lower–than–usual tariff rate assessed because a shipper offers a greater volume than specified in the tariff. The incentive rate is assessed for that portion exceeding the normal volume. 
  • Incinerator 
    A vessel equipped for the (now illegal) incineration of waste material at sea 
    Internaitonal Commercial Terms: A list of standard contract terms which specify the obligations for the delivery of goods in International Contracts particularly traded commodities. It is compiled and published the International Chamber of Commerce. 
    The recognized abbreviation for the International Chamber of Commerce Terms of Sale. These terms were last amended, effective July 1, 1990. 
  • Indemnity Bond 
    An agreement to hold a carrier harmless with regard to a liability. 
  • Independent Action 
    Setting rate within a conference tariff that is different from the rate(s) for the same items established by other conference members. 
  • Independent surveyors 
    The inspection and testing organizations hired by petroleum companies to determine how much and what quality of oil changed hands in performance on a deal. In the interest of impartiality, buyers and sellers usually share the cost of inspections. 
  • Independent Tariff 
    Any body of rate tariffs that are not part of an agreement or conference system. 
  • Indication 
    A suggestion given by a prospective buyer or seller of what he might do. Indications imply no commitments. At this level of discussions, folks can change their minds without serious consequences. 
  • Inducement 
    Placing a port on a vessel’s itinerary because the volume of cargo offered at that port justifies the cost of routing the vessel. 
  • Inert Gas 
    The atmosphere introduced into the ullage space of a tank to reduce its oxygen content to 8% O2 or less in order to prevent ignition of the vapour or cargo. Inert gas on vessels is usually the cleaned products of combustion from a boiler or inert gas gen 
  • Inert Gas Blanketing 
    Inert gas, usually nitrogen, put in the ullage space in a pressurised tank to prevent air oxidation of the product. 
  • Inert Gas Processing Pontoon, non propelled 
    A non propelled pontoon used for the purpose of generating Inert Gas 
  • Infantry Landing Craft 
    A combat vessel with a bow ramp for landing or loading infantry 
  • Infrared Radiation 
    The visible light is only a small fraction of the electromagnetic waves. Waves with wavelength longer than the visible red are generally called infrared radiation. Infrared radiation is that section of the spectrum covering the range from the limit of the
  • Inherent Vice 
    An insurance term referring to any defect or other characteristic of a product that could result in dam- age to the product without external cause (for example, instability in a chemical that could cause it to explode spontaneously). Insurance policies ma
  • Initial boiling point 
    The temperature where a natural material or fraction begins to boil. 
  • Inland Barge Tow 
    Towboats push barges on the nation's inland waterways loaded with materials and products that are the building blocks of America's economy - coal, grain, petroleum products, petrochemicals, fertilizers, sand, gravel, metal scrap, etc. One tow can be compr
  • Inland Barges 
    Self-propelled barges or dumb barges employed in port areas, on inland waterways sheltered or estuarial waters, which are not classified as seagoing vessels, including tankers not covered by international convention. Inland barges may be regulated by loca
  • Inland Bill Of Lading 
    An inland bill of lading allows the transporter to move goods across domestic land, via rail or truck. If the goods are to be shipped overseas, an addition document known as an "ocean bill of lading" is required. The inland bill only allows the materials
  • Inland Carrier 
    A transportation line that hauls export or import traffic between ports and inland points. 
    If New York, not north of George Washington bridge 
  • Inorganic 
    Not based on a carbon structure eg caustic soda, phosphoric acid 
  • Inorganic 
    Inorganic is said of any substance in which two or more chemical elements other than carbon are combined. Every chemical is either inorganic or organic. 
  • Inspection Certificate 
    A certificate issued by an independent agent or firm attesting to the quality and/or quantity of the merchandise being shipped. Such a certificate is usually required in a letter of credit for commodity shipments. 
  • INST. 
    Instant or Present month 
  • INST. 
    Clauses oficially accepted by the Institute of clauses London Underwriters 
  • Installment Shipments 
    Successive shipments are permitted under letters of credit. Usually they must take place within a given period of time. 
  • Insulated Container 
    A container insulated on the walls, roof, floor, and doors, to reduce the effect of external temperatures on the cargo. 
  • Insulated Container Tank 
    The frame of a container constructed to hold one or more thermally insulated tanks for liquids. 
  • Insurance with Average–clause 
    This type of clause covers merchandise if the damage amounts to three percent or more of the in- sured value of the package or cargo. If the vessel burns, sinks, or collides, all losses are fully covered. In marine insurance, the word average describes pa
  • Insurance, All–risk 
    This type of insurance offers the shipper the broadest coverage available, covering against all losses that may occur in transit. 
  • Insurance, General–Average 
    In water transportation, the deliberate sacrifice of cargo to make the vessel safe for the remaining cargo.Those sharing in the spared cargo proportionately cover the loss. 
  • Insurance, Particular Average 
    A Marine insurance term which refers to partial loss on an individual shipment from one of the perils insured against, regardless of the balance of the cargo. Particular–average insurance can usually be obtained, but the loss must be in excess of a certai
  • Integrated oil companies 
    Organizations which find, produce, transport, and refine oil, and market oil products. Less complete enterprises concentrate on a part of this sequence. The industry calls its largest integrated companies the majors. 
    International Association of Dry Cargo shipowners 
  • Interchange Point 
    A location where one carrier delivers freight to another carrier. 
  • Interchangeabililty 
    All fats have a common basic chemical structure, being triglycerides. However, because the fatty acids in combination vary, the physical properties of different fats are not identical. In general, liquid character is imparted by unsaturated acids and by s
  • Intercoastal 
    Water service between two coasts; in the U.S., this usually refers to water service between the Atlantic and Pacific or Gulf Coasts. 
  • Intercrystalline Corrosion 
    Corrosion in or adjacent to the grain boundaries of a metal 
  • Interesterication  
    A term given to the production of esters by interaction of two esters in the presence of an alkaline or enzymatic catalyst. 
  • Interesterification 
    Interesterification modifies the natural distribution of the fatty acids in fats and oils. By the use of a catalyst the combined fatty acids are induced to become detached from their original glycerol molecule and reattached in a random manner (random int
  • Intergranular corrosion 
    Corrosion in or adjacent to the grain boundaries of a metal 
  • Interior Channel 
    The access channel system inside a water body that connects the entrance channel (inlet or bar) to a port or harbor with appropriate ship facilities. Interior channels are usually located to provide some protection from waves and weather and are located i
  • Interline Freight 
    Freight moving from origin to destination over the Freight lines of two or more transportation car- riers. 
  • Intermediate 
    A partially refined petroleum stream. Such materials require further processing to make finished products. Various intermediates sell as feedstocks. The industry also uses this word as an adjective to designate a medium score on some quality ranking--betw
  • Intermediate 
    A chemical intermediate is any substance generated by one step in a synthetic process and used for the succeeding step. 
  • Intermediate crude 
    Petroleum with sulfur content between sweet and sour--often defined as between 0.5 and 1.0 weight percent sulfur. 
  • Intermediate Point 
    A point located en route between two other points. 
    Carriage of a commodity by different modes of transport, i.e. sea, road, rail and air within a single journey. 
  • International Ship and Port Security Code (ISPS) 
    It is an amendment to the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention (1974/1988) on minimum security arrangements for ships, ports and government agencies. Having come into force in 2004, it prescribes responsibilities to governments, shipping companies, sh
    The International Association of Independent Tanker Owners: An international organisation based in London whose aim is to represent the views of its members at International Forums. 
  • Invoice 
    An itemized list of goods shipped to a buyer, stating quantities, prices, shipping charges, etc. 
  • Inward Foreign Manifest (IFM) 
    A complete listing of all cargo entering the country of discharge. Required at all world ports and is the primary source of cargo control, against which duty is assessed by the receiving country. 
  • Iodine Value 
    Iodine value is a measure of the total number of unsaturated double bonds present in an oil. Determination of iodine value involves the addition of an excess of halogen to the sample, reaction of the excess halogen with potassium iodide and titration of l
  • IPA 
    Intermediate Pressure Ahead 
  • IPA 
    Isopropyl Alcohol 
  • IPF 
    Intaken piled fathorn 
  • IPI 
    Inland Point Intermodal: Refers to inland points (non–ports) that can be served by carriers on a through bill of lading. 
  • IPIF 
    International Petrochemical Information Forum 
  • IPPC 
    EU Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (see Best Available Techniques) 
    By the fact itself 
  • Iron 
    Iron acts as a catalyst in oxidation processes and thus it is detrimental to the quality of oils and fats. Iron is a trace metal, its presence in vegetable oils is mainly due to contamination such as wear and tear of machinery during extraction and during
  • Irrevocable Letter of Credit 
    Letter of credit in which the specified payment is guaranteed by the bank if all terms and conditions are met by the drawee and which cannot be revoked without joint agreement of both the buyer and the seller. 
  • Irritant 
    A substance that produces an irritating effect when it contacts the skin, eyes, nose or respiratory system. 
  • IRS 
    Indian Register of Shipping 
  • ISF 
    International Shipping Federation 
    International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals: A comprehensive guide to the safe conduct of all tanker and terminal cargo related operations 
  • ISIF 
    International Styrene Information Forum. For more information, click here. 
  • ISIS 
    Integrated Ship Inspection System (see CDI) 
  • ISLWG 
    International Shipping Legislation Working Group (UNCTAD) 
  • ISM Code 
    Provides an international standard for the safe management and operation of ships and for pollution prevention. This is a regulatory requirement for shipping companies. 
  • ISO 14001 
    Provides standards on how to manage a company''s activities in a way that minimizes harm to the environment. 
  • Isobutanol 
    Isobutanol is a colorless, flammable organic compound classified as an alcohol. As such, it is widely used as a solvent in chemical reactions and as a starting material for organic synthesis. 
  • Isobutyl acetate 
    Isobutyl acetate is a common solvent, produced from the esterification of isobutanol with acetic acid. 
  • Isobutylene 
    Isobutylene is used in organic synthesis and in the production of high octane aviation gasoline. Its main use is in the production of butyl rubber where it comprises 98% of the raw material used. 
  • Isomer 
    Compounds containing the same elements in the same proportions which can exist in more than one structural form, e.g. geometric, positional or cyclic. 
  • Isomer 
    One of two or more compounds of the same type and chemical formula but different configurations. For example two C4 paraffins, isobutane and normal butane have the same number of carbon and hydrogen atoms. But the carbons form a T shape in one and a strai
  • Isomer-Isomeric 
    Two or more substances that have identical molecular formulas but different molecular structures or configurations, and hence different properties, are called isomers. Isomers differ only in the arrangement of their component atoms. 
  • Isomerate 
    The motor gasoline blendstock made by a C5-C6 isomerization unit. 
  • Isomerisation 
    The chemical process by which a compound is transformed into any of its isomeric forms, i.e., forms with the same chemical composition but with different structure or configuration and, hence, generally with different physical and chemical properties. An
  • Isomers 
    Materials having the same chemical formula but having different structures and properties. 
  • Isomerzation 
    A process which forces one isomer to become another. The most common application in the oil industry involves twisting linear paraffins into branched-chain form. Many refiners turn into isobutane, and a normal pentane hexane stream into an isopentaneisohe
  • ISOPA 
    The European Isocyanate Producers Association, an affiliate of Cefic. 
  • Isoparaffins 
    Branched-chain saturate hydrocarbons. Any paraffin composed of four or more carbon atoms can have one or more isoparaffinic isomers. 
  • Isophorone 
    Isophorone is a clear liquid that can be dissolved in water. It is an industrial chemical used extensively as a solvent in some printing inks, paints, lacquers, adhesives, vinyl resins, copolymers, coatings, finishes, and pesticides, in addition to being
  • Isopropanol 
    Isopropanol is a major component of rubbing alcohols. Isopropanol is a secondary alcohol. It is one of the cheapest alcohols and has replaced ethanol for many uses because of its similar solvent properties. Isopropanol was formerly obtained largely by cat
  • Isopropyl acetate 
    Isopropyl Acetate is a fast evaporating, mild odor solvent that is miscible with most common organic solvents and has properties intermediate between ethyl and butyl acetates. Isopropyl acetate can be used as surfactant in cleaning fluids, coatings, coati
  • ISPS 
    International Ship and Port Facility Security 
    International Ship and Port Facility Security Code 
  • ISSC 
    International Ship Security Certificate 
  • Issuing Bank 
    Bank that opens a straight or negotiable letter of credit and assumes the obligation to pay the bank or beneficiary if the documents presented are in accordance with the terms of the letter of credit. 
  • Issuing Carrier 
    The carrier issuing transportation documents or publishing a tariff. 
  • ISTEC 
    Intertanko Technical Committee 
  • IT 
    Immediate Transport: The document (prepared by the carrier) allows shipment to proceed from the port of entry in the U.S. to Customs clearing at the destination. The shipment clears Customs at its final destination. Also called an “In–Transit” Entry. 
    If Used, Half Actual Time Used To Count 
    If Used, Half Time Actually used to Count 
  • IVR 
    Rhine Barge Register: International Association for the representation of the mutual interests of the inland shipping and the insurance and for keeping the register of inland vessels in Europe. 
  • j. & w.o. 
    Jettison and washing overboard 
  • Jacket 
    A wood or fiber cover placed around such containers as cans and bottles. 
  • Jacket Launching Pontoon 
    A pontoon designed for positioning and launching jackets for offshore use 
  • Jacket Launching Pontoon, semi submersible 
    A semi submersible pontoon designed for positioning and launching jackets for offshore use 
  • Jacob’s Ladder 
    A rope ladder suspended from the side of a vessel and used for boarding. 
  • Jet 
    A nickname for kerosene-range aviation turbine fuel. A somewhat longer expression, jet kero, also enjoys wide popularity as a substitute for the formal designation. 
  • Jet A-1 
    ASTM's designation for the most common grade of aviation turbine fuel. 
    A shortened version of “jet kerosene.” See aviation turbine fuel. 
  • Jetties 
    Structural features that provide obstructions to littoral drift, control entrance currents, prevent or reduce shoaling in the entrance channel, maintain channel alignment, and provide protection from waves for navigation (EM 1110-2-1613). 
  • Jettison 
    Act of throwing cargo or equipment (jetsam) overboard when a ship is in danger. 
  • JIT 
    Just In Time: In this method of inventory control, warehousing is minimal or non–existent; the container is the movable warehouse and must arrive “just in time;” not too early nor too late. 
  • Joint Rate 
    A rate applicable from a point on one transportation line to a point on another line, made by agreement and published in a single tariff by all transportation lines over which the rate applies. 
  • Joint Service 
    Two or more shipping companies jointly operating a service 
  • Joint Survey 
    An Inspection carried out by a surveyor on behalf of two parties with the cost generally being borne by both. Generally, cargo surveys often fall under this category, but surveys are carried out for a myriad of reasons, including but not limited to on and
  • Joint Venture 
    A Joint Venture is a contractual arrangement whereby two or more parties control jointly an economic activity. The economic activity is carried through a separate enterprise (company or partnership, it is handled as a jointly controlled enterprise. Joint
  • JP-4 
    Jet B. A common grade of military jet fuel. The industry habitually calls this product naphtha-type jet because it has a lower boiling range than civil jet kero. 
  • JP-5 
    A heart cut of jet A-1 favored aboard aircraft carriers for its high flash point. 
  • JPCA 
    Japan Petrochemical Industry Association 
  • JSA 
    Japanese Shipowners' Association 
  • Junk 
    Old rope no longer able to take a load, it was cut into shorter lengths and used to make mops and mats. 
  • Jury Rig 
    A temporary repair to keep a disabled ship sailing until it could make port, such as a jury sail erected when the mast was lost or a jury rudder as an emergency means of steering when the ship’s rudder was damaged. 
  • Ship Stability: Symbol for keel 
  • K OW 
    Octanol-water partition coefficient. The ratio of a chemical's solubility in n-octanol and water at steady state; also expressed as P. The logarithm of P or K OW (i.e., log P or K OW) is used as an indication of a chemical's propensity of bioconcentration
  • Kamsramax 
    A Kamsarmax type bulk carrier is basically a 82,000 dwt Panamax with an increased LOA = 229 m (for Port Kamsar in Equatorial Guinea). 
  • Karl Fischer 
    The measurement of small amounts of water in oils and fats is most suitably done by the Karl Fischer procedure in which the water is reacted with a special reagent. Unlike methods using oven drying, the Karl Fischer method is specific for water. It is par
  • KB 
    Ship Stability: Linear, distance from the keel to the center of buoyancy. 
  • Keel 
    Longitudinal girder at lowest point of a ship, from which the framework is built up. The keel provides ship with stability and structural integrity. 
  • Kelp Dredger 
    A vessel equipped for harvesting kelp seaweed 
  • Kerosene 
    A petroleum product which boils between naphtha gasoil. This cut's distillation range can vary to accommodate other products. Many refiners want to take naphtha as high as 350 or 375 F. In those cases, the kerosene cut has a rather high initial boiling po
  • Ketone 
    An important starting material and intermediate in organic synthesis. Many ketones of industrial significance are used as solvents, perfumes, and flavoring agents or as intermediates in the manufacture of plastics, dyes, and pharmaceuticals. 
  • KG 
    Ship Stability: Height of center of gravity of the vessel above keel or baseline 
  • Kinematic viscosity 
    A measure of liquid's rate of flow under gravity. The standard test of this property determines the time a sample of material requires to drain through a laboratory vessel. 
  • King Pin 
    A coupling pin centered on the front underside of a chassis; couples to the tractor. 
  • KN or KTS or KNOTS 
    Nautical miles per hour 
  • Knocked Down (KD) 
    Articles which are taken apart to reduce the cubic footage displaced or to make a better shipping unit and are to be re–assembled 
  • Knocking 
    Preignition. If the gasolineair vapor in a motor's cylinders is too compressed, the heat produced will cause it to ignite without the aid of a spark. This uncontrolled combustion probably will not occur at the ideal moment to transfer energy and promote r
  • Knot 
    One nautical mile (6,076 feet or 1852 meters) per hour. In the days of sail, speed was measured by tossing overboard a log which was secured by a line. Knots were tied into the line at intervals of ap- proximately six feet. The number of knots measured wa
  • Known Loss 
    A loss discovered before or at the time of delivery of a shipment. 
  • Kommandittselskap (K/S) 
    Limited partnership. A form of shipfinancing  
  • KPH 
    Kilometres per hour 
  • KPIA 
    Korean Petrochemical Industry Association . 
  • Kyoto Protocol 
    International agreement, adopted under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions  
  • L.B.H. 
    Length / breadth / height 
  • L/D 
    Loading / discharging 
  • LA 
    Los Angeles (USA) or Letter of Authority or Letter of Appointment 
  • Lacyhrymator 
    A material which produces an excess production of tear fluid when it comes into contact with the eye.  
  • Lading 
    Refers to the freight shipped; the contents of a shipment. 
  • Lakers 
    Bulkers prominent on the Great Lakes, often identifiable by having a forward house which helps in transiting locks. Operating in fresh water, these ships suffer much less corrosion damage and have a much longer lifespan than saltwater ships. 
  • Landbridge 
    Movement of cargo by water from one country through the port of another country, thence, using rail or truck, to an inland point in that country or to a third country. As example, a through movement of Asian cargo to Europe across North America. 
  • Landed Cost 
    The total cost of a good to a buyer, including the cost of transportation. 
  • Landing Certificate 
    Certificate issued by consular officials of some importing countries at the point or place of export when the subject goods are exported under bond. 
  • Landing Craft 
    An open deck cargo vessel onto which cargo is loaded and unloaded over a bow door/ramp 
  • Landing Gear 
    A support fixed on the front part of a chassis (which is retractable); used to support the front end of a chassis when the tractor has been removed. 
  • Landing Ship (Dock Type) 
    A combat vessel designed for the transport of troops, using a semi submersible dock to launch landing craft or helicopters, and with ro-ro ramp facilities 
    whereby each unit of space (Linear Meter) is represented by an area of deck 1.0 meter in length x 2.0 meters in width. 
  • Lanemeter 
    Primarily used to indicate the cargo capacity of a roll–on/roll–off car carrier. It is one meter of deck with a width of 2.5 to 3.0 meters. 
  • Lard 
    The rendered fat of the pig. One of the traditional cooking fats, especially in Europe and USA. The best quality lard is obtained from the internal fats surrounding the kidney etc. Pork backfat is significantly softer in character. 
  • LASH 
    Lighter Aboard Ship 
  • Latex (pl. latices) 
    A water emulsion of a synthetic rubber or plastic obtained by polymerization and used especially in coatings, paints and adhesives. Latices include a binder dispersed in the water and form films by fusion of the plastic particles as the water evaporates.
  • Latex Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of latex 
  • Lauric Acid 
    Lauric acid is a commonly distributed, naturally occurring saturated fatty acid (C12:0). The richest common sources of lauric acid are coconut, palm kernel and babassu oils. 
  • Lauric Fats and Oils 
    The largest volume lauric fats and oils are coconut and palm kernel, which are vital to the manufacture of surfactants among other applications. Lauric oils typically contain 40-50% lauric acid (C12) in combination with lesser amounts of other relatively
  • Lauric Oils 
    Oils containing 40-50% lauric acids (C12 ) in combination with other relatively low molecular weight fatty acids. Coconut and palm kernel oils are principal examples. 
  • Laycan 
    The period when a spot chartered ship must arrive to load a cargo. The word combines “laydays” and “cancellation” as does the concept. Charter parties specify a range of days when the terminal will receive the ship which corresponds to the laydays of the
  • Laydays 
    The ship-loading window allotted to a parcel of oil. A supplier names a period of time when his customer must lift the oil he has purchased. Cargoes get several days, barges perhaps a single day, consistent with the time required to load the quantity invo
  • Laytime 
    A specific number of hours, named in the pertinent charter party, a tanker must prepare to spend on berth at the shipowner's expense. Details vary from one fixture to another. Usually, though, owner and charterer agree on a total laytime for a voyage whic
  • LB 
    Long Bearch (USA) or Pounds 
  • LBP 
    Length Between Perpendiculars 
  • LC-50 
    Lethal Concentration 50. This concentration of a hazardous material in air is expected to kill 50% of a group of test animals when given as a single respiratory exposure in a specific time period 
  • LCL 
    Less than Full Container Load 
  • LCL/FCL 
    More than one Shipper/one Consignee 
  • LD 
    Lethal Dose. The dose of a substance being tested which will kill a test+ animal. 
  • LD-50 
    Lethal Dose 50. The single dose, other than inhalation, that causes death in 50% of an animal population from exposure to a hazardous substance. 
  • LD-LO 
    Lethal Dose Low. The lowest dose, other than inhalation, that caused death in humans or animals. 
  • LDO 
    Light diesel oil 
  • LDPE 
    Low Density Polyethylene. A plastic used predominantly in film applications due to its toughness, flexibility and relative transparency. LDPE has a low melting point, making it popular for use in applications where heat sealing is necessary. Typically, LD
  • LDT 
    Light Displacement tonnes 
  • Lead 
    Tetra-ethyl (TEL) or tetra-methyl (TML) lead, primarily. These lead alkyls improve the octane rating of certain motor gasoline blendstocks quite inexpensively. Concern about the health effects of lead and other airborne pollutants generated restrictions o
  • Lead response 
    The susceptibility of a motor gasoline blending component to octane improvement by addition of lead alkyl anti- knock compounds. 
  • Lecithin 
    The mixed phosphatides obtained from vegetable oils in the degumming process. The main source is from soybean oil. 
  • Leeway 
    The weather side of a ship is the side from which the wind is blowing. The Lee side is the side of the ship sheltered from the wind. A lee shore is a shore that is downwind of a ship. If a ship does not have enough “leeway” it is in danger of being driven
  • Less Than Truckload 
    Also known as LTL or LCL. 
  • Let the Cat Out of the Bag 
    In the Royal Navy the punishment prescribed for most serious crimes was flogging. This was administered by the Bosun's Mate using a whip called a cat o' nine tails. The "cat" was kept in a leather or baize bag. It was considered bad news indeed when the c
  • Lethal Concentration Low, LC-LO 
    This value indicates the lowest concentration of a substance in the air that caused death in humans or laboratory animals. This value may represent periods of exposure that are less than 24 hours (acute) or greater than 24 hours (subacute and chronic). 
  • Letter of Credit (LC) 
    A document, issued by a bank per instructions by a buyer of goods, authorizing the seller to draw a specified sum of money under specified terms, usually the receipt by the bank of certain documents within a given time. 
  • Letter of Indemnity 
    In order to obtain the clean bill of lading, the shipper signs a letter of indemnity to the carrier on the basis of which may be obtained the clean bill of lading, although the dock or mate’s receipt showed that the shipment was damaged or in bad conditio
  • LGC or L.G.C. 
    Longitudinal Center of Gravity: That point at which the combined weight of all the items that constitute a ship's weight are considered to be concentrated; usually stated as either aft or forward of the middle perpendicular or the midship frame. 
  • LGT 
  • LH 
    Lower hold 
  • LHAR 
    London, Hull, Antwerp, Rotterdam range 
  • Lien 
    A legal claim upon goods for the satisfaction of some debt or duty. 
  • Lift 
    To take purchased product by loading it aboard a transportation vessel at the point of production or storage. 
  • Lifter 
    A product purchaser who takes (lifts) crude, fuel, or feedstock physically from a producer's or reseller's facility. Oil frequently has a buyer and a lifter. The buyer, some times a contract holder, sells his stem to someone else who lifts it from the sou
  • Lifting subjects 
    Confirmation of a deal by removal of any exceptions--any subjects--left open at the time of its conclusion. 
  • Light Crude 
    Crude oil that is easier to pump and process due to a lower viscosity. 
  • Light ends 
    Hydrocarbons lighter than naphtha derived from crude oil and natural gas processing. The industry also describes this collection of volatile materials as “C 4 and lighter.” Butane, propane, ethane and methane, the predominant hydrocarbons in this cut, wou
  • Light naphtha 
    A naphtha cut with a boiling range which commonly extends from pentane through 175 F or perhaps a bit higher. The exact end point varies with the needs and objectives refiner. See NAPHTHA. 
  • Light products 
    Refinery products in the middle distillate and naphtha boiling ranges. 
  • Lightening 
    A vessel discharges part of its cargo at anchor into a lighter to reduce the vessel’s draft so it can then get alongside a pier. 
  • Lighter 
    An open or covered barge towed by a tugboat and used mainly in harbors and inland waterways to carry cargo to/from alongside a vessel. 
  • Lighterage 
    Refers to carriage of goods by lighter and the charge assessed there from. 
  • Lightering 
    Unloading of cargo from deep draft vessels into smaller vessels that are able to enter shallower ports. 
  • Lightering 
    ship-to-ship transfer of cargo in deepwater to complete loading of a vessel leaving a shallow load port (or berth) or to partially unload one which draws too much water to reach a shallow point. 
  • Lighthouse Tender 
    A vessel equipped for supply of stores and personnel to lighthouses 
  • Lightship 
    A vessel specifically designed for use as a lightship for use as a navigational mark 
  • Limestone Carrier 
    A single deck cargo vessel for the carriage of limestone in bulk. There are no weather deck hatches. May be self discharging 
  • Line–Haul 
    Transportation from one city to another as differentiated from local switching service. 
  • Liner 
    A vessel advertising sailings on a specified trade route on a regular basis. It is not necessary that every named port be called on every voyage. 
  • Linoleic Acid 
    Linoleic acid is the most important poly-unsaturated fatty acid, naturally occurring in natural fats and oils (C18:2). It is an essential fatty acid, i.e. a dietary requirement for healthy animals. Physiologically important as a precursor for the producti
  • Linolenic Acid 
    It is widely distributed in nature as a major component of many of the more highly unsaturated vegetable oils (C18:3). It is a major component of linseed oil and its high degree of unsaturation is responsible for the drying properties of the oil. 
  • Lipid 
    Historically a general term for natural organic products that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. The most common lipids are the neutral triglycerides (oils, fats) but the term includes minor components, often of biological importance,
  • Lipoprotein 
    Any of the class of proteins that contain a lipid combined with a simple protein. 
  • Liquefaction 
    Process that takes clean natural gas and condenses it using a refrigeration process. Temperature of the gas is reduced to a very frigid - 260°F (-163°C), reducing its volume by more than 600 times. At this temperature LNG can be stored and transported as
  • Liquefied Natural Gas 
    LNG - Natural gas that has been cooled to - 260°F ( - 163°C), which liquefies it for safer, easier transport. 
  • Liquidated Damages 
    The penalty a seller must pay if the construction project does not meet contractual standards or dead- lines. 
  • List 
    The amount in degrees that a vessel tilts from the vertical. 
  • Listless 
    When a ship was listless, she was sitting still and upright in the water, with no wind to make her lean over (list) and drive ahead. 
  • Live Fish Carrier (Well Boat) 
    A vessel for the carriage of live fish in water tanks 
  • Livestock Carrier 
    A cargo vessel arranged for the carriage of livestock 
  • LL 
    Load lines or Long Lenghts 
  • LLDPE 
    Linear Low Density Polyethylene. A plastic that is used predominantly in film applications due to its toughness, flexibility and relative transparency. LLDPE is the preferred resin for injection molding because of its superior toughness and is used in ite
  • Lloyds’ Registry 
    An organization maintained for the surveying and classing of ships so that insurance underwriters and others may know the quality and condition of the vessels offered for insurance or employment. 
  • LMC 
    Lloyd's Machinery Certificate 
  • LNG 
    Liquefied Natural Gas: Natural gas that has been converted temporarily to liquid form for ease of storage or transport. 
  • LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) 
    Natural gas will liquefy at a temperature of approximately -259 F or -160 C at atmospheric pressure. One cubic foot of liquefied gas will expand to approximately 600 cubic feet of gas at atmospheric pressure. 
  • LNG Carriers 
    Liquefied Natural Gas Carriers - Specialized ships that carry super-cooled liquefied natural gas. 
  • LNG Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of Liquefied Natural Gas (primarily methane) in independent insulated tanks. Liquefaction is achieved at temperatures down to -163 deg C 
  • LNGC (LNG Carrier) 
    An ocean-going ship specially constructed to carry LNG in tanks at 160 C. Current average carrying capacity of LNGs is 125,000 cubic metres. Many LNGCs presently under construction or on order are in the 210,000 – 215,000 cubic metre range. 
  • Lo Ho 
    Lower Hold 
  • LOA 
    Length Over All or Letter of Appointment 
  • LOA 
    Length-over-all. Distance between the fore-most and aft-most points of a ship. 
  • Load Center 
    A high volume container port effectively reducing vessel port calls by concentrating intermodal sea-land transfers at a few large ports rather than spreading them out among a larger number of small ports. 
  • Load Line 
    The waterline corresponding to the maximum draft to which a vessel is permitted to load, either by freeboard regulations, the conditions of classification, or the conditions of service. See also Plimsoll Mark. 
  • Load on Top 
    The procedure where a crude oil cargo is loaded into tanks on top of residues from a previous cargo (these residues are normally held in a "slop tank" and are the result of tank washing and dirty ballast decanting operations on pre-MARPOL ships). 
  • Loaded specs 
    The quality of a cargo of oil as tested at loading aboard a vessel. Information frequently offered as actual specifications. 
  • Local Cargo 
    Cargo delivered to/from the carrier where origin/destination of the cargo is in the local area. 
  • Local toxicity 
    Adverse effects seen at the site where the test material comes into initial contact with the organism. 
  • Localized Corrosion 
    Corrosion preferentially concentrated on discrete sites of the metal surface exposed to the corrosive environment 
  • Location swap 
    A deal in which companies trade oil in one place for some somewhere else. 
  • Lock and Dam 
    a device for raising and lowering boats from one water level to another. It is often associated with a dam. 
  • Locks 
    Tows must navigate through locks in order to get around dams on the rivers. Many locks on the nation's waterways are now over 60 years old and are too small to accommodate the size of the modern tows, forcing those tows to be broken up and taken through t
  • Log Tipping Ship 
    A vessel equipped to transport logs discharge them into the water by tipping itself 
  • Log Towing 
    One disappearing but fascinating function of the towing industry is log towing, where small boats pull logs on rivers to sawmills in log rafts, frames of logs connected with chains within which are hundreds of logs. Today, this operation is only performed
  • Logistics Vessel (Naval Ro-Ro Cargo) 
    A naval auxiliary vessel. With ro-ro capability 
  • LOH 
    Loss of hire 
  • LOLO 
    Lift On Lift Off ship 
  • Long Haul 
    Operation on ship requiring the hauling of a lot of line. Also seen in short haul, an operation requiring little line. 
  • Long residue 
  • Long Shot 
    In old warships, the muzzle-loading cannon were charged with black powder of uncertain potency that would propel the iron shot an equally uncertain distance with doubtful accuracy. A 24-pounder long gun, for instance, was considered to have a maximum effe
  • Longitudinal Axis 
    Ship Stability: an axis drawn through the body of the vehicle from tail to nose in the normal direction of movement, or the direction the pilot faces. Parallel to the waterline. 
  • Longshoreman 
    Individual employed in a port to load and unload ships. 
  • Longshoremen 
    those employed to unload and load ships 
  • Loose 
    Without packing. 
  • Loose Cannon 
    A cannon having come loose on the deck of a pitching, rolling, and yawing deck could cause severe injury and damage. Has come to mean an unpredictable or uncontrolled person who is likely to cause unintentional damage. 
  • LOSG 
    Lower Olefins Sector Group, a sector group of the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • Lovibond 
    This refers to a widely used system by which the colour of an oil can be measured. The essential features of this system consist of a light source, a series of calibrated coloured glasses forming the standards of reference and an instrument in which they
  • Low pour 
    A description of distillate or residual fuel oils, which flow at relatively low temperatures. Sometimes, the industry uses this term, and its opposite, informally. Frequently, though, it designates oil meeting specific standards of a particular market. 
  • Low-speed diesel 
    Very powerful, heavy-duty diesel engines such as those used to drive ocean-going ships and large electricity generators.These engines burn residual oil. 
  • Low–Boy 
    A trailer or semi–trailer with no sides and with the floor of the unit close to the ground. 
  • LPG 
    Liquefied Petroleum Gas: A nonrenewable gaseous fossil fuel, which turns to liquid under moderate pressure;by-product of natural gas processing and oil refining 
  • LPG Barge, propelled 
    A self propelled tanker barge for the bulk carriage of Liquefied Petroleum Gas 
  • LPG carriers 
    Tankers fitted to transport such volatile products as propane, butane, ammonia, and vinyl chloride monomer. These cargoes require high-pressure or refrigerated storage to keep them in liquid form. In these times of slack employment in their specialty, som
  • LPG Tank Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled tank barge for the carriage of LPG 
  • LPG Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of Liquefied Petroleum Gas in insulated tanks, which may be independent or integral. The cargo is pressurised (smaller vessels), refrigerated (larger vessels) or both ('semi-pressurised') to achieve liquefaction.  
  • LPG/Chemical Tanker 
    An LPG tanker additionally capable of the carriage of chemical products as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code 
  • LR-1 
    AFRA's large-range 1 tankers. These ships' deadweight tonnages fall between 45,000 and 79,999. 
  • LR-2 
    AFRA's large-range 2 tankers. These vessels have deadweight tonnages between 80,000 and 159,999. 
  • LR1 Tanker 
    Long Range 1 (LR1) Tanker - Product tanker ranging in size between 45,000 and 79,999 deadweight tonnes. Main trade routes are Middle East Gulf to the Far East and Europe, or from northwest Europe to the United States. 
  • LR2 Tanker 
    Long Range 2 (LR2) Tanker - Product tanker ranging in size from 80,000 to 159,999 deadweight tonnes. Main trade routes are Middle East Gulf to the Far East and Europe, or from northwest Europe to the United States. The LR2 segment consists of the largest
  • LRF 
    Lloyds Register Fairplay: Publications such as the Register of Ships and the World Shipping Directory, Lloyd's Register - Fairplay also provides bespoke data services and market analyses. 
  • LS 
    Light Ship or Lump Sum 
  • LSD 
    Landing Ship Dock or Landing Storage and Delivery 
  • LSD 
    Lashed, Secured and Dunnaged 
    Loaded, stowed, lasned, secured, dunnaged and unlashed 
  • Lt. V 
    Light vessel 
  • LT.V. 
    Liner Terms, Both Ends 
  • LTGE 
  • LTI 
    Lost Time Injury - Key performance indicator measuring the loss of productive time due to injury. 
  • LTSBE 
    Laytime saved both ends 
  • Lubricating Oil 
    Is a Clean Petroleum Product (CPP) as defined in this section. It is a product of many specialist grades derived through the blending of components known as Base Oils. 
  • Lump Sum 
    An agreed sum of money for freight, irrespective of the amount of cargo carried. 
  • Lumpsum 
    A price for oil transportation quoted as a total for the cargo. This approach differs from the popular practice of charging a rate per ton carried. Lumpsums also differ from the rate method by including canal tolls and other items usually treated as surch
  • LVOC 
    Large Volume Organic Chemicals 
  • LWH 
    Length, width, height 
  • LWNA 
    Lumber Winter North Atlantic 
  • LWT 
    Lightweight tons 
  • M/D 
    Months after date or Malicious damage 
  • M/S 
    Motor Ship or Mate's Receipt 
  • M/V 
    Motor vessel/merchant vessel 
  • M/Y 
    Motor yacht 
  • M/Y or MY 
    Motor yacht 
  • MAA 
    Mina Al Ahmadi 
  • Macro-Bridge 
    Also known as "land bridge:. It is the same as mini-bridge, except that it involves substitution of land transportation across the United States in place of water service, for traffic that originates and terminates outside of the United States. 
  • Mainstay 
    A stay that extends from the maintop to the foot of the foremast of a sailing ship. Currently, a thing upon which something is based or depends. 
  • Maintenance Platform, jack up 
    A jack up offshore maintenance platform 
  • Maintenance Platform, semi Submersible 
    A semi submersible offshore maintenance platform 
  • Malaccamax  
    Malaccamax is a naval architecture term for the largest size of ship capable of fitting through the 25 metres (82 ft)-deep Strait of Malacca. 
  • Malpractice 
    A carrier giving a customer illegal preference to attract cargo. This can take the form of a money refund (rebate); using lower figures than actual for the assessment of freight charges (undercubing); misdeclaration of the commodity shipped to allow the a
  • Mandamu 
    A writ issued by a court; requires that specific things be done. 
  • Manifest 
    a detailed summary sheet of all cargo being carried for each vessel trip; information also includes origin, destination, value, number, etc. 
  • MAP 
    Mono-ammonium phosphate 
  • Margarines 
    Margarines are semi-solid or consistent fatty foods originally developed to imitate dairy butter. They therefore contain a proportion of emulsified aqueous phase similar to that found in butter. The amount of moisture permitted in margarine is limited by
  • Marine Insurance 
    Broadly, insurance covering loss or damage of goods at sea. Marine insurance typically compensates the owner of merchandise for losses sustained from fire, shipwreck, etc., but excludes losses that can be recovered from the carrier. 
  • Marine Oils 
    The first common source of marine oil was obtained from whales. Today, whale numbers have been reduced to insignificance. Various types of fish are caught for processing into meal and oil, for example, herring, menhaden and anchovy. After refining and par
  • Marine pollutant 
    Substances, articles or materials which, if released into the aquatic environment, may cause serious environmental damage. 
  • Maritime 
    Business pertaining to commerce or navigation transacted upon the sea or in seaports in such matters as the court of admiralty has jurisdiction. 
  • Maritime Domain 
    It is all areas and things of, on, under, relating to, adjacent to, or bordering on a sea, ocean, or other navigable waterway, including all maritime related activities, infrastructure, people, cargo, and vessels and other conveyances. 
  • Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) 
    It is the effective understanding of anything associated with the global maritime domain that could impact the security, safety, economy, or environment of the United States. 
  • Maritime lien 
    A right in the propery of a ship, conferred by law for seamens wages, salvage, etc. 
  • Maritime Security and Safety Information System (MSSIS) 
    It shares and displays vessel Automated Identification System (AIS) data real–time with multiple international users through a web–based, password–protected system. 
  • Maritime Waterways 
    Inland waterways linked to the sea, basically used for the traffic of seagoing vessels and designated as such under national law 
  • Markets 
    Markets for oleochemicals continue to evolve, with niche markets developing continually. Nonetheless, the main end-use markets include building auxiliaries, candles, cleaning agents, cosmetics, detergents, fire extinguishing agents, flotation agents, food
  • Marking 
    Letters, numbers, and other symbols placed on cargo packages to facilitate identification. Also known as marks. 
    The abbreviated term for the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution by Ships (MARine POLlution) The International regulations concerning the construction of vessels and procedures to be followed to prevent pollution of the sea by oil, no
  • MARPOL 73/78 
    International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1978  
  • Marpol Category 
    The Pollution Category (X, Y, Z) assigned to each product under Annex II of MARPOL 73/78. OS means the product was evaluated, and found to fall outside the categories X, Y, or Z. I indicates that the product is an Annex 1 product. 
  • MARPOL Pollution Category 
    This refers to the pollution categories designated in the “MARPOL 73/78” regulations: X to Z - Pollution category of the cargo as evaluated by MARPOL. “X” means highest environment impact OS - Pollution category is evaluated, but outside categories X to Z
  • MarView 
    It is an integrated, data–driven environment providing essential information to support the strategic requirements of the United States Marine Transportation System and its contribution to economic viability of the nation. 
  • Mass explosion 
    Explosion which affects almost the entire load virtually instantaneously. 
  • Master 
    An officer qualified to command a ship. Usually refers to the Captain. 
  • Master Inbound 
    U.S. Customs’ automated program under AMS. It allows for electronic reporting of inbound (foreign) cargoes in the U.S. 
  • Mate’s Receipt 
    An archaic practice. An acknowledgement of cargo receipt signed by a mate of the vessel. The possessor of the mate’s receipt is entitled to the bill of lading, in exchange for that receipt. 
  • MB 
    Merchant Broker 
  • MBTE 
    Methyl tert-butyl ether 
  • MCFS 
    Master Container Freight Station. See CFS. 
  • MCT 
    Medium-Chain Triglyceride. Triglycerides containing fatty acid chains of 6-10 carbon atoms which are readily absorbed by the body. 
  • MDSE 
  • MDWT 
    Metric DeadWeight Tons 
  • MEA 
  • Measurement Cargo 
    Freight on which transportation charges are calculated on the basis of volume measurement. 
  • MECH 
  • Mechanical Lift Dock 
    A lifting dock facility using winches to lower and raise platform 
  • Mechanically Ventilated Container 
    A container fitted with a means of forced air ventilation. 
  • Mechanism of toxicity 
    The way in which a chemical alters basic biological functions and structures in order to exert its toxic effect(s) 
  • Medium-speed diesel 
    Moderately large diesel engines such as those which propel large boats and heavy-duty locomotives. These engines burn a heavy gasoil which sometimes takes their name. 
  • Megaports Initiative 
    It is a National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) initiative, started in 2003. It teams up with other countries to enhance their ability to screen cargo at major international seaports. The Initiative provides radiation detection equipment and train
  • MEK 
    Methyl Ethyl Ketone 
  • Melting 
    When heated sufficiently, a solid changes state to a liquid. The melting of a fat depends on its previous triglyceride composition. The baking or spreading performance of commercial fats depends greatly on their melting behaviour. Solid fat content measur
  • Memorandum Bill of Lading 
    An in–house bill of lading. A duplicate copy. 
  • Memorandum Freight Bill 
    See Multiple Container load Shipment. 
  • MeOH 
    Methyl Alcohol = Methanol 
  • Mercaptans 
    Mercaptan sulfur. Excessive concentrations of these malodorous organic sulfur molecules make motor gasoline unmerchantable. Blenders, therefore, want to know the mercaptan content of components they could consider buying. The kerosene trade pays careful a
  • merger 
    The joining of two or more (shipowning) companies 
  • Metacenter or transverse metacenter 
    Ship Stability: The highest point to which G may rise and still permit the vessel to have positive stability. Found at the intersection of the line of action of B when the ship is erect with the line of action of B when the ship is given a small inclinati
  • Metals content 
    A specification of concern to buyers of fuel oil and vacuum gasoil.Heavy metals, such as nickel, vanadium, and copper, poison cat-cracking catalysts.Most refiners specify a maximum metals limit for the catfeed and vacuum unit feedstock they would consider
  • Metaxylene 
    Metaxylene is an isomer of mixed xylene. It is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of polyesters for coatings, inks, reinforced plastics, and packaging applications. 
  • Meter 
    39.37 inches (approximately). 
  • Methaemoglobin generator 
    A substance capable of converting the oxygen carrying molecule (haemoglobin) in the red blood cell to an oxidized form (methaemoglobin), which has a reduced capacity to transport oxygen.  
  • Methane 
    A colorless, odorless, flammable gas that occurs abundantly in nature as the chief constituent of natural gas, as a component of firedamp in coal mines, and as a product of the decomposition of organic matter. Methane is used as a fuel and as a starting m
  • Methanol 
    Methanol, a colorless alcohol, is a chemical used in the production of formaldehyde, acetic acid and methyl methacrylate (MMA), and is used as a solvent in many applications. It is also used to produce MTBE. 
  • Methyl Esters 
    The fatty acid composition of an oil is normally determined by using Gas Liquid Chromatography of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME analysis). The methyl ester derivatives of fatty acids are comparatively volatile. Methyl esters of fatty acids are conven
  • Methylamines 
    Methylamines (mono-, di- and tri) and their derivatives are alkaline substances that are produced by reacting ammonia and methanol, in the gas phase at high temperatures and high pressure. Methylamines are available as anhydrous liquefied gases and as aqu
  • MH 
    Main hatch 
  • MHE 
    Materials handling equipment 
  • MHHW 
    Mean Higher High Water 
  • MHI 
    Car carriers built at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in 2004-06 
  • MHW 
    Mean High Water 
  • MHWN 
    Mean high water neaps: and 
  • MHWS 
    Mean High Water Spring Tides 
  • MIBK 
    Methyl Isobutyl Ketone 
  • MIC 
  • Micro-Bridge 
    Interior point intermodal service similar to mini-bridge, except that cargo originates or terminates at an inland city rather than another port city. The cargo moves on a single (ocean) bill of lading to and from the interior point and the port. 
  • Microbridge 
    A cargo movement in which the water carrier provides a through service between an inland point and the port of load/discharge. The carrier is responsible for cargo and costs from origin on to destina- tion. Also known as IPI or Through Service. 
  • MICS 
    Member of The Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers, London 
  • Mid-point 
    The temperature where 50 percent (weight or volume basis, as specified) of a natural material or refined product has boiled.Sometimes called 50 percent point. 
  • Middle distillates 
    Products heavier than motor gasolinenaphtha and lighter than residual fuel oil.This range includes heating oil, diesel, kerosene, and jet kero. 
  • Midship 
    Approximately in the location equally distant from the bow and stern  
  • Mill Scale 
    A thick oxide coating formed on the steel when heated, e.g., in connection with hot working or heat treatment 
  • Minehunter 
    A naval vessel equipped for detecting explosive marine mines 
  • Mini Landbridge 
    An intermodal system for transporting containers by ocean and then by rail or motor to a port previously served as an all–water move (e.g., Hong Kong to New York over Seattle). 
  • Minimum Bill of Lading 
    A clause in a bill of lading which specifies the least charge that the carrier will make for issuing a lading. The charge may be a definite sum or the current charge per ton for any specified quantity. 
  • Minimum Charge 
    The lowest charge that can be assessed to transport a shipment. 
  • Mining Vessel 
    A vessel equipped for offshore mining operations, most commonly diamonds 
  • Miscible 
    In this guidebook, means material that mixes readily with water. 
  • Mission Ship 
    A mobile vessel used for missionary work 
  • ML 
    Motor launch 
  • MLWN 
    Mean low water neaps. Average depths of water available at the times of low and of high tides during periods of Neap Tides 
  • MMA 
    Methyl Methacrylate. A chemical derived from propylene, used for the manufacture of polymethyl methacrylate and also for polymer dispersions and other resins. 
  • MMFB 
    Middlewest Motor Freight Bureau. 
  • MMPD 
    Maximum Most Probable Discharge 
  • MMS 
    APPE Monthly Monitoring of Monomers. APPE is a major group within the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • MNLO 
    Merchant Navy Liaison Officer 
  • MOA 
    Memorandum of Agreement: A contract form specifying the terms and conditions covering the sale and purchase of a merchant ship 
  • Modified Atmosphere 
    A blend of gases tailored to replace the normal atmosphere within a container. 
  • MODU 
    Mobile Offshore Drilling Units 
  • MOH 
    Medical Officer of Health 
  • Moisture 
    Since water is only very slightly soluble in fats, it is present only in small amounts and is referred to as moisture. Moisture in oils and fats may be determined by drying, distillation, absorption or titrimetry. The presence of water, especially when in
  • Molasses Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of molasses 
    More Or Less CHarterers OPtion 
    More or less in Charterers option 
    More or Less Charterers Option 
  • MOLCO 
    More or less Charterers option 
  • Molecule 
    Chemical combination of two or more atoms of the same chemical element (such as O2 - which is Oxygen) or different chemical elements (such as H2O - which is water). 
  • Molten Sulphur Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of molten sulphur in insulated tanks at a high temperature 
  • Moment 
    Ship Stability: The product of two numbers, for example the force or weight moved multiplied by a distance 
  • MON (Motor Octane Number) 
    A rating of the anti-knock properties of a finished motor gasoline or blendstock. The test determines MON simulates demanding engine operating conditions such as substantial loads and high speeds. The MON method yields lower numbers than the RON (research
  • Monoglyceride (Monoacylglycerol) 
    Monoglyceride is a compound used as an emulsifier in margarine/peanut butter etc, to help the uniform dispersion of oil in water. Monoglycerides do not occur naturally in appreciable quantities except in fats and oils that have undergone partial hydrolysi
  • Monomer 
    A molecule that can combine with others to form a polymer. 
  • Monomer 
    One molecular unit which links with others of its own or a similar kind to form a Styrene monomers, for instance, connect to form the familiar plastic, polystyrene. 
  • Montreal Protocol 
    International agreement which aims to protect the ozone layer. Forms part of the UN Environmental Programme (UNEP)  
  • Mooring 
    An arrangement for securing a ship to a mooring buoy or pier 
  • Mooring Vessel 
    A vessel equipped to assist with the mooring and/or anchoring of larger vessels. Typically it will have a frame to prevent the ropes and chains fouling on the superstructure 
  • Mooring Vessel, Naval Auxiliary 
    A naval auxiliary vessel designed to assist with the mooring and or anchoring of larger vessels 
  • MOP 
    Muriate of Potash 
  • MOS 
  • MOS or MTHS 
  • MOT 
    Ministry of Transport or Monthly Overtime 
  • Motor gasoline 
    Petroleum-derived fuel blend intended to power spark-ignited internal combustion automobile engines. This propellant's boiling range can span C4 through 430 F. In practice, it usually has a somewhat lower end point. Mogas must meet various specifications
  • MP 
    Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether 
  • MPA 
    Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether Acetate 
  • MPG 
    Monopropylene Glycol. Produced by reacting propylene oxide with water. Monopropylene glycol is widely used for its solvent properties in the pharmaceutical, food, flavor and personal care industries. It is more widely used as an anti-freeze/de-icer, grind
  • MPG / USP 
    Pharmaceutical grade monopropylene glycol 
  • MPH 
    Miles per hour 
  • MPP 
    Multi-purpose (type of ship) 
  • MR 
    Medium Range (tanker): A vessel designed for carrying refined petroleum products in bulk tanks (25,000 dwt - 44,999 dwt approx). MR tankers primarily transport refined oil products on intra-regional routes between the oil refineries. Only on rare occasion
  • MS 
    Months after sight or Machinery survey 
  • MSA 
    Merchant Shipping Act or Mine Safety Appliances 
  • MSC 
    Manchester Ship Canal; Maritime Safety Committee 
  • MSDS 
    Material Safety Data Sheet 
  • MSG 
    Methacrylates Sector Group, a sector group of the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • MSP 
    A U.S. Department of Transportation program that helps to assure sufficient sealift to support the United States Armed Forces and U.S. emergency sealift needs, using commercial ships. 
  • MT, M.T. or M/T 
    Refers to any self-propelled tanker, i.e. tanker fitted with diesel engine for propulsion. 
  • MTBE 
    MTBE is not covered under the chemical code and thus is not subject to the exemptions for carriage of chemicals. MTBE has become a large trade and is often carried in oil vessels as well as chemicals ones. The product is volatile and there is no technic 
  • MTSA 
    The Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002, is designed to protect ports and waterways from terrorists attacks. The law is the U.S. equivalent of the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code(ISPS), and was fully implemented on July 1, 2004
  • MTSC 
    Marine Technical Sub-Committee 
  • Multimodal 
    Synonymous for all practical purposes with “Intermodal.” 
  • Multipurpose ship 
    General cargo ship which can also carry containers 
  • Munitions Carrier 
    A naval auxiliary Vessel for the carriage of munitions 
  • Museum, Stationary 
    A stationary vessel of interest preserved as a museum exhibit. 
  • Mutagen 
    An agent that causes biological mutation 
  • MV 
    Merchant Vessel: A vessel propelled by an engine 
  • Myristic Acid 
    Myristic acid (C14:0) is a saturated intermediate chain length fatty acid found mainly in coconut, palm kernel and milk fats. It is also a minor constituent of most animal and vegetable fats. 
  • North 
  • N CONT 
    North Continent 
  • n-Butanol 
    N-Butanol is a liquid alcohol, which is an important solvent for resins and lacquers. It is also used as raw materials for glycol ethers and acetate esters. 
  • n-Butene 
    Butenes are formed during the cracking of petroleum to produce gasoline; they can also be prepared commercially by the catalytic dehydrogenation of butanes. 
  • n.N. 
    Not North (of) 
  • N.R. 
    No risk until confirmed or Net Register or Northern Range (of Ports in US) 
  • n.S 
    not South of 
  • N/A 
    North America or North Atlantic or Not absolutely or Nearest Approach or Not Available or Not Applicable or No Account or No Advice or Not Acceptable or Not Addressed 
  • N/B 
    Newbuilding or Northbound or Nota Bene 
  • N/N or n.N 
    Not north of 
  • N/S or n.S 
    Not south of 
  • NAP 
  • Naphtha 
    Naphtha is a petroleum distillate containing principally aliphatic hydrocarbons. It is the primary source from which petrochemicals are derived. 
  • Naphtha 
    A product of crude oil or condensate refining which boils in roughly the same range as motor gasoline. In general, the naphtha distillation range spans from a bit less than 100 F, the boiling point of pentanes, through 300-400 F, depending on the intentio
  • Naphthalene 
    Naphthalene is a crystalline white solid hydrocarbon, with the empirical formula C10H8. It is volatile, forming a flammable vapor. It is predominantly manufactured from coal tar, and can be converted to phthalic anhydride for the manufacture of plastics,
  • Naphthenes 
    Hydrocarbon molecules with a carbon ring structure similar to aromatics. Naphthenes have saturated bonds rather than the unsaturated ones which characterize aromatics. Reformers make aromatics, the high-octane components they intend to produce, most easil
  • Naphthenic 
    High in naphthene-ring content. Lower than ordinary paraffins concentration. In some casual applications this adjective tacitly embraces aromatics as well as naphthenes, as in naphthenic naphtha. 
  • Naphthenic naphtha 
    A naphtha stream with a comparatively high concentration of naphthenes and aromatics. The terms reforming naphtha and N+A naphtha also identify this class of hydrocarbons. In general, American and Japanese companies regard a stream as naphthenic or highly
  • National Strategy for Maritime Security 
    In December 2004 the President directed the Secretaries of the Department of Defense and Home- land Security to lead the Federal effort to develop a comprehensive National Strategy for Maritime Security, to better integrate and synchronize the existing De
  • Natural Antioxidant 
    An antioxidant which is naturally present in fat, e.g. tocopherols and tocotrienols. Their presence confers good keeping properties on the fat. Most vegetable oils have a relatively high content of tocopherol and tocotrienols. 
  • Natural gas 
    Colorless, highly flammable gaseous hydrocarbon consisting primarily of methane, ethane, and small amounts of heavier gaseous hydrocarbon compounds such as propane. Ethane and propane, also called natural gas liquids (NGL), are converted into ethylene and
  • Natural gasoline 
    The pentanes-and-heavier fraction produced by processing wet gas in an LNG or LPG plant. Such materials can substitute for paraffinic naphthas in a number of uses including, depending on the qualities of individual streams, gasoline blending and steam cra
  • Nautical Mile 
    Distance of one minute of longitude at the equator, approximately 6,076.115. The metric equivalent is 1852. 
  • Naval Cooperation and Guidance for Shipping (NCAGS) 
    It is a naval organization with members who are trained to establish and provide advice for safe pas- sage of merchant ships worldwide, during times of peace, tension, crisis and war. NCAGS personnel act as a liaison between military commanders and the ci
  • Navigation 
    The art and science of conducting a ship safely from one point to another 
  • NB / N.B. 
    Nota Bene: "Now, pay attention to this!" 
  • NULL
    A way of steering readers' attention toward something particularly important. 
  • NBR 
    Nitrile-butadiene-rubber. A synthetic rubber used in many applications, including the automotive industry. 
  • NCEC 
    National Chemical Emergency Centre 
  • NCP 
    National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan 
  • NCS 
    Norwegian Continental Shelf 
  • NCSA 
    North Coast South America 
    No Deadfreight For Charterers Account Provided Minimum Quantity Supplied 
  • NDV 
    Net deadweight 
    The opposite to Spring Tides 
  • NEC 
    Not Elsewhere Classified 
  • Negative Stability 
    Ship Stability: Exists when G is above M. The vessel will list to either side and will not remain upright. A list due to a negative initial stability is known as an angle of loll. 
  • Negotiable Instruments 
    A document of title (such as a draft, promissory note, check, or bill of lading) transferable from one person to another in good faith for a consideration. Non–negotiable bills of lading are known as “straight consignment.” Negotiable bills are known as “
  • NEI 
    Not elsewhere included 
  • Neobulk 
    type of general cargo such as cars, timber, steel, etc.. 
  • NEP 
    Not elsewhere provided 
  • NES 
    Not Elsewhere Shown or Not Elsewhere Specified 
  • Nested 
    Articles packed so that one rests partially or entirely within another, thereby reducing the cubic–foot displacement. 
    Implies that cargo is presented stacked in the contour of similarly shaped cargo, it may be likened to a stack of plates 
  • Net Tare Weight 
    The weight of an empty cargo–carrying piece of equipment plus any fixtures permanently attached. 
  • Net Tonnage (NT, N.T. or nt) 
    A dimensionless index calculated from the total moulded volume of the ship's cargo spaces by using a mathematical formula. NT is based on a calculation of the volume of all cargo spaces of the ship. It indicates a vessel’s earning space and is a function
  • Net Weight 
    Weight of the goods alone without any immediate wrappings, e.g., the weight of the contents of a tin can without the weight of the can. 
  • Netback 
    Calculating the FOB value or price of a hydrocarbon from prices or values at delivery points. The derivation involves subtracting various costs such as freight, handling, interest, duties, transit losses, and commissions from reports or estimates of outle
  • Neurotoxic 
    Capable of causing injury to the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and/or peripheral nervous system (nerves arising from the brain and spinal cord). Delayed neurotoxicity refers injury to the nervous system following a single exposure, but fo
  • Neutral Body 
    An organization established by the members of an ocean conference acts as a self–policing force with broad authority to investigate tariff violations, including authority to scrutinize all documents kept by the carriers and their personnel. Violations are
  • Neutral Oil 
    When a crude oil has been neutralised with an alkali, the residual material, i.e. crude oil less FFA, phosphatides, moisture and impurities, is then neutral oil. 
  • neutral stability 
    Ship Stability: Exists when G coincides with M. The vessel does not tend to return to an upright position if inclined, nor to continue its inclination if the inclining force is removed. 
  • Neutralization  
    The reduction of free fatty acids in a crude oil by the action of an alkali solution is ordinarily termed ""neutralisation"". 
  • New Worldscale 
    The Worldscale tanker rate schedule based on revised assumptions which take effect on January 1, 1989. 
  • Newbuilding 
    New ship under construction. 
  • NEWCT 
    North East of West Coast Italy 
  • NFPA 
    National Fire Protection Association. This group of fire protection personnel established a rating system used on many labels of hazardous materials. This label consists of a diamond divided into four sections representing health, flammability, reactivity
  • NGL 
    Natural gas liquids. Natural gas processing yields a variety of liquids which can range from ethane to field condensate. The specific liquids included under this designation differ from company to company and from one part of the industry to another. 
  • NHC 
    No heat crude 
  • NHP 
    Nominal horse power 
  • NIOSH 
    National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. This agency of the public Health Service tests and certifies respiratory and air-sampling devices. It recommends to OSHA exposure limits for hazardous substances. It also investigates incidents and res
  • Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (NK) 
    A Japanese classification society which certifies seagoing vessels for compliance to standardized rules regarding construction and maintenance. 
  • NIS 
    Norwegian International Ship Registry 
  • Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) 
    Environmentally-harmful gases formed by the engine’s combustion process 
  • NMFC 
    National Motor Freight Classification. 
  • NNGWB 
    Not north of George Washington Bridge (i.e. New York) 
    Not North Of George Washington Bridge 
  • No Great Shakes 
    When casks became empty they were "shaken" (taken apart) so the pieces, called shakes, could be stored in a small space. Shakes had very little value. 
  • No oil 
    ASTM's grade of oil for commercial applications which benefit from heavy fuel but lack heated storage tanks. Refiners sell heavy distillate or a blend of distillate and residue as No. 4 oil. Medium-speed diesels can burn a version of this product designat
  • No Room to Swing a Cat 
    The entire ship's company was required to witness flogging at close hand. The crew might crowd around so that the Bosun's Mate might not have enough room to swing his cat o' nine tails. 
  • No-heart crude 
    Crude fluid enough at ambient temperature to permit transportation in vessels which cannot heat it. 
  • No. 2 oil 
    ASTM's designation for distillate fuel oil intended for burning in household and light commercial furnaces. A companion grade, No. 2-D, fuels high-speed diesel engines. The USA, which relies more than other countries on ASTM specs to define oil products,
  • No. 5 oil 
    The ASTM grade of residue suitable for unheated storage in mild climates. 
  • No. 6 oil 
    Heavy fuel oil too viscous for burning without preheating. See residue. 
  • No–show 
    Cargo which has been booked but does not arrive in time to be loaded before the vessel sails. See also “Windy Booking.” 
  • NOAA 
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 
  • NOE 
    Not otherwise enumerated 
  • NOEC 
    No observed effect concentration. The highest concentration of a material in a toxicity test that has no statistically significant adverse effect on the exposed population of test organisms compared with the controls. When derived from the life cycle or p
    Grain Charter Party 
  • NOHP 
    Not otherwise herein provided 
  • NOI 
    Not Otherwise Indexed 
  • NOIBN 
    Not otherwise indicated by number, not otherwise indexed by name 
  • Nomenclature of the Customs Cooperation Council 
    The Customs tariff used by most countries worldwide. It was formerly known as the Brussels Tariff Nomenclature and is the basis of the commodity coding system known as the Harmonized System. 
  • Nominated Vessel 
    The specific vessel which has been designated for a particular voyage. 
    Non mechanical 
  • Non-conformity 
    ISM definition of non-conformity: Non-conformity means an observed situation where objective evidence indicates the non-fulfilment of a specified requirement. Major non-conformity means an identifiable deviation that poses a serious threat to the safety  
    then saved days will not be added to discharge time allowed. 
  • Non–Dumping Certificate 
    Required by some countries for protection against the dumping of certain types of merchandise or products. 
  • Non–Vessel Operating Common Carrier (NVOCC) 
    A cargo consolidator in ocean trades who will buy space from a carrier and sub–sell it to smaller ship- pers. The NVOCC issues bills of lading, publishes tariffs and otherwise conducts itself as an ocean common carrier, except that it will not provide the
  • Nonconjugated Fatty Acids 
    Polyunsaturated fatty acids exhibiting pairs of carbons separated by at least one saturated carbon atom. 
  • NOP 
    Net Operating Profit or Not Otherwise Provided 
  • NOPAC 
    North Pacific (Ports) 
  • NOR 
    Not Otherwise Rated 
  • NOR 
    Notice of readiness. Shall mean the notice to the charterer, shipper, receiver or other person as required by the Charter Party that the Vessel has arrived at the Port or Berth, as the case may be, and is ready to load or discharge. 
  • Northern grade 
    Motor gasoline that meets Colonial pipeline specifications for product delivered to points north of Greensboro, North Carolina. Both distillation range and volatility differentiate Northern grade gasoline from Southern grade. Finished gasoline must be mor
  • NOS 
    Not otherwise shown/specified or Numbers 
  • Nose 
    Front of a container or trailer–opposite the tail. 
  • Noxious 
    Harmful to personnel or the environment. 
  • NPA 
    n-Propyl Alcohol 
  • NPCFB 
    North Pacific Coast Freight Bureau. 
  • NPK 
    Nitro Phosphatic Kompound 
  • NPRA 
    National Petrochemical & Refiners Association (USA) 
  • NRAD 
    No risk after discharge 
  • NRT – Net Register Tons see “Net Tonnage” 
    Theoretically the cargo capacity of the ship. Sometimes used to charge fees or taxes on a vessel. 
  • NSW 
    New South Wales (Australia) 
    Timber Charter Party 
  • Nuclear Fuel Carrier (with Ro-Ro facility) 
    A nuclear fuel carrier which is loaded and unloaded by way of a ro-ro ramp 
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 
    The phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) occurs when an appropriate radio frequency field is applied to a sample containing dipolar nuclei (e.g. protons in fat) placed in a strong d.c. magnetic field. Low resolution NMR spectrometry is used to m
  • NWE 
    North West Europe 
  • Nylon 
    A synthetic plastic material derived from benzene. Nylon can be used to form fibers, filaments, bristles, or sheets to be manufactured into yarn, fabric, and cordage; and it can be formed into moulded products. Nylon is tough, elastic and strong, and it h
  • NYPE 
    New York Produce Exhange (charter party) 
  • NYSA 
    The New York Shipping Association 
  • O/C 
    Ore Carrier or Open Charter or Overcharge 
    On arrival at or of the port 
  • OABE 
    Owners agents both ends 
  • OAHPS 
    On arrival harbour pilot station 
  • OAL 
    Overall length (same as LOA) 
  • OBO 
    Ore Bulk Oil Carrier-ship for transporting bulk cargo such as coal and grain, and high-density cargoes such as iron ore, as well as crude petroleum products 
  • OBO 
    Oil-Bulk-Ore carriers. These versatile ships can transport cargoes as various as crude oil, grain, coal, and metal ore. They feature simply-shaped holds without exposed hull framework to permit easy cleaning between cargoes of different kinds. Certain OBO
  • OCC 
    Oil Co-ordination Committee or Outward Clearance Certificate or On-Carriage Charges or Occupied 
  • Occupational exposure 
    The occupational exposure is a standard term that concerns adult workers in good health, with a possible exposure of 8 hours per day, 5 days a week, 11 months per year. See exposure. 
  • Ocean Bill of Lading (Ocean B/L) 
    A contract for transportation between a shipper and a carrier. It also evidences receipt of the cargo by the carrier. A bill of lading shows ownership of the cargo and, if made negotiable, can be bought, sold or traded while the goods are in–transit. 
  • Ocean Bill Of Lading 
    A non-negotiable ocean bill of lading allows the buyer to receive the goods upon showing identification. If the bill is deemed negotiable, then the buyer will be required to pay the shipper for the products and meet any of the seller's other conditions. A
  • OCIMF 
    Oil Companies International Marine Forum: An oil company consultative organisation, with a secretariat based in London, funded by the oil company members to represent the Oil Industry on marine safety, marine standards and international legislation. OCIM 
  • Octane 
    For a gasoline engine to work efficiently, gasoline must burn smoothly without premature detonation, or knocking. Severe knocking can dissipate power output and even cause damage to the engine. When gasoline engines became more powerful in the 1920s, it w
  • Octane 
    A measure of a motor gasoline's or blendstock's resistance to preignition (knocking). The industry commonly uses two different indexes of this quality RON (research octane number), and MON (motor octane number). The USA employs an average of the two: (R+M
  • ODM 
    Oil discharge monitor 
  • ODPCP 
    Oil Discharge Prevention and Contingency Plan 
  • ODS 
    Operating Differential Subsidy: An amount of money the U.S. government paid U.S. shipping companies that qualify for this subsidy.The intent was to help offset the higher subsidy. The intent was to help ofset the higher cost of operating a U.S.–flag vesse
  • Oestromimetic 
    A substance which is capable of simulating the biological effects of naturally occurring oestrogenic hormones 
  • Off-hire 
    A chartering term indicating the time a chartered vessel is no longer attracting a daily fixture rate. It arises i.e. upon break down of machinery, equipment or when owing to poor performance such as slower speed than prescribed in the voyage charter, the
  • Offshore 
    Segment of industry that deals with exploration and extraction of oil from undersea deposits. 
  • Offshore Support Vessel 
    A single or multi functional offshore support vessel  
  • Offshore Tug/Supply Ship 
    A vessel for the transportation of stores and goods to offshore platforms on an open stern deck and equipped with a towing facility 
  • OFG 
    Offshore Floating Group 
  • OFG 
    Offshore Hose Guidelines 
  • OGSB 
    One good safe berth 
  • OH 
  • OHA 
    Office of History and Archaeology (ADNR) 
  • OHBC 
    Open hatch bulk carrier 
  • OHSAS 18001 
    Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series - Provides standards to help a company control occupational health and safety hazards for staff. 
  • Oil Content 
    The term refers to the amount of fatty material present in materials of animal and vegetable sources and food products, etc. To measure the oil content of a material it is usually necessary to prepare the sample by drying, grinding or digestion. The oil i
  • Oil Tanker, Inland Waterways 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of refined petroleum products, either clean or dirty, which is not suitable for trading in open waters 
  • Oils (and Fats) 
    Oils and fats are synonymous. However, the difference between them is that the former are liquid at ambient temperatures, while the latter are solid in appearance. Since ambient temperatures vary so much, a rigorous definition is not possible but, convent
  • Oilseed Hulls 
    The outer covering of oilseeds. 
  • Oilseed Meals 
    The product obtained by grinding the cake, chips or flakes which remain after removal of most of the oil from oilseeds. Oilseed meals are mainly a feedstuff for livestock and poultry. Some meals are also used as a raw material for producing edible vegetab
  • Oilseed Processing 
    The procedure involved in removing oil from oilseeds. There are three basic types of processes - solvent extraction, mechanical processing and hydraulic pressing. 
  • Olean (Olestra) 
    A sucrose fatty acid polyester used as a substitute for dietary fat which is not digested or absorbed by the body. 
  • Oleate 
    An ester or salt of oleic acid. Commonly referenced as a preparation containing oleic acid as the principal ingredient. 
  • Olefin 
    Olefins are aliphatic hydrocarbons with one or more double bonds along the chain. The lower olefins have short chains with only two, three or four carbons, and the simplest one is ethylene. The higher olefins have chains of up to 20 or more carbon atoms,
  • Olefin 
    A straight or branched-chain hydrocarbon with at least one unsaturated carbon-carbon bond. The petrochemical industry's highest volume product, ethylene, belongs to this family of molecules. Cracking processes produce such molecules in considerable quanti
  • Olefins 
    Olefins are petrochemical derivatives produced by cracking feedstocks from raw materials such as natural gas and crude oil. Lower olefins have short chains with only two, three or four carbon atoms, and the simplest one is ethylene. The higher olefins hav
  • Oleic Acid 
    This monounsaturated acid is the most widely distributed of all fatty acids, found in practically every vegetable oil and animal fat. Rich sources are olive and peanut oils and palm olein. Oleic acid contains 18 carbon atoms and one double bond in the cis
  • Olein 
    The triglyceride ester of oleic acid but in the palm oil industry it usually refers to the liquid fraction of the oil 
  • Olein/Palm Olein 
    This is the liquid, more unsaturated fraction separated from palm oil after crystallisation at a controlled temperature. The olein contains the lower melting point, more liquid triglycerides allowing it to be used for some applications for which the paren
  • Oleochemicals 
    Oleochemicals are chemicals derived from biological fats or oils and are analogous to petrochemicals, which are chemicals derived from biological fats or oils and are analogous to petrochemicals, which are chemicals derived from petroleum. The hydrolysis
  • Olive Oil 
    Olive oil is obtained from the flesh of the fruit of the olive tree (""Olea Europaea Sativa""). The cultivation of olives in the countries of the Mediterranean basin goes back several thousand years and it remains today a highly prized edible oil used in
  • OMC 
    Offshore Marine Committee 
  • OMOG 
    Offshore Maritime Operations Group 
  • On Board 
    A notation on a bill of lading that cargo has been loaded on board a vessel. Used to satisfy the requirements of a letter of credit, in the absence of an express requirement to the contrary. 
  • On Deck 
    A notation on a bill of lading that the cargo has been stowed on the open deck of the ship. 
  • OOW 
    Officer of the Watch 
  • OPA 90 
    The United States Oil Pollution Act 1990: The U.S. Federal Regulations concerning Oil Pollution Protection in US waters and off-shore economic exclusion areas. Requirements of the Act are contained in 33 CFR and 46 CFR . 
  • Open Account 
    A trade arrangement in which goods are shipped to a foreign buyer without guarantee of payment. 
  • Open Bulk Cargo Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled open barge for the carriage of bulk cargoes 
  • Open Hatch Cargo Ship 
    A large single deck cargo vessel with full width hatches and boxed holds for the carriage of unitised dry cargo such as forest products and containers. Many are fitted with a gantry crane 
  • Open Insurance Policy 
    A marine insurance policy that applies to all shipments made by an exporter over a period of time rather than to one shipment only. 
  • Open Sea 
    The water area of the open coast seaward of the ordinary low-water mark, or seaward of inland wa- ters. 
  • Open spec 
    A description of the substance sold in certain petroleum products transactions. Buyer and seller agree to price, delivery range and other particulars, but only to general specifications for the material. The seller covers the deal with any availability fa
  • Open Top Container 
    A container fitted with a solid removable roof, or with a tarpaulin roof so the container can be loaded or unloaded from the top. 
  • Operating Ratio 
    A comparison of a carrier’s operating expense with its net sales. The most general measure of operating efficiency. 
  • Operational tolerance 
    Flexibility in the quantity of a stem, usually expressed as a small percentage of the stern's nominal size. This provision makes it easier to find suitable ships to lift crude and products. 
  • OPIC 
    Overseas Private Investment Corporation, an agency of the U.S. government which helps U.S. busi- nesses invest overseas. 
  • Optimum Cube 
    The highest level of cube utilization that can be achieved when loading cargo into a container. 
  • ORC 
    Owner's risk of chafing 
  • Order–Notify (O/N) 
    A bill of lading term to provide surrender of the original bill of lading before freight is released; usually associated with a shipment covered under a letter of credit. 
  • Ore Carrier 
    A single deck cargo ship fitted with two longitudinal bulkheads. Ore is carried in the centreline holds only 
  • Ore/Bulk/Products Carrier 
    A bulk carrier arranged for the alternative (but not simultaneous) carriage of oil products 
  • Ore/Oil Carrier 
    An ore carrier arranged for the alternative (but not simultaneous) carriage of crude oil 
  • Ore/oil carrier 
    Ship with separate cargo holds for ore cargoes. When the ship is carrying oil, the ore holds may also be filled with oil, in order to utilize the deadweight capacity to the fullest 
  • ORFS 
    Origin Rail Freight Station: Same as CFS at origin except an ORFS is operated by the rail carrier participating in the shipment. 
  • Organic 
    Based on a carbon structure but also containing other elements eg hydrogen, oxygen 
  • Organic chemicals 
    Organic chemicals are based on carbon compounds and form the backbone of the petrochemicals industry, while inorganic chemicals are non-carbon chemicals, such as chlorine, alkalis or hydrogen peroxide. Every chemical is either organic or inorganic. 
  • Organoleptic Test 
    Refers to the careful tasting and odour assessment procedures carried out by experienced personnel. An important test on all fully refined oils which should be bland in odour and taste. Both the senses are involved in organoleptic testing when freshly pro
  • Origin 
    Location where shipment begins its movement. 
  • Original Bill of Lading (OBL) 
    A document which requires proper signatures for consummating carriage of contract. Must be marked as “original” by the issuing carrier. 
  • ORS 
    Owner's risk of shifting 
  • Orthoxylene 
    Orthoxylene is an isomer of mixed xylene. It is primarily used in plasticizers (primarily in flexible polyvinyl chloride - PVC - material), medicines and dyes. 
  • OS&D 
    Over short and damage 
  • OSB 
    One safe berth 
  • OSC 
    Olefin Steering Committee (a sub-group of LOSG). LOSG is a sector group of the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • OSD 
    Open shelterdecker 
  • OSD/CSD 
    Open shelter deck or closed shelter deck (vessel) 
  • OSH 
    Open Shelter Deck 
  • OSPA 
    Oxygenated Solvent Producers Association, a sector group of the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • OSPB 
    One safe port or berth 
  • OSV 
    Offshore supply vessel 
  • OTF 
    Offshore Terminal Forum 
  • Other Activities, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel used for an undefined activity. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • Ototoxic 
    Capable of causing injury to the inner ear and/or the auditory nerve. 
  • Out Gate 
    Transaction or interchange that occurs at the time a container leaves a rail or water terminal. 
  • Outturn 
    As measured at vessel discharge. The industry uses this term as a description of the oil unloaded at a buyer's terminal. It indicates that measurements taken at the delivery of a parcel will determine the quality or quantity, or both, of a parcel changing
  • Over the Barrel 
    The most common method of punishment aboard ship was flogging. The unfortunate sailor was tied to a grating, a mast or over the barrel of a deck cannon. 
  • Overbearing 
    To sail downwind directly at another ship thus "stealing" or diverting the wind from his sails. 
  • Overboard 
    Over the side or out of the ship 
  • Overcharge 
    To charge more than the proper amount according to the published rates. 
  • Overhaul 
    To prevent the buntline ropes from chaffing the sails, crew were sent aloft to haul them over the sails. This was called overhauling. 
  • Overhead stream 
    The fraction which leaves through the top of a distillation column as a gas. 
  • Overheight Cargo 
    Cargo more than eight feet high which thus cannot fit into a standard container. 
  • Overland Common Point (OCP) 
    A term stated on the bills of lading offering lower shipping rates to importers east of the Rockies, provided merchandise from the Far East comes in through the West Coast ports. OCP rates were es- tablished by U.S. West Coast steamship companies in conju
  • Overreach 
    If a ship holds a tack course too long, it has overreached its turning point and the distance it must travel to reach it's next tack point is increased. 
  • Overwhelm 
    Old English for capsize or founder. 
  • OVID 
    Offshore Vessel Inspection Database 
  • OVIQ 
    Offshore Vessel Inspection Questionnaire 
  • OVMSA 
    Offshore Vessel Management and Self Assessment 
  • OWISE 
  • Owner Code (SCAC) 
    Standard Carrier Abbreviation Code identifying an individual common carrier. A three letter carrier code followed by a suffix identifies the carrier’s equipment. A suffix of “U” is a container and “C” is a chassis. 
  • Oxidation 
    Process in which the unsaturated fatty acids of oils and fats react with oxygen, resulting in rancidity. Oils and fats in contact with oxygen present in the atmosphere will cause chemical changes in the product which will downgrade the quality. Oxidation
  • Oxidation stability 
    Resistance to change when exposed to air. Motor gasoline should have this property. Otherwise it will form gum when stored. 
  • Oxidized Oil 
    Deteriorated oil due to attack by atmospheric oxygen which has occurred either during processing or during subsequent storage and transport. The chemical change is gradual and progressive but the effect on quality can be very great. Commonly assayed by pe
  • Oxidizer 
    A chemical which supplies its own oxygen and which helps other combustible material burn more readily. 
  • Oxygenate 
    Oxygen-containing molecules such as alcohols or ethers used either for volume or octane, or both, in motor gasoline blending. Common examples of such compounds include ethanol, tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA), and methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE). 
  • Oxygenation Vessel 
    A vessel designed for re-oxygenating waterways where waters have low levels of oxygen through pollution 
  • P/C or PCGO 
    Part cargo, parcel cargo. Goods which do not represent the entire cargo for a particular ship but whose quantity is sufficient to be carried on charter terms. 
  • P/E 
    Purchase enquiry 
  • Packing List 
    Itemized list of commodities with marks/numbers but no cost values indicated. 
  • PADAG 
    Please Authorize Delivery Against Guarantee: A request from the consignee to the shipper to allow the carrier or agent to release cargo against a guarantee, either bank or personal. Made when the consignee is unable to produce original bills of lading. 
  • PAH 
    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon. PAH's occur mainly, and to high levels, in coconut oil because of the practice of smoke drying the copra. However, PAH's have also been detected in other oils, although at a much lower level. Removal of PAH's is by proper
  • Paired Ports 
    A U.S. Customs program wherein at least two designated Customs ports will enter cargo that arrives at either port without the necessity of an in–bound document. 
  • Pallet 
    A platform with or without sides, on which a number of packages or pieces may be loaded to facilitate handling by a lift truck. 
  • Palletised Cargo Ship 
    A single or multi deck cargo ship loaded and unloaded by way of pallets lift(s). There are no weather deck hatches 
  • Palm Acid Oil 
    It is a by-product obtained from the alkali refining of palm oil resulting from the acidulation of soapstock. It is normally used for making laundry soaps. 
  • Palm Kernel Cake 
    The residue after pressing and/or solvent extraction of palm kernels to obtain the oil. Used as a component of animal feed. 
  • Palm Mid Fraction 
    Palm mid fraction (PMF) is obtained by a two stage fractionation. Usually, in the first stage, the highest melting solid components are removed and, in the second stage, the most liquid. The solid residue of the second stage has sharp melting properties t
  • Palm Oil 
    The oil obtained from the fruit flesh of the oil palm (Elaeis Guineensis). World production in 1995/96 was estimated by the USDA at 15.69 million tonnes, Malaysia and Indonesia being the major producing countries. Most of the plantings today are of the ""
  • Palm Olein 
    Palm oil is separated into palm stearin (30-35% of the original oil ) and palm olein (65-70%). The latter finds a ready market as a high-quality, highly stable frying oil. With improved filtration procedures the yield of olein has been raised to 71-78%. 
  • Palm Stearin 
    As mentioned above, palm oil is separated into palm stearin and palm olein. The olein is the more valuable product, but the stearin can be used as a hard fat in margarine stock or as an alternative to tallow in the oleochemical industry where it serves as
  • Palmitic Acid 
    Palmitic acid, having a 16 carbon atom chain, is the most widely distributed saturated fatty acid. It occurs in practically all animal, vegetable and marine animal fats and is a major component of lard, tallow, palm oil and cocoa butter. 
  • Paml Kernel Oil 
    The oil obtained from the kernel of the oil palm fruit. Its chemical composition is quite different from that of the palm oil obtained from the flesh. Palm kernel oil is a lauric type oil similar to coconut oil. 
  • Panamax 
    Medium Range Tanker, maximum size possible to pass through the locks of the Panama Canal- designed for carrying bulk crude oil in tanks. (60,000 dwt - 80,000 dwt approx with 32.2m beam limitation) 
  • Panamax tankers 
    Oil carriers which meet the 32.2 meter beam and 259 meter LOA limitations of the Panama Canal. Modern ship design translates those dimensions into a vessel with a maximum deadweight tonnage around 70,000. 
  • Panamax Vessel 
    Ships built to maximize capacity within the Panama Canal lock size limits of 950 feet long, 106 feet wide. Design draft is usually no greater than 40 feet and sails no greater than the 39.5 feet canal limit, with deadweights up to 80,000 tons. 
  • PANDI or P&I 
    Protection and Indemnity's (Club). A mutual Association formed by shipowners to provide protection from large financial loss by one member by contribution towards that loss by all members. The P & I Clubs cover liabilities not insurable by the shipowner. 
  • Paper barrels 
    Also known as dry barrels or electric barrels, these units trade in the futures or other non-physical markets. These terms designate the opposite of the wet barrels traded in physical deals. Since short sales in the wet market involve product the seller d
  • Paper Ramp 
    A technical rail ramp, used for equalization of points not actually served. 
  • Paper Rate 
    A published rate that is never assessed because no freight moves under it. 
  • Paraffinic 
    A high concentrate of paraffins, usually in distinction from naphthenic or olefinic mixtures. 
  • Paraffins 
    straight- or branched-chain hydrocarbons containing no unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds. A high paraffins content gives a naphtha a low octane rating, a diesel oil a high octane number, and a vacuum gasoil or straight run fuel oil a good susceptibility to
  • Paraxylene 
    One of the forms of xylene, paraxylene is used to make polyesters, which have applications in clothing, packaging and plastic bottles. The most widely-used polyester is polyethylene terephthalate (PET), used in lightweight, recyclable soft drinks bottles,
  • Parcel Receipt 
    An arrangement whereby a steamship company, under rules and regulations established in the freight tariff of a given trade, accepts small packages at rates below the minimum bill of lading, and issues a parcel receipt instead of a bill of lading. 
  • Parcel tanker 
    A ship fitted to segregate a large number of products. Some of these vessels, called chemical carriers, can handle more than a dozen materials simultaneously. Most of these ships have tanks made of stainless steel or lined with inert, easily cleaned coati
  • Parcels Tanker 
    A chemical tanker with many segregated cargo tanks to carry multiple grades of chemicals as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code. Typically these can have between 10 and 60 different tanks 
  • Parraffinic naphtha 
    A naphtha composed primarily of paraffinic molecules. In general, the feedstock trade considers 65 percent paraffins content the minimum for a paraffinic naphtha. Paraffins have a low octane rating. They crack readily, however. This combination of propert
  • Partial Containerships 
    Multipurpose containerships where one or more but not all compartments are fitted with permanent container cells. Remaining compartments are used for other types of cargo. 
  • Partial Shipments 
    Under letters of credit, one or more shipments are allowed by the phrase “partial shipments permit- ted.” 
  • Partially Hydrogenated 
    The term used to describe an oil which has been lightly to moderately hydrogenated to shift the melting point to a higher temperature range and increase the stability of the oil. Partially hydrogenated oils remain liquid and are used in a wide variety of
  • Passenger Ship 
    A vessel certificated to carry more than 12 passengers, some of whom may be accommodated in cabins 
  • Passenger Ship, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel used for carriage of passengers with purpose of a to b transport on rivers/lakes/canals, not suitable for open sea voyages. 
  • Passenger/Container Ship 
    A container ship with accommodation for the carriage of more than 12 passengers 
  • Passenger/Cruise 
    A vessel certificated to carry more than 12 passengers, all of whom may be accommodated in cabins 
  • Passenger/Landing Craft 
    A landing craft certificated to carry more than 12 passengers 
  • Passenger/Ro-Ro Ship (Vehicles) 
    A ro-ro cargo ship with accommodation for more than 12 passengers 
  • Passenger/Ro-Ro Ship (Vehicles), Inland Waterways 
    A vessel designed for the transportation of Vehicles. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • Passenger/Ro-Ro Ship (Vehicles/Rail) 
    A ro-ro cargo ship for the additional carriage of rail-vehicles and with accommodation for more than 12 passengers 
  • Passenger/Ro-Ro Ship (Vehicles/Train), Inland Waterways 
    A vessel designed for the transportation of Vehicles or Rail vehicles. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • Passivation 
    A nitric acid wash of high chromium stainless steel ship's tanks to form a very thin oxide film on the metal surface which serves as a protective barrier. 
  • Passivation potential 
    Corrosion potential, at which the corrosion current has a peak value, and above which there is a range of potentials, where the metal is in a passive state 
  • Passive state 
    State of a metal resulting from a passivation, usually the formation of an extremely thin surface oxide layer 
  • Payee 
    A party named in an instrument as the beneficiary of the funds. Under letters of credit, the payee is either the drawer of the draft or a bank. 
  • Payer 
    A party responsible for the payment as evidenced by the given instrument. Under letters of credit, the payer is the party on whom the draft is drawn, usually the drawee bank. 
  • PBL 
    Parallel Body Length 
  • PC 
    Per Container or Part Cargo or Port Consumption or Product carrier or Period of Charter or Port Clearance 
  • PCC 
    Pure Car Carrier or Pre-Carriage Charges 
  • PCM 
    Per calendar month (hire) 
  • PCO 
    Port, charterers' option 
  • PCO or PICO 
    Port in charterer’s option 
  • PD STG£ 
    British Pound Sterling (GBP) 
  • PE 
  • Pearl Shells Carrier 
    A vessel equipped for the carriage of pearl shells 
  • PEL 
    Permussible Exposure Limit. This is one of the most important OSHA limits used. It is defined as the allowable limit for air containment in which works may be exposed day after day without adverse health effects.  
  • Per Diem 
    A charge, based on a fixed daily rate. 
  • Per Hatch Per Day 
    PER HATCH PER DAY shall mean that the Laytime is to be calculated by dividing the quantity of cargo by the result of multiplying the agreed daily rate per hatch by the number of the Vessel’s hatches. Thus:Laytime = Quantity of cargo / (Daily rate x Number
  • Per Working Hatch Per Day or Per Workable Hatch Per Day 
    PER HATCH PER DAY shall mean that the Laytime is to be calculated by dividing the quantity of cargo by the result of multiplying the agreed daily rate per hatch by the number of the Vessel’s hatches. Thus: Laytime = Quantity of cargo / (Daily rate x Numbe
  • Percutaneous toxicity 
    Systemic toxic effects produced as a result of a substance being absorbed across the skin. 
    By the Day 
  • Perils of the Sea 
    Those causes of loss for which the carrier is not legally liable. The elemental risks of ocean trans- port. 
  • Period business 
    Deals which involve transfer of merchandise or delivery of service (transportation, for instance) from seller to buyer over a stretch of time. See term deal and time charter. 
  • Permanent Shore Facility 
    Any vessel which has been decommissioned as a non floating permanent facility 
  • Peroxide Value 
    Fats consist of saturated and unsaturated acids. The unsaturated acids are susceptible to oxidation, that is oxygen, can add to the fatty chain to form peroxides or hydroperoxides. The peroxide value is a measure of the amount of these products. It is usu
  • PET 
    Polyethylene terephthalate. PET is derived from xylene and is one of the most widely used industrial polyesters. It is used in lightweight, recyclable soft drink bottles, as fibers in clothing, as a filling for anoraks and duvets, in car tyre cords and co
  • Petrochemical 
    An organic compound that has been derived from petroleum or natural gas. There are almost 200 chemicals that can be so described and they include many simple hydrocarbons (e.g. methane, ethane), aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. benzene, toluene), naphthenes an
  • Petroleum 
    A generic term applied to oil and oil products in all forms, such as crude oil, unfinished oils, petroleum products, natural gas plant liquids, and non-hydrocarbon compounds blended into finished petroleum products. See crude oil. 
  • PFAD 
    Palm Fatty Acid Distillate. It is a term used specifically for the by-product obtained from palm oil refined by steam distillation (physical refining). PFAD contains free fatty acid (major component) and a small amount of unsaponifiable material and neutr
  • PFT 
    Per freight ton 
  • PGEE 
    Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether. 
  • PGEEA 
    Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether Acetate 
  • PGEP 
    Propylene Glycol Ethers Panel (USA) 
  • PGH 
    Per Geared Hatch 
  • PGME 
    Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether 
  • PGMEA 
    Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether Acetate 
  • PGO 
    This acronym designates two different intermediates. See process gasoil and pyrolysis gasoil. 
  • pH 
    A measure of acidity or alkalinity on a scale of 1 to 14. 1 is strongly acidic, 7 is neutral and 14 is strongly alkaline 
  • PHC 
    Port handling charges 
  • PHD 
    Per hatch day 
  • Phenanthrene 
    Phenanthrene is a crystalline polycyclic hydrocarbon isomeric to Anthracene. It is distilled from coal tar and is found in some coal tar oils which are used for example as wood preservatives and as carbon black feedstocks.  
  • Phenol 
    Phenol is an aromatic alcohol mainly used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. It essentially serves as a raw material for the production of bisphenol A, phenolic resins, alkylphenols and caprolactam. 
  • Phenolic resin 
    Phenolic resins are manufactured from phenol. They are used in wood products and molding powders applications, and also have a wide range of applications on the electrical, mechanical and decorative markets, in the automotive industry, in building and con
  • PHIL 
  • PHO 
    Port health officer 
  • Phosphatides 
    These are lipids which contain combined phosphoric acid in their chemical composition. Phosphatides (or phospholipids) are important structural and functional constituents of the membranes of biological tissue and are also the major constituent of the gum
  • Phosphorus 
    Phosphorus is a chemical element which has an important functional role in the phospholipid molecule. During the refining of oils and fats, it is important to remove the phosphorus before high temperature treatment in the deodoriser. Therefore, analysis o
  • Photosensitizer 
    A substance which is converted in the skin circulation by light into a derivative capable of causing skin sensitization 
  • Phototoxic 
    A substance which is converted in the skin circulation by light into a derivative capable of causing local irritation 
  • PHPD 
    Per Hatch Per Day 
  • Phthalate 
    Phthalates, or phthalate esters, are manufactured by the reaction of phthalic anhydride with one of a variety of alcohols ranging from methanol to tridecanol. They are predominantly used as plasticizers to soften the popular plastic PVC and to a lesser ex
  • Physical Hazard 
    A physical hazard is one in which harm could be caused to humans or wildlife as a consequence of the physical properties of chemical, e.g., stickiness or viscosity 
  • Physical Refining 
    In simple terms, physical refining may be defined as free fatty acid removal by the action of high temperature, high vacuum and with live steam applied directly to the oil. Physical refining, also frequently referred to as ""steam refining"", may more acc
  • Phytosanitary Inspection Certificate 
    A certificate issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to satisfy import regulations of foreign countries; indicates that a U.S. shipment has been inspected and found free from harmful pests and plant diseases. 
  • PIAT 
    Petrochemical Industry Association of Taiwan 
  • PIC 
    Person in charge 
  • Pickling 
    A chemical or electrochemical method of removing mill scale, rust and similar coating from steel 
  • Pickling bath 
    Solution used for pickling. The pickling bath is normally composed of acids, but can in electrolytic pickling consistent of a salt solution 
  • Pickup 
    The act of calling for freight by truck at the consignor’s shipping platform. 
  • Pier 
    The structure perpendicular to the shoreline to which a vessel is secured for the purpose of loading and unloading cargo. 
  • Pier–to–House 
    A shipment loaded into a container at the pier or terminal, thence to the consignee’s facility. 
  • Pier–to–Pier 
    Containers loaded at port of loading and discharged at port of destination. 
  • Pigging 
    At any bulking installation loading, unloading and other pumping lines are used interchangeably for different types of oils or different products of the same oil. The oil left behind in any pipeline after the pumping operation could be as much as 5-10 ton
  • Piggy Packer 
    A mobile container–handling crane used to load/unload containers to/from railcars. 
  • Piggyback 
    A transportation arrangement in which truck trailers with their loads are moved by train to a destination. Also known as Rail Pigs. 
  • PIH 
    Poison Inhalation Hazard. Term used to describe gases and volatile liquids that are toxic when inhaled. 
  • Pile Dike 
    A dike constructed of a group of piles braced and lashed together along a riverbank 
  • Pilot Vessel 
    A vessel from which pilots operate 
  • Pilotage 
    Process of piloting a ship. 
  • Pipe Burying Vessel 
    A vessel equipped to carry small stones and aggregates and to deliver them via a flexible fall pipe system to bury pipes and cables on the sea bed 
  • Pipe Carrier 
    A platform supply ship equipped with increased scantlings & longer deck space for the transportation of pipes 
  • Pipe Down 
    Means stop talking and be quiet. The Pipe Down was the last signal from the Bosun's pipe each day which meant "lights out" and "silence". 
  • Pipe Layer 
    A vessel primarily equipped to lay solid or flexible pipes on the sea bed 
  • Pipe Layer Crane Vessel 
    A pipe layer also equipped with a large crane or derrick 
  • Pipe layer Platform, jack up 
    A jack up offshore pipe layer platform 
  • Pipe layer Platform, semi submersible 
    A semi submersible offshore pipe layer platform 
  • Pipeline 
    Line of pipe equipped with pumps and valves and other control devices for moving liquids and gases. It is one of the main modes of transport for many chemicals, including olefins, the main building blocks of the petrochemical industry. 
  • Pipestill 
    A traditional industry name for crude distillation units. The term generally applies to atmospheric stills. "Vacuum pipestill," used infrequently, refers to vacuum distillation units. 
  • Pit 
    A corroded hollow in a metal surface, caused by localized corrosion (pitting) 
  • Pitching 
    Ship Stability: is when the vessel rotates about the transverse (side-to-side) axis 
  • PITT 
    Petroleum Institute of Thailand 
  • Pitting corrosion 
    Localized corrosion resulting in pits, i.e. cavities extending from the surface into the metal 
  • Pitting initiation potential 
    Lowest value of a corrosion potential at which pit initiation is possible in a passive surface in a given corrosive environment 
  • Place of Delivery 
    Place where cargo leaves the care and custody of carrier. 
  • Place of Receipt 
    Location where cargo enters the care and custody of carrier. 
  • Plastic 
    Any of numerous synthetic materials that consist of giant molecules called polymers, with extremely long chains of repeating units derived from short molecules. Plastics can be formed into products by molding or otherwise shaping. The two major divisions
  • Plasticize 
    The process of creating a solid crystal structure in a fat or oil product resulting in a smooth appearance and firm consistency. 
  • Plasticizer 
    A plasticizer is a substance which when added to a material, usually a plastic, makes it flexible, resilient and easier to handle. Modern plasticizers are manmade organic chemicals; the majority of which are esters, such as adipates and phthalates. They a
  • PlasticsEurope 
    Plastics Manufacturers Association, the plastics programme of Cefic. 
  • Platform Supply Ship 
    A vessel for the transportation of stores and goods to offshore platforms on an open deck, typically at the stern. May also be fitted with specialist under deck tanks for water, cement and/or drilling mud 
  • Plimsoll 
    A Plimsoll line or mark shows the safe 'freeboard' (distance from water to weather deck). There are 6 load lines as follows:Tropical Fresh, Fresh, Tropical, Summer, Winter, Winter North Atlantic. 
  • Plimsoll Mark 
    A series of horizontal lines, corresponding to the seasons of the year and fresh or saltwater, painted on the outside of a ship marking the level which must remain above the surface of the water for the vessel’s stability. 
  • PLTC 
    Port liner term charge 
  • PM 
    Per month or Afternoon 
  • PMMA 
    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is made from methyl methacrylate and is mainly used in the construction industry, lighting applications, signs, automotive and related areas, electronics and consumer-ware. 
  • PMRC 
    APPE Petrochemicals Market Research Committee. APPE is a major group within the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • PO 
    Propylene Oxide. A petrochemical used as a monomer in polymer production and as an intermediate in the synthesis of other substances. Propylene oxide is used as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of polyurethane foam, in propylene glycol and in ot
  • PO-PO 
  • POD 
    Paid On delivery or Port of Discharge or Proof of Delivery 
  • Point of Origin 
    The place at which a shipment is received by a carrier from the shipper. 
  • Poise 
    The unit of absolute viscosity. The trade often uses centipoises. One poise equals 100 centipoises. 
  • Pollution Control Vessel 
    A vessel equipped for the primary function of pollution control. Typical types include oil spill recovery vessel and a pollution and debris collector 
  • Polyacrylate 
    A family of thermoplastic engineering resins made by the polymerization of an acrylic compound such as methyl methacrylate. 
  • Polycarbonate resins 
    Polycarbonate resins, derived from bisphenol A, are used for structural parts, impact resistant glazing, street-light bulbs, household appliance parts, components of electrical/electronic devices, automotive applications, reusable bottles, and food and dr
  • Polycarbonates 
    Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastics.They are easily worked, molded, and thermoformed; as such, these plastics are very widely used in modern manufacturing. Polycarbonate is becoming more common in housewares as well as laboratories and
  • Polyester 
    Any of a group of polymers that consist basically of repeated units of an ester and are used especially in making fibers or plastics. Polyesters can be made into woven and knitted fabrics, either alone or blended with other fibers; they also have industri
  • Polyethylene 
    A polymer of ethylene, especially any of various lightweight thermoplastics that are resistant to chemicals and moisture, have good insulating properties, and are used especially in packaging and insulation. 
  • Polyisobutylene 
    Polyisobutylene is a synthetic rubber, or elastomer. It is special because it is that only rubber that is gas impermeable, that is, it is the only rubber which can hold air for long periods of time. Polyisobutylene, sometimes called butyl rubber is a viny
  • Polymer 
    Polymer is derived from the Greek word poly meaning many while the term monomer is derived from mono meaning one. When identical simple molecules (monomers) come together and link up in a chain-like fashion they form a polymer. Polymers can be short chain
  • Polymer 
    A strand of monomers. By [Definition], it takes five or more of these combining units to make a polymer. Shorter chains have individual names (dimer, trimer, and tetramer). Most familiar synthetic polymers, plastics like polystyrene, polypropylene, and po
  • Polymerisation 
    Tank cleaning: The initial wash of products that tend to polymerise should be carried out with cold (ambient) water. Washing with hot water may result in polimeric residues being left in tanks and lines, which are very difficult to remove. 
  • Polymerise 
    The bonding of similar molecules into long chains or branched structures. 
  • Polymorphism 
    The property of fat molecules to exist in multiple crystalline structures; identified as alpha, beta and beta prime. 
  • Polyol 
    This is an organic molecule with three or more alcohol groups attached. The correct chemical term for an alcohol group is a hydroxy group with the combination of one oxygen attached to one hydrogen (OH). 
  • Polyolefin 
    The collective name given to those polymers that are made from the lower olefins: ethylene, propylene, butylene and isoprene. The polyolefins are thermoplastic polymers. 
  • Polypropylene 
    Any of various thermoplastic plastics or fibers that are polymers of propylene. Polypropylene can be made into fibers, where it is a major constituent in fabrics for home furnishings such as upholstery and carpets. Numerous industrial end uses include rop
  • Polystyrene 
    A solid plastic made from polymerized styrene and used in a wide variety of everyday applications, from coffee cups through to CD jewel boxes.. 
  • Polyurethane 
    A synthetic compound derived from toluene, belonging to the family of organic polymers. Polyurethanes are used to make the foam in furniture, mattresses, car seats, building insulation, coatings for floors and furniture and refrigerators. They are also us
  • Pomerene Act 
    U.S. federal law enacting conditions by which a B/L may be issued. Penalties for issuing B/L’s containing false data include monetary fines and/or imprisonment. Also known as (U.S.) Federal Bill of Lading Act of 1916. 
  • PONA 
    A breakdown of the kind of molecules which compose a hydrocarbon mixture. The trade uses PONA most frequently to describe naphthas. See paraffins, olefins, naphthenes, and aromatics. All hydrocarbons fall into one of these four categories. The feedstock t
  • Pontoon (Function Unknown) 
    A non propelled pontoon whose function is unknown 
  • Pool Agreement 
    An agreement between a number of persons who have the right (because they are bareboat or time charterers, so disponent owners) to exploit the earning capacity of similar ships to co-operate in the Commercial Management and Commercial Operation of (typica
  • Pooped 
    The poop is the stern section of a ship. To be pooped is to be swamped by a high, following sea 
  • POPS 
    Purchase Options 
  • Port 
    Left side of a ship as perceived when facing toward the front (bow). Also refers to a shore facility where ships dock to be loaded and unloaded. 
  • Port 
    PORT shall mean any area where vessels load or discharge cargo and shall include, but not be limited to, berths, wharves, anchorages, buoys and offshore facilities as well as places outside the legal, fiscal or administrative area where vessels are ordere
  • Port Facility Security Officer 
    Is the person designated as responsible for the development, implementation, revision and mainte- nance of the port facility security plan and for liaison with the ship security officers and company security officers. 
  • Port Facility Security Plan 
    Is a plan developed to ensure the application of measures designed to protect persons on board, cargo, cargo transport units and ship’s stores within the port facility from the risks of a security incident. 
  • Port of Call 
    Port where a ship discharges or receives traffic. 
  • Port of Entry 
    Port where cargo is unloaded and enters a country. 
  • Port of Exit 
    Place where cargo is loaded and leaves a country. 
  • Port Security 
    It is the defense, law and treaty enforcement, and counterterrorism activities that fall within the port and maritime domain. It includes the protection of the seaports themselves, the protection and in- spection of the cargo moving through the ports, and
  • Port Security Grant Program (PSGP) 
    As a result of the Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2005, fiscal year grant funding is provided annually to the Nation’s most at–risk seaports for physical security enhancements to be used in the protection of critical port infrastruc
  • Port State Inspection 
    An inspection of a vessel carried out by the national marine authority of the Country in which the vessel is visiting. 
  • POSH - Port out, Starboard home 
    A popular theory holds that the term Posh is derived from the initials of “Port Out, Starboard Home,” the cooler, and thus more expensive, side of ships traveling between England and India in the mid-19th century. The acronym POSH was supposedly stamped o
  • Positional Isomer 
    An isomer differing in the location of a double bond. 
  • Post Curing 
    The input of heat to a coating after the initial cure has taken place to enhance the chemical resistance 
  • Post-Fixture Operations 
    Voyage planning operations that take place after a voyage has been contracted, or "fixed". 
  • Post-Panamax Vessel 
    a fully cellular containership that can carry more than 4,000 TEUs; a vessel that is larger than the original Panama Canal dimensions, but will fit under the Panama Canal expansion 
  • Posted price 
    The published or list price of crude and petroleum products, sometimes shortened to "posting." Many companies use this term as a name for the price applied to their contract business. In some cases, it means the commodity's base price--the starting figure
  • Pour point 
    The temperature where a hydrocarbon mixture becomes too thick to flow. The industry uses this property to assure that gasoil will fuel furnaces and diesel engines properly during cold weather. In particularly harsh climates, pour point indicates how warm
  • Pour point 
    The lowest temperature at which commodity will continue to flow when it is cooled under specified standard conditions. 
  • Powder Carrier 
    A single deck cargo vessel for the carriage of fine powders such as fly ash. There are no weather deck hatches 
  • PP 
    Per Procurationem (on behalf of) or Picked Ports 
  • PPB 
    Parts per billion. A thousand times less than a ppm. An expression for tiny concentrations of one ingredient (usually a contaminent) in a mixture. One milligram per kilogram equals one weight ppm. 
  • ppb 
    Parts by weight per billion parts 
  • Ppd 
    Prepaid: Freight charges paid by the consignor (shipper) prior to the release of the bills of lading by the car- rier. 
  • PPM 
    Parts per million. A convenient expression for very small concentrations of one ingredient (usually a contaminent) in a mixture. One milligram per kilogram equals one weight ppm. So does 1 gram in a metric ton. The industry does not regularly use volume p
  • PPP 
    Public Private Partnership 
  • PPT 
    Prompt.. Immediate availability of the cargo or vessel offered in the charter party or any other contract. Similar to Spot. 
  • PR 
    Polski Rajestr Statkow (polish register) 
  • Pratique Certificate 
    Lifts temporary quarantine of a vessel; granted pratique by Health Officer. 
  • PRC 
    People's Republic of China 
  • PRE 
    Pitting Resistance Equivalent. An empirical formula used to predict the resistance of stainless steels to pitting corrosion. Various formulas are used but the most common is PRE=%Cr+3.3%Mo+16%N 
  • Pre–cooling 
    A process employed in the shipment of citrus fruits and other perishable commodities. The fruit is packed and placed in a cold room from which the heat is gradually extracted. The boxes of fruit are packed in containers that have been thoroughly cooled an
  • Precursor 
    A stream or molecule transformed into a specific product by a reaction or other processing. Refiners, for instance, regard naphthenes as aromatics precursors because they readily become aromatics in reformers. 
  • Preparation 
    A preparation is a mixture or a solution composed of two or more substances. This term is used in the European legislation. 
  • Press into Service 
    The British navy filled their ships' crew quotas by kidnapping men off the streets and forcing them into service. This was called Impressment and was done by Press Gangs. 
  • Pressuring agent 
    Butanes used to control the vapor pressure of finished gasoline. Usually butane's price, relative to other components' and finished gasolines. gives refiners incentive to put as much butane as possible in their blends. During the winter months, when RVP s
  • Pro Forma 
    A Latin term meaning “For the sake of form.” 
  • Pro Forma Invoice 
    An invoice provided by a supplier prior to the shipment of merchandise, informing the buyer of the kinds and quantities of goods to be sent, their value, and specifications (weight, size, etc.). 
  • Processes 
    Basic oleochemicals are producted primarily through splitting, distillation, fractionation, separation, hydrogenation, methylation and hydrophilisation. Derivatives of basic oleochemicals are produced mainly through amidation, chlorination, dimerisation,
  • Producers 
    Companies, often state organizations, which own oil wells and the crude which flows from them. This category includes a large number of private enterprises. Integrated oil companies and specialists called independent producers develop much of the world's
  • Product 
    Refined petroleum product such as gasoline, kerosene or fuel oil. 
  • Product Name 
    Cargo name listed in Chapter 17 or 18 in the IBC Code or in the latest edition of MEPC.2/Circ. or as per a Tripartite Agreement. This is the name that should be indicated on the shipping document. 
  • Product Stewardship 
    Product Stewardship is the responsible and ethical management of the health, safety and environmental aspects of a product throughout its total life cycle. Product Stewardship is Responsible Care applied to products. More… 
  • Product Tanker 
    A tanker built to comply with Annex 1 of Marpol 73/78 for the carriage of oil and engaged in the trade of carrying oil other than crude oil. This includes both clean and black products. 
  • Production 
    Stage in the industry where oil and gas are extracted and prepared for transport. 
  • Production Platform, jack up 
    A jack up offshore production platform 
  • Production Platform, semi submersible 
    A semi submersible offshore production Platform  
  • Production Testing Vessel 
    A vessel primarily equipped for testing the quality and amount of oil produced by a well 
  • Products (Oil) 
    Oil which has been produced as the direct result of a refining process. The resultant product may be Clean Petroleum Products - CPP (Naptha, Gasoline, Gas Oil, Base Oils etc. Or Dirty Petroleum Products - DPP (Fuel Oils etc.) 
  • Products Tank Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled tank barge for the carriage of oil products 
  • Products Tanker  
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of refined petroleum products, either clean or dirty 
  • Products Tanker Barge, propelled 
    A self propelled tanker barge for the bulk carriage of refined petroleum products, either clean or dirty 
  • Products with a high melting Point 
    Tank cleaning: These products should be washed at a temperature of 15-20 C above the melting point. During washing there should be no ballast water or cold cargoes adjacent to the tank to be cleaned. During cleaning special attention must be given to liqu
  • Products with a high viscosity 
    Tank cleaning: These products should be washed at higher temperatures. In general the viscosity is closely related to the temperature and will decrease at higher temperatures. During washing there should be no ballast water or cold cargoes adjacent to the
  • Project Rate 
    Single tariff item, established to move multiple commodities needed for a specified project, usually construction. 
  • Propane 
    A colorless, gaseous hydrocarbon. It is separated in large quantities from natural gas, light crude oil, and oil-refinery gases and is commercially available as liquefied propane or as a major constituent of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). As with ethane,
  • Propylene 
    Also called propene, a colorless, flammable, gaseous hydrocarbon obtained from petroleum; large quantities of propylene are used in the manufacture of resins, fibers, and plastics (see polyolefins), and numerous other chemical products. 
  • Propylene 
    Three-carbon olefin produced in refineries by catalytic crackers and in petrochemical plants by steam crackers. Refiners process part of their supply into motor gasoline blendstock, particularly alkylate. Some refinery material and that from steam cracker
  • Propylene glycol 
    Generic term for a family of propylene glycols, the most important of which is monopropylene glycol.  
  • Propylene glycol ethers 
    Propylene glycol ethers are formed from the base catalyzed reaction of propylene oxide with alcohols like methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol or phenol. For further information please see 
  • Propylene glycol ethers acetates 
    Glycol ether acetates are clear liquids that often have a pleasant, fruity odor. For further information please see 
  • Protected Waters 
    an area of sheltered waters presenting no special hazards such as most rivers, harbours and lakes, designated by the Administration for the operation of small vessels and where not so designated means an area not more than 3 miles from a safe haven. 
  • Protein 
    A naturally occurring combination of amino acids, containing the chemical elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulphur. One of the essential constituents of all living things and of the diet of animals and man. 
  • PSC 
    Port state control. Is the system whereby the authorities of a State responsible for marine safety are empowered to inspect vessels entering its ports, even if they do not fly the flag of that State, in order to identify ships not complying with applicabl
  • PSI 
    Pounds Per Square Inch or Pre Shipment Inspection 
  • PSI 
    Pounds per square inch (lbsin2). A common unit of pressure particularly vapor pressure. Some folks express pressure specifications in kPa or bars. 1.0 lbin2 = 0.068947 bar = 6.8947 kPa 
  • PSIG 
    Pounds Per Square Inch Gauge 
  • PSIX 
    Port State Information Exchange (USCG) 
  • PST 
    Pacific Standard Time; Per Short Ton 
  • PSV 
    Platform Supply Vessel -designed to supply offshore oil platforms 
  • Public Service Commission 
    A name usually given to a State body having control or regulation of public utilities. 
  • Publishing Agent 
    Person authorized by transportation lines to publish tariffs or rates, rules, and regulations for their account. 
  • PUFA 
    Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acids. Fatty acids having two or more double bonds in their carbon chain. The most common poly-unsaturated fatty acid is linoleic acid. CH3 (CH2)4 CH = CH CH2 CH = CH(CH2)7 COOH Corn oil, sunflowerseed and soyabean oil are rich in p
  • Puigs 
    Pigs"" are used for cleaning pipelines. Hard pigs consist of several, usually three, discs of plastic on a central shaft. They are a close fit in the pipeline to be cleaned. They are pushed through by gas or air and evacuate any product ahead of them in
  • Pulp Temperature 
    Procedure where carrier tests the temperature of the internal flesh of refrigerated commodities to assure that the temperature at time of shipment conforms to prescribed temperature ranges. 
  • Pup 
    A short semi–trailer used jointly with a dolly and another semi–trailer to create a twin trailer. 
  • Purplefinder 
    Tracks, monitors and reports on remote assets. PurpleFinder® uses satellite GPS in conjunction with satellite or land-based communication services to provide global, two-way, real-time, web-access to standard and exception-based asset position reporting, 
  • Pusher Tug 
    A vessel equipped to push cargo carrying barges and pontoons. May be articulated to work with specifically designed barge(s) 
  • PVC 
    Polyvinyl Chloride. A polymer of vinyl chloride used to make a diverse range of cost-effective products with various levels of technical performance suited to a wide range of applications. Many of these PVC products are used everyday and include everythin
  • PW 
    Packed weight or Piece weight 
  • PWH 
    Per Workable Hatch 
  • PWHD 
    Per Workable Hatch Day 
  • PWWD 
    Per Weather Working day 
  • Pyrolisis gasoline 
    Pyrolysis Gasoline, or Pygas, is a naphtha-range product with a high aromatic content, used either for gasoline blending or as a feedstock for a BTX extraction unit. Pygas is produced in an ethylene plant that processes butane, naphtha or gasoil. 
  • Pyrolysis 
    Application of heat to change molecular structure. The oil industry ordinarily reserves this term for processes which break hydrocarbons without the assistance of a catalyst, such as steam cracking and cooking. 
  • Pyrolysis gasoil 
    The distillate fuel oil produced by a heavy liquids steam cracker. This material usually finds use as a distillate blendstock. 
  • Pyrolysis gasoline 
    The aromatics-rich naphtha-range stream produced in sizeable quantities by an ethylene plant when it cracks butane, naphtha, or gasoil. Pygas resembles reformate. It can serve as a high-octane blendstock for motor gasoline or as a feedstock for an aromati
  • Pyrophoric 
    A substance which ignites spontaneously upon exposure to air (or oxygen). 
  • Q88 
    Questionnaire 88; is a web based questionnaire generator that allows you to create questionnaires for vessels.  
  • QTE 
    Quote. The act of a charterer to make known that a ship is sought for a particular cargo or, as a shipowner, to advertise the availability of his ship for charter. Most often this activity is carried out using the services of shipbrokers. 
  • Quality Assessment 
    Often termed ""Quality Control"" or ""QC"", it is the measurement of chemical or physical properties to establish whether a sample conforms to specification. In manufacturing, such laboratory analyses are carried out periodically and the results are used
  • Quarantine 
    A restraint placed on an operation to protect the public against a health hazard. A ship may be quarantined so that it cannot leave a protected point. During the quarantine period, the Q flag is hoisted. 
  • Quay 
    A structure attached to land to which a vessel is moored.See also Pier and Dock. 
  • Quoin 
    A wedge–shaped piece of timber used to secure barrels against movement. 
  • Quota 
    The quantity of goods that may be imported without restriction during a set period of time. 
  • QWCT 
    Quay weight crane tonnage dues 
  • QWT 
    Quay weight; Quay weight and Tonnage Dues 
  • R/E 
    Rate of exchange 
  • R/T 
    Round trip or Radio Telephone or Rye Terms 
  • Rack blending 
    The practice of adding one or more components to a gasoline blend at an inland distribution terminal. Frequently, due to logistics, this type of blending occurs at the end of the distribution line. For instance, a supplier will add ethanol to finished gas
  • Rack price 
    The truckload price charged by a supplier to customers which buy motor gasoline on an FOB terminal basis. 
  • Radioactivity 
    The property of some substances to emit invisible and potentially harmful radiation. 
  • Raffinate 
    What remains of a reformate or pyrolysis gasoline stream after aromatics extraction. These paraffinic, naphtha-range mixtures usually have too low an octane rating for use in motor gasoline, but good properties for steam cracking. Butylene streams produce
  • Rag Top 
    A slang term for an open–top trailer or container with a tarpaulin cover. 
  • Rail Division 
    The amount of money an ocean carrier pays to the railroad for overland carriage. 
  • Rail Grounding 
    The time that the container was discharged (grounded) from the train. 
  • Rail Vehicles Carrier 
    A single or multi deck cargo ship with rails for the carriage of rail vehicles which are loaded via ramps 
  • Ramp 
    Railroad terminal where containers are received or delivered and trains loaded or discharged. Original- ly, trailers moved onto the rearmost flatcar via a ramp and driven into position in a technique known as “circus loading.” Most modern rail facilities
  • Ramp–to–Door 
    A movement where the load initiates at an origin rail ramp and terminates at a consignee’s door. 
  • Ramsbottom carbon 
    A measurement of hydrocarbon mixtures' tendency to leave carbon deposits (coke) when burned as fuel or subjected to intense heat in a processing unit such as a catalytic cracker. See CONRADSON CARBON. 
  • Rancidity 
    Rancidity is the development of off-odours and off-flavour in edible oils and fats or manufactured food products caused by oxidative deterioration. Primary oxidation products are odourless and tasteless but certain secondary decomposition products have pa
  • Rapeseed Oil 
    The oil obtained from the seeds of ""Brassica Napus"" and ""Brassica Campestris"". In common with other brassica oils such as mustard oils, rapeseed has a high content of erucic acid. Since this was found to have some adverse nutritional effects in animal
  • Rate Basis 
    A formula of the specific factors or elements that control the making of a rate. A rate can be based on any number of factors (i.e., weight, measure, equipment type, package, box, etc.). 
  • Rateably 
    On a rateable basis. The industry uses this expression for paced delivery of product. Crude, for instance, can move from buyer to seller at some speed like a thousand barrels per day. The idea applies most naturally to pipeline-carried commodities. 
  • Raw Materials 
    The primary raw materials of the oleochemicals industry are tall oil, tallow, coconut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil and canola oil. 
  • RBAY 
    Richards Bay 
  • RBCT 
    Richards Bay Coal Terminal 
  • RBD 
    Refined, Bleached and Deodorised Oil. The initial letters of the words Refined, Bleached and Deodorised are used as a quality description of a fully processed oil. In Malaysia, RBD is used for a physically refined oil. After transport, RBD oils have to be
  • RCN 
    Research octane number 
  • RCP 
    Federal Region Oil & Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan 
    Redelivery; Re-delivery of Vessel on Time Charter 
  • RE. 
    Relating (to) or with Reference (to) 
  • Reachable on arrival 
    REACHABLE ON ARRIVAL shall mean that the charterer undertakes that an available loading or discharging Berth be provided to the Vessel on arrival at the Port which the Vessel can reach safely without delay. 
  • Reaction with Oxygen 
    Tank Cleaning: Drying and semi-drying vegetable and animal oils react with oxygen to form a varnish-like polymeric film. This is very difficult to remove from the bulkheads etc. Since heat increases the reaction speed the initial washing of these products
  • Reaction with water 
    Tank Cleaning: Isocyanates must never come into contact with water, not even the residues, because the reaction product and insoluble urethane (plus CO2) are very difficult to remove. Such products must be washed with a suitable solvent, that does not con
  • Reaction with water hardness compounds  
    Tank Cleaning: Water hardness is formed by the calcium and magnesium content of the water. Sea water has a very high water hardness. Some products like fatty acids and vegetable oils with a high free fatty acid content will form white sticky residues, if
  • Reactivity 
    A description of the tendency of a substance to undergo chemical reaction with the release of energy. Undesirable effects such as pressure build-up, temperature increase, formation of noxious, toxic, or corrosive byproducts may occur because of the reacti
  • Realization 
    Evaluation based on theoretical (often negotiated) estimates of how much money a refiner or petrochemicals producer can make by processing a feedstock. Many netback deals price oil according to a formula which considers the quantity and spot value of prod
  • Reasonableness 
    Under ICC and common law, the requirement that a rate not be higher than is necessary to reimburse the carrier for the actual cost of transporting the traffic and allow a fair profit. 
  • Rebate 
    An illegal form of discounting or refunding that has the net effect of lowering the tariff price. See also Malpractice. 
  • Reconsignment 
    Changing the consignee or destination on a bill of lading while shipment is still in transit. Diversion has substantially the same meaning. 
  • Recourse 
    A right claim against the guarantors of a loan or draft or bill of exchange. 
  • Red Label 
    A label required on shipments of flammable articles. 
  • Redox Potential 
    A measure of the oxidizing ability of a solution. A solution with a high redox potential has a high oxidizing ability 
  • Reduced crude 
    Atmospheric fuel oil. See ATMOSPHERIC RESIDUE. 
  • Redwood viscosity 
    A method of measuring and reporting viscosity which lost popularity in recent years. Tables available from various sources convert Redwood figures to the more widely used Kinematic and Saybolt scales. 
  • Reefer Vessel 
    Vessel with refrigerated cargo hold(s) 
  • Refined Sugar Carrier 
    A single deck cargo vessel for the carriage of refined sugar. Sugar is loaded in bulk and bagged in transit (BIBO - Bulk In - Bag Out) 
  • Refining 
    Processing and manufacturing of petroleum products out of crude oil and other hydrocarbons. Refining begins with simple distillation, and then additional processes are done to minimize the production of heavier/lower value products, such as residual fuel
  • Refining Factor 
    The refining factor is used to monitor product losses in the refinery. It is defined as the ratio of percent loss to percent FFA, corrected for moisture and impurities. A refining factor can be calculated for one or more processing stages. 
  • Refining Loss 
    The loss from the original quantity of crude oil resulting from various refining processes. This loss varies considerably depending on the free acid content of the oil, other substances removed during refining and the method of refining. 
  • Reformate 
    The product of a catalytic reformer. An aromatics-rich high-octane motor or aviation gasoline blendstock. Many refineries route a part of the reformate they produce through aromatics extraction units to recover the benzene, toluene, and xylenes it contain
  • Reformer 
    A catalytic processing unit which produces a highly aromatic stream (reformate) used primarily as high-octane blendstock. 
  • Reforming 
    The thermal or catalytic conversion of petroleum naphtha into more volatile products of higher octane number. It represents the total effect of numerous simultaneous reactions such as cracking, polymerization, dehydrogenation, and isomerisation. 
  • Reforming Naphtha 
  • Refractive Index 
    The velocity of light changes as it travels from one medium to another and the light is then said to have undergone refraction. In effect, the rays of light are bent at the interface between the two media. The refractive index of a substance is the ratio
  • Refrigerated Cargo Ship  
    A multi deck cargo ship for the carriage of refrigerated cargo at various temperatures 
  • Reg (EC) 2037/2000 
    EU regulation covering ozone-depleting substances which seeks to protect the ozone layer 
  • Regasification 
    Process that occurs after LNG has been shipped and transferred to a storage tank. It is then warmed to convert it back into natural gas for distribution via pressurized pipeline to residential, commercial and industrial users. 
  • Regional Bulk Sizes 
    Kamsarmax, with a maximum length of 229 meters, the maximum length that can load in the port of Kamsar in the Republic of Guinea. Other terms such as Seawaymax, Setouchmax, Dunkirkmax, and Newcastlemax also appear in regional trade. 
  • REL 
    Recommended Exposure Limit. The highest allowable air concentration that will not injure a person. 
  • Related Points 
    A group of points to which rates are made the same as or in relation to rates to other points in group. 
  • Relay 
    To transfer containers from one ship to another when both vessels are controlled by the same network (carrier) manager. 
  • Relet 
    A ship offered for hire by its time-charterer. Large international oil companies, because they take far more tankers on a period basis than anyone else, engage in reletting most frequently. 
  • RELET 
    To sub-charter 
  • Remittance 
    Funds sent by one person to another as payment. 
  • Rendering 
    The process of separating animal fat from tissue and cellular structure by the application of heat, pressure, solvent or a combination of these. 
  • Replenishment Dry Cargo Vessel 
    A naval auxiliary vessel for homogenous dry cargo 
  • Replenishment Tanker 
    A naval auxiliary vessel. Designed for fuel, lubricants & general stores for transfer to warships at sea. 
  • Reproductive toxicity 
    Capable of causing injury to the male or female reproductive system, causing an interference with propagation of the species 
  • Research Survey Vessel 
    A vessel equipped for research and/or survey (e.g. geophysical, hydrographic) 
  • Research Vessel, Naval Auxiliary 
    A research vessel for Naval support 
  • Research, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel designed for research. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • Residue 
    The bottoms taken from distillation units. Both atmospheric and vacuum stills yield a residue. The industry sometimes uses "bottoms" to designate this unboiled material. Atmospheric residue can undergo further distillation in a vacuum unit. Heavy fuel oil
  • Resin 
    Any natural or synthetic organic compound consisting of a non-crystalline or viscous liquid substance. Natural resins are organic substances that are transparent or translucent, formed in plant secretions. Synthetic resins comprise a large class of synthe
  • Responsible Care 
    Responsible Care is the chemical industry's commitment to continuous improvement in all aspects of health, safety and environment performance and to openness in communication about its activities and achievements.  
  • Restricted Articles 
    Articles handled only under certain conditions. 
  • Revenue Ton (RT) 
    A ton on which the shipment is freighted. If cargo is rated as weight or measure (W/M), whichever produces the highest revenue will be considered the revenue ton.Weights are based on metric tons and measures are based on cubic meters.RT=1 MT or 1 CBM. 
  • Reverse IPI 
    An inland point provided by an all–water carrier’s through bill of lading in the U.S. by first discharging the container in an East Coast port. 
  • Reversible 
    Detention. If loading completed sooner than expected at load port, then days saved can be added to discharge operations. 
  • REVERSIBLE (Detention) 
    If loading completed sooner than expected at load port, then days saved can be added to discharge operations 
  • Reversible Laytime 
    REVERSIBLE LAYTIME shall mean an option given to the charterer to add together the time allowed for loading and discharging. Where the option is exercised the effect is the same as a total time being specified to cover both operations. 
  • Ricinoleic Acid 
    Ricinoleic acid, whose systematic name is 12-hydroxyleic acid, is found in high degree in castor oil. The oil, ricinoleic acid, or its derivatives, are important to the cosmetics and lubricants industries. 
  • Righting Moment 
    Ship Stability: The product of the weight of the vessel(displacement) and the righting arm(GZ) 
  • RightShip 
    RightShip is a boutique ship vetting specialist, promoting safety and efficiency in the global maritime industry, including drybulk.  
  • Risk 
    Risk should be clearly distinguished from hazard. Risk is the chance that a given hazardous effect will occur. The use of fire by humans is an example of optimizing the balance between hazard and risk, as fire, being extremely hazardous, must be used unde
  • Risk Assessment 
    Substances on European priority lists must undergo an in-depth risk assessment covering the risks posed by the priority chemical to man (covering workers, consumers and man exposed via the environment) and the environment (covering the terrestrial, aquati
  • Ro-Ro Cargo Ship 
    A single or multi deck cargo ship for the carriage of laden vehicles which are loaded via ramps 
  • Ro-Ro Cargo Ship, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel designed for the transportation of Ro-Ro Cargo. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • Ro/Ro 
    A shortening of the term, “Roll On/Roll Off.” A method of ocean cargo service using a vessel with ramps which allows wheeled vehicles to be loaded and discharged without cranes. Also refers to any specialized vessel designed to carry Ro/Ro cargo. 
  • Roads 
    Anchorage Area 
  • ROB 
    Remaining on board. The volume of cargo, usually expressed in barrels or cubic meters, left on board a tankship at a particular point of a voyage. Final ROB volumes after the completion of discharge, if too high (& deemed pumpable IAW C/P terms), can resu
  • Rocket Launch Support Ship 
    A vessel equipped to transport rocket sections to isolated launch sites 
    Phosphate Rock 
  • Roll-on/Roll-off vessels 
    Ships specially designed to carry wheeled containers or trailers using interior ramps. Includes all forms of car and truck carriers. 
  • Roll–on/Roll–off vessels 
    Ships specially designed to carry wheeled containers or trail- ers using interior ramps. 
  • Rolling 
    Ship Stability: is when the vessel rotates about the longitudinal (front/back) axis 
  • Rolling 
    The side–to–side (athwartship) motion of a vessel. 
  • RON (Research Octane Number) 
    A rating of the anti-knock properties of a finished motor gasoline or blendstock. The test to determine RON stimulates mild engine operating conditions such as motoring at moderate speeds. The RON method yields higher numbers than the MON (motor octane nu
  • RoRo Barge 
    The Roll On/Roll Off, or RO/RO barge is a deck barge with multiple decks that can accommodate enormous numbers of containers, trailers, or rail cars, allowing them to be wheeled directly onto or off the barge. 
  • Route 
    The manner in which a shipment moves; i.e., the carriers handling it and the points at which the carriers interchange. 
  • RS 
    Register of Shipping of the Russia or Rupees (currency of India) 
  • RT 
    Revenue Tonne or Right Time (of ship departure/arrival) 
  • RT43 
    Measure for capacity by a car which is 4.125 m long, 1.550 m wide and 1.420 m high 
  • Rubber 
    Synthetic rubber, as opposed to natural rubber (obtained from the exudations of certain tropical trees), is derived from petroleum and natural gas. Because of its elasticity, resilience, and toughness, rubber is the basic constituent of the tires used in
  • Rummage Sale 
    From the French "arrimage" meaning ship's cargo. Damaged cargo was sold at a rummage sale. 
  • Running Days or Consecutive Days 
    RUNNING DAYS or CONSECUTIVE DAYS shall mean Days which follow one immediately after the other. 
  • Running Gear 
    Complementary equipment for terminal and over–the–road handling containers. 
  • Running Hours or Consecutive Hours 
    RUNNING HOURS or CONSECUTIVE HOURS shall mean hours which follow one immediately after the other. 
  • RVNX 
    Released Value Not Exceeding: Usually used to limit the value of goods transported. The limitation refers to carrier liability when paying a claim for lost or damaged goods. 
  • RVP 
    Reid Vapor Pressure. Absolute pressure exerted by the gas produced by evaporation from the liquid, as measured by Reid apparatus under the specific conditions of test temperature, vapor/liquid ratio and air saturation. 
  • RVP 
    Reid vapor pressure. A measure of the volatility of hydrocarbons. The Reid test can measure volatility at any practical temperature. A testing temperature must accompany any RVP report to make it most informative. Ordinarily, the feedstock and petroleum p
  • South; Summer loadline 
  • S & P or SANDP 
    Sale and purchase 
  • S d/k 
    Shelter deck 
  • S&P 
    Sale and purchase 
  • S-57/S-63 
    S-57/S-63 is the primary format for all type-approved ECDIS systems that meet IMO/SOLAS chart carriage requirements. 
  • S.THR. 
    Side Thruster 
  • S/A or SA 
    South America; South Australia; South Africa; Safe Anchorage; Salvage Association 
  • S/D 
    Sight Draft or Sea Damage 
  • S/FA 
    Shipping and Forwarding Agent 
  • S/N 
    Shipping note 
  • S/O 
    Ship owner 
  • S/S 
    Service Speed or Special Survey or Steamship 
  • S/S/R/CMA 
    Stem, suppliers, receivers, charterers management 
  • SA 
    Safe Anchorage or South Atlantic or South America or South Africa or South Australia or Sociéte Anonyme 
  • SA/SHEX 
    Saturday afternoon/Sundays and holidays excepted.(Excluded) 
  • SABIO 
    Stem and Berth in order 
  • SAFE Port Act 
    Is the Security and Accountability For Every Port Act of 2006 which is an Act of Congress in the United States that covers port security. 
  • Safety Case 
    Some countries such as Canada, Australia, Norway and the UK require a Safety Case to be developed before permission is given to develop and operate an oil field. Various safety studies are conducted and reviewed. If approved, the oil company is allowed to
  • Sail Training Ship 
    A sailing vessel used to train merchant/naval seamen or youth training. 
  • Sailing Draft 
    the vertical depth below the water surface in which the vessel moves in 
  • SAL 
    Single Anchor Loading - Consists of a single or double mooring line attached to a suction anchor or pile on the seabed. A swivel stands on top of anchor. The oil flow is carried through a flexible hose up to the ship, which "weathervanes" freely around th
  • SALM 
    Single Anchor Leg Mooring 
  • Salvage Ship 
    A vessel equipped for salvage operations 
  • Salvage Vessel, Naval Auxiliary 
    A naval auxiliary vessel fitted with salvage equipment. 
  • SAN 
    Styrene-acrylonitrile. SAN is a transparent, rigid styrenic plastic offering high chemical resistance, used mainly in the automotive, electrical and electronics industry, as well as in household applications and building products.. 
  • Sanction 
    An embargo imposed by a Government against another country. 
  • SAP 
    Single Anchor Production - Involves placing a multi-path production swivel on a seabed anchor. Can be used in most water depths and is expected to have a large potential in combination with subsea production equipment. 
  • Saponification Value 
    The saponification value is defined as the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to saponify completely one gram of the substance. It is a measure of the free and combined fatty acids present. By deducting the acid value from the saponifica
  • SAR 
    Search And Rescue 
  • SART 
    Search and Rescue Transponder 
    Saturdays PM Sundays and holidays excluded 
    Saturdays, Sundays and holidays excluded 
    Saturdays, Sundays, Holidays Included 
  • Saturated Acids 
    Important components of fats and oils. The most common saturated fatty acids are palmitic, stearic, lauric and myristic. 
  • saturates 
    Hydrocarbons with no multiple bonds. Paraffins and naphthenes. 
  • SB 
    Safe berth 
  • SB 
    Safe berth or Southbound 
  • SB or SBS 
    Safe berth 
  • SBA 
    Secondary Butyl Alcohol 
  • SBP 
    Safe berth-port 
  • SBR 
    Styrene-Butadiene Rubber. SBR is a rubber manufactured from styrene. Because of its excellent abrasion resistance, it is widely used in automobile and truck tires, as well as for carpet backing and paper coating. Other applications are in belting, floorin
  • SBT 
    Segregated Ballast Tanks: These are tanks that are completely segregated from the cargo oil and fuel oil systems and which are permanently allocated to the carriage of ballast. Requirements for meeting the SBT criteria are detailed in MARPOL 13. 
  • SCAC 
    Standard Carrier Alpha Code 
  • Scaling Temperature 
    The temperature, above which steel oxidizes at a high rate 
  • Scantling Draft 
    the maximum draft at which a vessel complies with the governing strength requirements of classification societies. 
  • SCBRA 
    Speed Reduction and Bunker Consumption Algorithm 
  • Schedule B 
    The Statistical Classification of Domestic and Foreign Commodities Exported from the United States. 
  • SCOS 
    Submerged Crude Oil Storage - This Teekay-designed system stores crude oil underwater in an inflatable balloon-type structure made of a flexible polyester fabric, with a coating impervious to seawater and oil. 
  • SCP 
    Sub-area Contingency Plan (10 regional plans that supplement the AK Unified Plan) 
  • screen 
    Oil trading jargon for the electronic network quotes of futures market prices. Other nicknames include "the TV" and "the print." The industry discusses physical market activity and does business at levels which sound like "screen plus 25" and "85 points u
  • SCUBA 
    Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus 
  • Scuttlebutt 
    A butt was a barrel. Scuttle meant to chop a hole in something. The scuttlebutt was a water barrel with a hole cut into it so that sailors could reach in and dip out drinking water. The scuttlebutt was the place where the ship's gossip was exchanged. 
  • SD 
    Self-Discharging or Single Deck or Sight Draft or Short Delivery 
    Self Discharging 
  • SDBL 
    Sight draft, B/L attached 
  • SDR 
    Special Drawing Rights (IMF) 
  • SDWT 
    Summer deadweight 
  • SEA 
    South East Asia 
  • Sea Waybill 
    Document indicating the goods were loaded onboard when a document of title (b/L) is not needed. Typically used when a company is shipping goods to itself. 
  • Sea–Bee Vessels 
    Ocean vessels constructed with heavy–duty submersible hydraulic lift or elevator system at the stern of the vessel. The Sea–Bee system facilitates forward transfer and positioning of barges. Sea–Bee barges are larger than LASH barges. The Sea–Bee system i
    Costs charged for transporting goods over the sea. This SEAFREIGHT does not cover any haulage or loading/discharging costs but the sea transport only. 
  • Seagoing (voyage) 
    The part of a voyage that is not wholly within inland waterways or harbour walls / port limits. 
  • Seagoing Barges 
    Self-propelled barges or towed/pushed dumb barges which are classed for sea-going trade, or which may be classified for estuarial or restricted seagoing voyages between nominated ports. Seagoing barges may be mandated by international conventions, and ma
  • Simple Triglyceride 
    A triglyceride comprised of three identical fatty acids. 
  • SIR 
    Ship SIR (Chemical) and (Gas) 
  • SIRC 
    Styrene Information and Research Council (USA) 
  • SIRE 
    Ship Inspection Report Exchange: The OCIMF managed database system that will hold the Inspection Reports carried out by participating members. The aim is to reduce the duplication of the number of inspections carried out on vessels. 
  • SKIDS 
    Are bearers (timber or steel) positioned under cargo to enable fork lift handling at port, and for ease of rigging and lashing on board ship 
  • SKOR 
    South Korea 
  • Skyscraper 
    A small triangular sail set above the skysail in order to maximize effect in a light wind. 
  • SL&C 
    Shipper's load and count 
  • SL&T 
    Shipper's Load and Tally 
  • SL/W 
    Shippers load and count.All three clauses are used as needed on the bill of lading to exclude the carrier from liability when the cargo is loaded by the shipper. 
  • Sleepers 
    Loaded containers moving within the railroad system that are not clearly identified on any internally generated reports. 
  • SLF 
    Stability and Load Lines and on Fishing Vessels' Safety 
  • Sling 
    A wire or rope contrivance placed around cargo and used to load or discharge it to/from a vessel. 
  • Slip 
    A vessel’s berth between two piers. 
  • Slip Point 
    Fats consist of a complex mixture of glycerides and therefore do not have sharp melting points, unlike pure chemical substances. The slip point of a fat is the temperature at which a column of fat in an open capillary tube moves up the tube when it is sub
  • Slop Tank Charging Operations 
    Whereby a dedicated slop handling vessel supplies a quantity of oil to a vessel for tank washing and/or line flushing purposes. 
  • Slop tanks 
    A tank utilized to store the COW medium and receipt of tank washings. 
  • Slot Charter 
    A time or voyage charter under which the slot charterer has the right to use only a specified amount of the ship's container carrying capacity. In container liner trades, such charters may be reciprocal ("cross slot charters") between operators / carriers
  • SLS&C 
    Shipper's load, stow and count 
  • SLSD 
    Stowed, lashed, secured, dunnaged 
  • Sludge 
    That element of the material in a ship's cargo tank which is essentially not free flowing. It consists or hydrocarbon waxes and may contain water/oil emulsions and sediments. 
  • Slush Fund 
    A slushy slurry of fat was obtained by boiling or scraping the empty salted meat storage barrels. This stuff called "slush" was often sold ashore by the ship's cook for the benefit of himself or the crew. The money so derived became known as a slush fund.
  • SMC 
    Ship Management Certificate (ISM) 
  • Smell  
    Tank Cleaning: Minor residues of a smell-producing cargo left in lines, valves and pumps (including pump cofferdams) can contaminate a sensitive cargo. To neutralise the smell of some chemicals (e.g. Acrylate, Nitrobenzene or Pygas) the use of a smell kil
  • Smoke Point 
    The temperature at which smoke is visibly evolved from an oil as it is being heated. The smoke point is highly dependent on the content of free fatty acids in the oil. A high smoke point is desirable, particularly when using an oil for frying. 
  • smoke point 
    An indication of how cleanly kerosene burns. The test reports how high a flame can extend above a wick-fed lamp without making soot. 
  • SO 
    Ship's option or Shipping order 
  • Soap 
    Soap is commonly used to describe the chemical compound formed by the reaction of an alkali or a metal with fat or fatty acids. Sodium soaps are the most usual products used for toilet and laundry washing. Calcium, potassium and ammonium salts have some s
  • Soap Stock 
    The aqueous by-product from the chemical refining operation that is comprised of soap, hydrated gums, water, oil and other impurities. 
  • Soapstock 
    In the chemical refining of crude oils, free fatty acids are removed by neutralisation with alkali and settle to the bottom as alkali soaps, known as soapstock. 
  • SOB 
    Shipped on board 
  • SOC 
    Shipper Owned Container 
  • SOF or S/F 
    Statement of facts. At the end of the stay of the ship in the port the agent will make up the history with all data which are important for the Ship Owner and for the Charterer and that are related to the loading and the discharging of the ship. This hist
  • SOL 
    Shipowner's liability or Shipper owned/leased 
  • SOLAS 
    International Convention for Safety Of Life At Sea (1974/78): The International regulations which relates to the safe construction and safety equipment to be carried on all sea going self propelled vessels. 
  • Solid Fat Content 
    Fats such as butter, margarine, bakery shortening, beef tallow and cocoa butter appear to be solid but are, in fact, a mixture of solid and liquid components. The proportion of solid present at various temperatures of use is often of interest in relation
  • Solubility 
    The extent to which a substance mixes with a liquid to produce a solution 
  • Solvent 
    A solvent is a liquid that has the ability to dissolve, suspend or extract other materials, without chemical change to the material or solvent. Solvents make it possible to process, apply, clean or separate materials. Water is an inorganic solvent. Organi
  • Solvent Extraction 
    A process which usually uses hexane as a solvent to extract oil from oil-bearing materials. The residual oil left in extracted soyabean flakes or meal can be reduced to one percent or less. In the United States, nearly all soyabeans are processed by solve
  • SOM 
    Swedish Official Measure 
  • Son of a Gun 
    When in port, and with the crew restricted to the ship for any extended period of time, wives and ladies of easy virtue often were allowed to live aboard along with the crew. Infrequently, but not uncommonly, children were born aboard, and a convenient pl
  • SOPEP 
    Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan (ISM) 
  • sour 
    High in sulfur content. Sour vacuum gasoils, for example, contain more than about 0.5 sulfur, the common limit for sweet vacuum gasoils. Application of this term to natural gasolines tends to focus on mercaptan sulfur concentration. Sour natural gasolines
  • sour crude 
    Petroleum with high sulfur content. In this case, high commonly means more than 1.0 weight percent. 
  • Sour Crude 
    Crude oil with a high sulphur content. 
    Under hook 
    Under hook discharge 
  • southern grade 
    see Northern grade. Motor gasoline that meets Colonial pipeline specifications for product delivered to points south of Greensboro, North Carolina 
  • Soyabean Oil 
    Soyabean oil is obtained by solvent extraction of the soyabean. The oil content of the bean is about 18%, but the residue is a valuable high protein feed meal and represents about 60% of the sale value of the crop. 
  • Space Charter 
    A voyage charterparty under which the space charterer has the right to use only part of the vessel's capacity. 
  • SPD 
    Speed or Ship Pays Dues 
  • Specific Gravity 
    The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of the mass of a given volume of the substance to the mass of an equal volume of water at a specific temperature. In the AOCS Methods Cc 10a-25 for oils and liquid fats (Cc 10b-25 for solid fats), the ratio
  • specific gravity 
    An expression of materials' density in terms of their relationship to a reference substance. Water at 4 C serves as the reference for hydrocarbons, both liquid and solid. Water has specific gravity of 1.0, as 1 cc of its weighs 1 gram. The specific gravit
  • spike 
    Injection of one stream into another for later recovery. Transportation of some condensates, for instance, takes place by spiking them into crude oil cargoes. 
  • Spine Car 
    An articulated five–platform railcar. Used where height and weight restrictions limit the use of stack cars. It holds five 40–foot containers or combinations of 40– and 20–foot containers. 
  • Spot Charter 
    A type of arrangement when a charterer fixes a vessel for a single laden voyage from one or more load ports to one or more discharge ports. The owner receives freight either on a dollar per ton basis or on a lump sum basis. 
  • spot Charter 
    Arrangement for a ship to carry a certain cargo on a particular route. Such deals, sometimes called voyage charters, usually cover a single trip. Commitments for two or more consecutive voyages do happen, though, occasionally. In a spot charter, the shipo
  • spot Deal 
    An isolated sale. In transactions of this kind, a specific quantity of oil, usually a convenient unit like a cargo, a bargeload, or a pipeline batch, changes from seller's hands to buyer's. The notion once assumed promptness. That element has vanished now
  • Spotting 
    Placing a container where required to be loaded or unloaded. 
  • Spreader 
    A piece of equipment designed to lift containers by their corner castings. 
  • Squat 
    the tendency of a ship to draw more water astern than when stationary, this amounts to less available underkeel clearance 
  • SS 
    Shipside or Self-Sustained or Screw Steamer or Stainless Steel 
  • SS, S.S. or S/S 
    A steamboat or steamship, sometimes called a steamer, is a ship in which the primary method of propulsion is steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels. The term steamboat is usually used to refer to smaller steam-powered boats working on l
  • SSA 
    Ship Security Assessment 
  • SSBA 
    Surface Supplied Breathing Apparatus 
  • sSF 
    saybolt seconds, Furol. The unit of Saybolt Furol viscosity, a method of determining liquids resistance to flow. An alternate acronym, SFS, for Saybolt Furol seconds, remains in use. 
    Saturdays, Sundays and holidays included 
  • SSO 
    Ship Security Officer 
  • SSP 
    Ship Security Plan 
  • SSSCL 
    Ship/Shore Safety Checklist for Safe Transport, Handling and Storage of Dangerous Substances in Port Areas 
  • SST 
    Short ton (2000 lb. Avoirpois) 
  • SSTG 
    ICS/OCIMF Ship to Ship Transfer Guide 
  • sSU 
    saybolt seconds, Universal. The units of an empirical flow resistance measurement (Saybolt Universal viscosity). The acronym sometimes appears as SUS, Saybolt Universal seconds. 
  • ST 
    Sidethruster room (OCIMF acronym) 
  • stability 
    Crude and products which will not change spontaneously or readily have this attribute. Jet fuels, for instance, need thermal stability. They must resist decomposition when heated. 
  • Stability 
    Ship Stability: The tendency of a vessel to return to an erect position after being inclined by an exterior force.Also known as positive stability. 
    It is paramount that a vessel is stable in all respects at all times. When cargo is loaded / discharged, the stability is monitored by a computer, which takes into account the weight and position of cargo within the vessel 
  • stabilized Crude 
    Crude and condensates come from the ground mixed with gas and light gas liquids. Removal of these volatile materials leaves a stabilized stream--one with a vapor pressure ordinary storage and transportation vessels can safely handle. 
  • Stabilizer 
    A stabilizer is a substance added to another substance to prevent an alteration of its physical state. Stabilizers are added to plastics so as to allow them to have a long and useful life in any application, by keeping their properties stable. 
  • stable 
    The notion of constancy and steadiness has several applications in the oil industry. Frequently it describes crude freed of volatile light ends--stabilized crude. Other times, it refers to blends of compatible components, mixtures which will not spontaneo
  • Stack Car 
    An articulated five–platform rail car that allows containers to be double stacked. A typical stack car holds ten 40–foot equivalent units (FEU’s). 
  • Stacktrain 
    A rail service whereby rail cars carry containers stacked two high on specially operated unit trains. Each train includes up to 35 articulated multi–platform cars. Each car is comprised of 5 well–type platforms upon which containers can be stacked. No cha
  • standard Export Quality 
    A common description of crude oils sold on the world market. The normal run of a crude grade as available at a loading point. 
  • Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 
    A standard numerical code used by the U.S. Government to classify products and services. 
  • Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) 
    A standard numeric code developed by the United Nations to classify commodities used in international trade, based on a hierarchy. 
  • Standby Safety Vessel 
    A vessel primarily equipped to perform safety standby duties. Will be fitted with accommodation and facilities for the rescue, reception and initial care of survivors from offshore installations accidents 
  • Starboard 
    Right side of a ship when facing the front or forward end 
  • Start Over with a Clean Slate 
    A slate tablet was kept near the helm on which the watch keeper would record the speeds, distances, headings and tacks during the watch. If there were no problems during the watch, the slate would be wiped clean so that the new watch could start over with
  • Statute Of Limitation 
    A law limiting the time in which claims or suits may be instituted. 
  • STBL 
    Ship To Be Lightered 
  • STCW 
    Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping 
  • STCW 95 
    Standards of Training Certification and Watchkeeping Convention (IMO) 
  • STCW V Para 1 
    Completed basic tanker training that applies to junior officers who have cargo-handling responsibilities 
  • STCW V Para 2 
    Completed specialized training that is required for officers who have operational responsibility for cargo transfer 
  • steam Cracker 
    A petrochemical plant unit which produces olefins, particularly ethylene, and in some cases aromatics, by pyrolysis. The trade often calls these plants ethylene crackers, after their primary product. Some units, called light liquids crackers, crack ethane
  • Steam cracking-Steam cracker 
    Steam cracking, a further application of thermal cracking, is a petrochemical process used to produce olefinic raw materials (e.g. propylene, ethylene) from various feedstocks for petrochemicals manufacture. The feedstocks range from ethane to vacuum gas
  • Steam Supply Pontoon, non propelled 
    A non propelled pontoon used for the purpose of generating a steam supply 
  • Steamship Conference 
    A group of vessel operators joined together for the purpose of establishing freight rates. 
  • Steamship Guarantee 
    An indemnity issued to the carrier by a bank; protects the carrier against any possible losses or dam- ages arising from release of the merchandise to the receiving party. This instrument is usually issued when the bill of lading is lost or is not availab
  • Stearic Acid 
    Chemically, an 18 carbon chain saturated acid. Commercially, the term is used for mixed solid acids of various compositions. Stearic acid is used for industrial purposes such as in the rubber and oleochemical industries. Beef tallow is the principal sourc
  • Stearin  
    The term refers to the solid fraction of an oil obtained by filtration or centrifugation after the oil has been crystallised at a controlled temperature. Stearins are characterised by being more saturated than the oils from which they are derived. Fractio
  • STEL 
    Short Term Exposure Limit. See Threshold Limit Value 
  • STEM 
    Referring to the readiness of cargo which is often a prerequisite to the fixing of a vessel 
  • Sterilization  
    Sterilisation is the first process carried out at the oil mill. Fresh fruit bunches are loaded into cages as soon as possible after arrival at the mill, and the cages, which run on rails, are loaded into a horizontal cylindrical pressure vessel. The load
  • STERN 
    At or towards the rear of a ship 
  • Stern Trawler 
    A vessel for catching fish by trawling with nets handled over the stern 
  • Sterol 
    A compound made up of the sterol nucleus and 8-10 carbon side chain and an alcohol group. 
  • Stevedore 
    Individual or firm that employs longshoremen and who contracts to load or unload the ship. 
    International convention on standards of training certification and watch-keeping for seafarers 
    International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification, and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978 
    Seafarers training certification and watch-keeping 
  • stoke 
    The basic unit of kinematic viscosity. Most of the time, the industry uses a smaller unit, CST (centistokes). One stoke equals 100 centistokes. 
    The Safe Transfer of Liquified Gas in an Offshore Environment 
  • Stone Carrier 
    A vessel for the carriage of large stones for the construction of breakwaters and the like; stones are discharged sideways from a flat deck 
  • Storing Operations 
    Whereby a vessel loads a quantity of spares, stores, victualling goods or crew effects for the consumption and/or utilisation by the vessel and her assigned personnel. 
  • Stowage 
    A marine term referring to loading freight into ships’ holds. 
  • Straddle Carrier 
    Mobile truck equipment with the capacity for lifting a container within its own framework. 
  • Straight (solid) stream 
    Method used to apply or distribute water from the end of a hose. The water is delivered under pressure for penetration. In an efficient straight (solid) stream, approximately 90% of the water passes through an imaginary circle 38 cm (15 inches) in diamete
  • Straight Bill of Lading 
    A non–negotiable bill of lading which states a specific identity to whom the goods should be delivered. See Bill of Lading. 
  • straight-Run 
    A product of crude distillation as opposed to cracking. Some feedstock outlets require straight run materials. Production of catfeed, for instance, demands straight run residue. 
  • Strauss Test 
    Corrosion testing in a copper sulphate solution containing sulphuric acid. Used to detect the susceptibility to intergranular corrosion of stainless steel 
  • Stray current corrosion 
    Impressed current corrosion caused by current flowing through paths other than the intended circuits 
  • stream 
    Any hydrocarbon flow. Some uses of this general term include the product emerging from a processing unit (e.g., the naphtha stream from a crude still), the supply of a raw material or product (e.g., the natural gasoline stream from West 
  • Streicher Test 
    Corrosion testing in a ferric sulphate solution containing sulphuric acid. Used to detect the susceptibility to intergranular corrosion of stainless steel 
  • Stress corrosion 
    Process involving conjoint corrosion and straining of the metal due to applied or residual stress 
  • Stress relieving 
    Heat treatment carried out in order to reduce internal stresses in steel 
  • Stripping 
    Stripping is the process of removing free fatty acids by steam distillation during physical refining. This is usually carried out in the deodoriser. This is the second operation of the palm oil mill. After sterilisation each cage is tipped into a hopper w
  • Stripping 
    The removal of the final contents of a cargo tank using equipment additional to the main cargo pumps. 
  • STS 
    ship to ship 
  • STW 
    Said To Weigh or Stowage 
  • STW 
    Standards of Training and Watchkeeping 
  • Styrene 
    Styrene is a clear, colorless liquid that is derived from petroleum and natural gas by-products, but which also occurs naturally. Styrene is used to create plastic materials used in a wide range of strong, flexible, and lightweight products. It is used in
  • Styrenic plastics 
    Plastics based on resins made by the polymerization of styrene or co-polymerization of styrene with other unsaturated compounds the styrene being in greatest amount by weight. Styrene plastics are easy to process and offer excellent price/performance rati
  • Sub Stem 
    Subject Stem. Relating to the availability of cargo on the date or dates on which a ship is offering to load. 
  • Sub-Panamax Vessel 
    a fully cellular containership that is less than the maximum dimensions to transit the Panama Canal and can carry between 2,000 and 3,000 TEUs 
  • Subchronic (aquatic) toxicity 
    Adverse effects on aquatic organisms that occur largely from continuous long-term exposure to a chemical or other potentially toxic material or agent, along or in combination, but where the exposure time covers only a portion of the life cycle (lifespan)
  • Subchronic toxicity 
    Effects resulting from repeated exposure to a material for 10 to 15% of the lifespan of the species; for rodents this is about three months.  
  • Subject 
    A qualification on the approval to use a vessel that requires the owner or Charterer (or both) to obtain a positive response from the owner or Charterer (or both) that the vessel subject (qualification) is lifted before the vessel can be fixed (chartered)
  • subjects 
    Unresolved items which prevent confirmation of a deal. Tanker chartering and oil trading both involve negotiations which conclude "subject to" removal of some exception. A charterer might fix a ship subject to stem confirmation or subject manage
  • Submarine Chaser 
    A combat vessel specifically designed for the pursuit and attack of submarines 
  • Submarine Salvage Vessel 
    A naval auxiliary vessel specifically adapted for the recovery of stranded submarines 
  • Subrogate 
    To put in place of another; i.e., when an insurance company pays a claim it is placed in the same posi- tion as the payee with regard to any rights against others. 
  • Substance 
    The word "substance" is used to mean chemical elements and their compounds in the natural state or obtained by any production process, including any additive necessary to preserve the stability of the product. In the European legislation, only the word "s
  • Substantial Corrosion 
    Substantial corrosion exists if the diminution of the structural element under consideration is in excess of 75% of the maximum allowable diminution, as defined by the vessel's Classification Society for each structural element.  
  • Suction Dredger 
    A vessel equipped to obtain material from the sea bed by use of a suction pipe. The material may be carried on board, transferred to other vessels, pumped ashore or deposited elsewhere using a spray 
  • Suction Dredger Pontoon 
    A non propelled dredger pontoon fitted with suction equipment 
  • Suez Net Tonnage Volume 
    100 cubic feet = 1 ton of cargo carrying capacity assigned to a vessel by the Suez Canal Authority, issued on vessel''s first transit of canal. The tonnage is used to calculate fees and tolls. 
  • Sufferance Wharf 
    A wharf licensed and attended by Customs authorities. 
  • SULCL 
    Set up in less than carload 
  • sulfur 
    An element which contaminates crude and refined products. Its presence in troublesome or objectionable quantity makes a stream sour. Oil which contains much sulfur can corrode processing hardware, smell bad, fetch less money than sweet grades, and require
  • Summer Draft 
    Summer draft is the vertical distance between the summer load line and the bottom of the hull. 
  • Sunflower Oil 
    Sunflower oil is obtained from the decorticated seeds of the sunflower (""Helianthus Annuus""). A high quality unrefined edible oil may be obtained by cold pressing of the seeds but the bulk of the commercial product is obtained by hot pressing and solven
  • Superabsorbents 
    Polymers of acrylic acid, superabsorbent material is widely-used in personal care products to absorb fluids. It comes in the form of large particles, about the size of table salt, that are enclosed in the interior of the product, and helps to keep skin he
  • Supercargo 
    Person employed by a ship owner, shipping company, charterer of a ship or shipper of goods to supervise cargo handling operations. Often called a port captain 
  • Superintendency 
    Practice of overseeing a project or ship as the authorized representative of a customer. 
  • Supply Chain 
    A logistical management system which integrates the sequence of activities from delivery of raw ma- terials to the manufacturer through to delivery of the finished product to the customer into measur- able components. “Just in Time” is a typical value–add
  • Supply Platform, semi submersible 
    A semi submersible offshore supply platform 
  • Supply Tender 
    A vessel equipped as a general purpose supply vessel to remote communities (e.g. on islands, in the Arctic) 
  • Surcharge 
    An extra or additional charge 
  • Surface Transportation Board (STB) 
    The U.S. federal body charged with enforcing acts of the U.S. Congress that affect common carriers in interstate commerce. STB replaced the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) in 1997. 
  • Surfactant 
    This is short for surface-active agent and is used to describe a chemical that will reduce the surface tension of water when it is added to it. This enables the water to mix with materials it would otherwise not dissolve, such as grease. Surfactants can b
  • Surfactants 
    Surfactants, or surface active agents, are substances that, when dissolved in water, give a product the ability to remove dirt from surfaces such as the human skin, textiles, and other solids. Each surfactant molecule has a hydrophilic (water-loving) head
  • Surge 
    The longitudinal oscillatory linear motion about the center of gravity (origin of body axis) in the ship travel direction, usually due to wave effects; motion backward and forward (fore and aft direction) (EM 1110-2-1613). 
  • Surging 
    Ship Stability: is the linear longitudinal (front/back) motion 
  • survey 
    An assessment of oil quantity and or quality prepared by an inspection company. A loading survey, for instance, involves determination of how much crude or product a supplier pimped aboard a vessel. it may also entail taking samples of the 
  • SW 
    Salt water; Shipper’s weight 
  • Swaying 
    Ship Stability: is the linear lateral (side-to-side) motion 
  • sweet Crude 
    Petroleum with a low sulfur content. The industry generally puts a maximum of 0.5 weight percent sulfur on sweet crude. 
  • Sweet Crude 
    Crude oil that has a low sulphur content. Typically refined into gasoline and is in high demand. 
  • sweetening 
    Processing to remove sulfur. Hydrodesulfurization, for instance, can produce sweet catfeed. Caustic washing can sweeten sour natural gasolines to make them suitable for motor gasoline blending. 
  • SWW 
    Single Swinging Winches 
  • Symbol B 
    Ship Stability: Symbol for center of buoyancy or buoyant force. 
  • Symbol G 
    Ship Stability: Symbol for center of gravity of the vessel. 
  • Synergy 
    The combined effects of more than one hazardous material resulting in more damage than the additive effects of each material 
  • Syngas 
    This is an abbreviation of synthesis gas and is applied to several kinds of mixtures that are produced by reacting steam, or steam and oxygen, with a heated carbon-containing material such as natural gas, heavy petroleum oil, coal or coke. Syngas consists
  • Synonym 
    This is another name that a particular chemical or composition may be known as. A chemical can have a number of different names or synonyms. For example, METHYL ALCOHOL is the Product Name; however this cargo is also known as methanol, wood alcohol etc –
  • Synthesis-Synthetic 
    The production of a substance by the union of chemical elements, groups, or simpler compounds, or by the degradation of a complex compound. 
  • Synthetic rubbers 
    Synthetic rubbers are made of raw material derived from petroleum, coal, oil, natural gas, and acetylene. Many of them are copolymers, i.e., polymers consisting of more than one monomer. 
  • Systemic toxicity 
    Adverse effects produced by a substance ( or conversion products) after absorption into, and circulation by, the blood stream. Systemic effects occur in tissues remote from the site where the material comes into contact with the body, and from where it is
  • T&E 
    Transportation and Exportation: Customs form used to control cargo movement from port of entry to port of exit, meaning that the cargo is moving from one country, through the United States, to another country. 
  • T&P 
    Theft (petty) and Pilferage 
  • T/C 
    Time Charter 
  • T/C or TC 
    Time charter 
  • T/S 
    Time Sheet or Transshipment 
  • TAED 
    Tetraacetylethylenediamine. See Ethyleneamine 
    Thursday afternoons Fridays and holidays excepted 
  • Tail 
    Rear of a container or trailer–opposite the front or nose. 
  • Tail 
    A protraction at the end of a feedstock or product's distillation curve. A wide spread between the 95 percent point and final boiling point of a stream. A heavy contaminant in a product. Less than ideal distillation can produce tails. 
  • Tainting 
    Refers to a substance which is known to be taken up by marine organisms with the result that it is tainted and rendered unpalatable as seafood. Examples are chlorophenols. A taint is defined as "a foreign flavor or odor in the organisms induced by conditi
  • Taken Aback 
    A dangerous situation where the wind is on the wrong side of the sails pressing them back against the mast and forcing the ship astern. Most often this was caused by an inattentive helmsman who had allowed the ship to head up into the wind. 
  • Taking turns 
    Changing watches with the turn of the hour glass. 
  • Taking wind out of his sails 
    Sailing in a manner so as to steal or divert wind from another ship's sails.