Glossary

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GLOSSARY INDEX

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ABBREVIATION
DEFINITION
  • A.O.R. 
    Any one risk 
  • A/R 
    All risks or Against all risks 
  • AAC 
    Alaska Administrative Code 
  • AAR 
    Against all risks or All and any risk 
  • AB 
    Above bridges or Answer Back 
  • Abandon 
    A proceeding wherein a shipper/consignee seeks authority to abandon all or parts of their cargo. 
  • ABI 
    U.S. Customs’ “Automated Broker Interface,” by which brokers file importers’ entries electronically. 
  • Above Board 
    Anything on or above the open deck. If something is open and in plain view, it is above board. 
  • Above deck 
    On the deck (not over it – see ALOFT)  
  • Absolute Viscosity 
    An observation of liquid's rate of flow under pressure applied to neutralize density's influence. This property, sometimes called dynamic viscosity, converts to kinematical viscosity by division. With density ex-pressed in gramscm, centistokes the units o
  • Acceptance 
    A time draft (or bill of exchange) that the drawee (payer) has accepted and is unconditionally obligated to pay at maturity. Broadly speaking, any agreement to purchase goods under specified terms. 
  • Accessorial Charges 
    Charges that are applied to the base tariff rate or base contract rate, e.g., bunkers, container, currency, destination/delivery. 
  • Accommodation Platform, jack up 
    A jack up offshore accommodation platform 
  • Accommodation Ship 
    A vessel providing accommodation for those working on other vessels and installations 
  • Acetic acid 
    Acetic acid is a key organic intermediate used in the preparation of metal acetates, used in some printing processes; vinyl acetate; acetic anhydride, and volatile organic esters, such as ethyl and butyl acetates. 
  • Acid Oil 
    Acid oil is a general term for a by-product obtained from the alkali refining of oils and fats. During alkali refining the free fatty acids are neutralised with alkali and this soapstock containing some emulsified neutral oil is separated. Acidification o
  • Acidity 
    Free fatty acids have, as the name implies, a weak acidic nature. There will be a naturally occurring level of these present in each oil and levels can be further increased by hydrolysis (water breakdown) of triglyceride. The level of acidity may be expre
  • Acidulate soapstock (Acid Oil) 
    Soapstock, which contains mainly soaps and entrained neutral oil, is treated with sulphuric acid and heated to decompose the soaps. This produces a layer of oil of high free fatty acid content (acid oil) and an aqueous phase which is separated and treated
  • Acrylate elastomer 
    In latex paints, textile applications (backcoating), emulsion polymers for paper coating; as pulp additives, in floor polishes & sealants (resinous & polymeric coatings), in adhesives. 
  • Acrylic acid 
    Acrylic acid and the basic alkyl esters (methyl, ethyl, butyl and 2-ethylhexyl esters) are important monomers used for the manufacture of polymer dispersions, adhesives, flocculants, detergents, varnishes, fibers and plastics as well as chemical intermedi
  • Act of God 
    An act beyond human control, such as lightning, flood or earthquake. 
  • Activity 
    The level of catalyst's ability to do its work. The scale descends from fresh (full capacity right from the box or rejuvenator) to spent (coated, poisoned, or other wise neutralized.) 
  • Actual specifications 
    The quality reports on a specific parcel of fuel or feedstock. Such specifications do not constitute guarantees on the oil unless the seller says so. But they give a good description of the product available aboard a vessel or in a storage tank. 
  • Acute (aquatic) toxicity 
    Adverse effects that occur rapidly as a result of a short-term exposure to a chemical or physical agent. In fish or other aquatic organisms, effects that occur within a few hours, days or weeks are considered acute. Generally, acute effects are severe, th
  • ADEC 
    Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation 
  • ADF&G 
    Alaska Department of Fish and Game (State Agency) 
  • Administrative Law Judge 
    A representative of a government commission or agency vested with power to administer oaths, examine witnesses, take testimony, and conduct hearings of cases submitted to, or initiated by, that agency. Also called Hearing Examiner. 
  • Advance 
    To move cargo up line to a vessel leaving sooner than the one booked. (See also Roll.) 
  • Adventure 
    Shipment of goods on shipper’s own account. A bill of adventure is a document signed by the master of the ship that carries goods at owner’s risk. Also, a term used in some insurance policies to mean a voyage or a shipment. 
  • Advice of Shipment 
    A notice sent to a local or foreign buyer advising that shipment has gone forward and containing details of packing, routing, etc. A copy of the invoice is often enclosed and, if desired, a copy of the bill of lading. 
  • Advising Bank 
    A bank operating in the seller’s country that handles letters of credit on behalf of a foreign bank. 
  • AFRA 
    Average Freight Rate Assessments. A monthly estimate of tanker rates issued by London tanker brokers, AFRA, quoted on a Worldscale basis, assists large oil companies' internal accounting, provides a freight element for some netback deals, and serves other
  • AFRAMAX 
    AFRA - (Average Freight Rate Assessment) designed for carrying For bulk crude oil in tanks (80,000 dwt - 120,000 dwt) 
  • Aframax Tanker 
    A vessel of 70,000 to 119,000 DWT capacity. The largest tanker size in the AFRA (average freight rate assessment) tanker rate system. 
  • After Perpendicular 
    Ship Stability: Usually established at the intersection of the design waterline and the vessels rudder stock or stern post 
  • Agent or Ship's Agent 
    Person looking after the interests of a ship whiøe in port. Duties include organising pilotage, towage and berth for the ship, collecting freight and signing bills of lading 
  • Aggregates Carrier 
    A single deck cargo vessel for the carriage of aggregates in bulk. Also known as a Sand Carrier. May be self discharging 
  • Agreed Weight 
    The weight prescribed by agreement between carrier and shipper for goods shipped in certain packages or in a certain number. 
  • Agt. 
    Agent: A person authorized to transact business for and in the name of another person or company. Types of agents are: (1) brokers (2) commission merchants (3) resident buyers (4) sales agents (5) manufacturer’s representatives 
  • Aids to Navigation 
    Artificial objects to supplement natural landmarks indicating safe and unsafe waters  
  • Air Cushion Vehicle Patrol Vessel 
    An air cushion vehicle or hovercraft used as a patrol vessel (perhaps change to work vessel) 
  • Air Cushion Vehicle, work vessel 
    An air cushioned vehicle or hovercraft specifically designed as a work vessel 
  • Aircraft Carrier 
    A combat vessel designed to enable the carriage, take off and landing of aircraft 
  • AK 
    Alaska 
  • AL 
    Action Level. Certain OSHA regulations take effect if this exposure level is reached. These regulations include workplace air analysis, employee training, medical monitoring, and record keeping. This level is about half of the permissible exposure limit. 
  • Alcohol resistant foam 
    A foam that is resistant to "polar" chemicals such as ketones and esters which may break down other types of foam. 
  • Alcohol Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of alcohol 
  • Alcohols 
    Alcohols are amongst the most common organic compounds. Well-known alcohols include methanol (methyl alcohol, or wood alcohol), ethanol (ethyl alcohol, or grain alcohol) and isopropyl alcohol (the common alcohol known as rubbing alcohol and used as a germ
  • Alkali 
    A substance having a pH between 7 and 14 
  • Alkali Refining 
    The traded quality of oils and fats is determined primarily by the level of free fatty acids present. In crude oils, this may be as low as 0.5% as in soya, or as high as 6.0% as in the case of palm oil. Removal of this impurity is the major source of calc
  • Alkryd Resin 
    The reaction product of polyols, diacids, acids and anhydrides used primarily in the surface coating industry in which fatty acids, oils and glycerine are used to impart properties, e.g. chemical resistance, hardness, drying speed and flexibility. 
  • Alkyl benzene 
    One of the most important organic raw material for the production of synthetic detergents. 
  • Alkylate 
    A high-quality motor gasoline component made by combining isobutene and propylene or butylene. Butylene alkylate has a particularly high motor octane rating which suits it well for blending lead-free grades of automobile fuel and aviation gasoline. Both b
  • Alkylation 
    Olefins such as propylene and butylene are produced by catalytic and thermal cracking. Alkylation refers to the process using sulfuric or hydro-fluoric acid as a catalyst to combine these olefins with isobutane to produce a high octane product known as al
  • Alkylation unit 
    A piece of refining equipment that combines isobutane and an olefinic stream, usually butylene-rich, to make motor alkylate. 
  • Alkylphenol 
    Alkylphenol is produced using phenol as a starting material. It is mainly used as a stabilizer for rubbers and plastics, as a surfactant, as an industrial detergent, and in the mining and textile industries. 
  • Allision 
    When a moving vessel strikes a fixed object. 
  • Aloft 
    Above the deck of the ship 
  • Alongside 
    A phrase referring to the side of a ship. Goods delivered “alongside” are to be placed on the dock or barge within reach of the transport ship’s tackle so that they can be loaded. 
  • Always Accessible 
    ALWAYS ACCESSIBLE shall mean that the charterer undertakes that an available loading or discharging Berth be provided to the Vessel on arrival at the Port which the Vessel can reach safely without delay. The charterer additionally undertakes that the Vess
  • Always Afloat Or Always Safely Afloat 
    A charter party clause which requires that a ship is to berth for loading or discharging without touching the bottom of the sea / river / lake, etc. 
  • Amine 
    A chemical grouping based on a nitrogen atom linked to an aliphatic or aromatic structure 
  • Amino Acids 
    Chief components of proteins which are the building blocks of living tissues. Eighteen different amino acids commonly occur in our food supply and eight are considered essential because the body cannot make them from other materials. 
  • Aniline 
    An organic base used to make dyes, drugs, explosives, plastics, and photographic and rubber chemicals. Aniline owes its name to the indigo-yielding plant, Indigofera anil, from the distillation of which aniline was first obtained. 
  • Aniline point 
    A specification, quoted in degree Fahrenheit in the USA and Centigrade elsewhere, which reports the aromatics content of a hydrocarbon mixture. This quality consideration indicates the susceptibility of a vacuum gasoil to catalytic cracking because paraff
  • Anisidine Value 
    The anisidine value is a measure of the amount of aldehydes, principally 2-alkenals, present in oils. This gives a qualitative assessment of the amount of secondary oxidation products present in the oil. The anisidine value is determined by reacting a tes
  • Antifouling 
    Normally contains toxic compounds to prevent marine growth. Non-toxic products are gradually being introduced to the market 
  • Antiknock index 
    The average of a motor gasoline's or blending component's RON and MON (RON + MON)2, sometimes written (R + M)2. 
  • AOCS 
    American Oil Chemists Society. One of the largest professional bodies for oils and fats technologists. It has a large international membership and publishes a comprehensive book of analytical methods and two journals - "Lipids" and "Journal of the America
  • AP OR A/P OR APT 
    After peak tank 
  • APD&T 
    Alaska Petroleum Distributors and Transporters 
  • API Gravity 
    A density scale expressed in API degrees. The following formula relates this representation of density to specific gravity: API = (141.5specific gravity @ 60`F)-131.5. AR: American rate. Tanker hire prices according to the American Tanker Rate Schedule. T
  • Apparent draft 
    Ship Stability: The drafts obtained form reading the draft at the draft marks. 
  • Appraiser’s Stores 
    The warehouse or public stores to which samples of imported goods are taken to be inspected, analyzed, weighed, etc. by examiners or appraisers. 
  • Aquabreak PX 
    Product name for an environmentally-adapted cleaning agent which can be used throughout the ship 
  • Arbitrary 
    A stated amount over a fixed rate to one point to make a rate to another point. 
  • Arrival Notice 
    A notification by carrier of ship’s arrival to the consignee, the “Notify Party,” and – when applicable – the “Also Notify Party.” These parties in interest are listed in blocks 3, 4 and 10, respectively, of the Bill of Lading. 
  • As the Crow Flies 
    When lost or unsure of their position in coastal waters, ships would release a caged crow. The crow would fly straight towards the nearest land thus giving the vessel some sort of a navigational fix. The tallest lookout platform on a ship came to be know
  • ASBA 
    Association of Shipbrokers and Agents 
  • ASG  
    Acetyls Sector Group. A sector group of the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • Asphalt 
    A mixture of heavy carbon-based compounds containing a high percentage of multiple-ring aromatics, many of them involving sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms. Some folks use the word, asphalt, interchangeably with bitumen, the name of its characteristic co
  • Asphalt cement 
    A derivative, nearly or completely solid at room temperature, of certain crude oils. This black, tarry material usually comes from vacuum residue. It has several industrial applications. Pavers heat it to liquid form and mix in gravel to make road surface
  • Asphalt/Bitumen Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of asphalt/bitumen at temperatures between 150 and 200 deg C 
  • At Loggerheads 
    An iron ball attached to a long handle was a loggerhead. When heated it was used to seal the pitch in deck seams. It was sometimes a handy weapon for quarrelling crewmen. 
  • Atmospheric gasoil 
    The heaviest product boiled by a crude distillation unit operating at atmospheric pressure. This fraction ordinarily sells as distillate fuel oil, either in pure form or blended with cracked stocks. In blends atmospheric gasoil, often abbreviated AGO, usu
  • Atmospheric residue 
    The portion of crude oil taken as a bottoms product in a crude distillation unit which operates at atmospheric pressure under several other names apply to this product including atmos (atmospheric) reside, atmos bottoms, atmospheric fuel oil long reside,
  • ATRS 
    American Tank Rate Schedule 
  • Attack Vessel, Naval 
    A combat vessel which is designed for high speed with a limited weaponry for rapid attack manoeuvres 
  • Auto Oil programme 
    A technical work programme launched in 1992 by the European Commission and in which the European automobile and oil industries participated. The aim of this programme was to assess the most cost-effective measures for reducing emissions from the road tran
  • Aviation turbine fuel (ATF) 
    The fuel burned by aero planes jet engines. Civilian aircrafts consumes a kerosene-range product variously known as jet kero, jet A-1, avtur, DERD-2494, and JP1. Warplanes needed special fuels. Two military grades, JP-4 and JP-5 fall within the common not
  • Avoirdupois Pound 
    Same as 0.4535924277 kilograms. 
  • AWH 
    Available workable hatches 
  • AWRI 
    Additional War Risk Insurance 
  • AWTSBE 
    All working time saved both ends 
  • AWTSDO 
    All working time saved discharging only 
  • AWTSLO 
    All working time saved loading only 
  • B.D.S. 
    Brokers daily statement 
  • B.O. 
    Broker's Order or Buyer's Option 
  • B/D 
    Below Deck 
  • B/D 
    Bar draught or Banker's draft or Barrels per day 
  • B/E 
    Break Even 
  • B/G 
    Bank Guarantee 
  • B/N 
    Booking note 
  • B/O 
    Bulk/oil carrier 
  • B/P 
    Bill payable or Brake power 
  • BA 
    British Admiralty or Buenos Aires or Bale (cap. of vessel) or Breathing apparatus or Bunker Surcharge 
  • Back and Fill 
    A technique of tacking when the tide is with the ship but the wind is against it. 
  • Backhaul 
    A tanker's revenue-producing return voyage. Some ships shuttle between two tankers ports. They travel in one direction as dictated by normal oil flow patterns or refining system's needs. Often, they have no natural employment from when they discharge to t
  • BAF 
    Bunker Adjustment Factor 
  • Baking or Frying Fats (Shortening) 
    Baking or frying fats are products which meet all of the following conditions - a. manufactured from vegetable oils, meat fats or marine oils, singly or in combination; b. deodorised or hydrogenated and deodorised; c. containing a significant amount of gl
  • Ballast 
    Water taken aboard a vessel to increase its draft, steady its motion, correct its trim, or otherwise make it more seaworthy when sailing without cargo. The trade uses this word to describe repositioning voyages or empty backhauls forced on ship. Hence, ph
  • Balloon Freight 
    Light, bulky articles. 
  • Bank Guarantee 
    Guarantee issued by a bank to a carrier to be used in lieu of lost or misplaced original negotiable bill of lading. 
  • Barge Carrier 
    A cargo vessel arranged for the carriage of purpose built barges (lighters) loaded with cargo. Typically loading is by way of a gantry crane. Also known as Lighter Aboard SHip vessels (LASH) 
  • Base chemicals 
    A group of chemicals produced in bulk from raw materials such as oil, gas and coal. Other chemicals are derived from base chemicals 
  • Base stock 
    A hydrocarbon mixture which makes up much of the volume of a gasoline blend. Usually such stocks have properties not too far removed from finished fuel because the minor components have to bring the entire blend within accepted limits of gasoline quality.
  • BB 
    Back to back or Breakbulk 
  • BB 
    Bulbous bow or Bill book 
  • BB CGO 
    Break Bulk Cargo 
  • BBB 
    Before Breaking Bulk 
  • BC 
    Bulk Carrier or British Columbia or British Channel 
  • BCH 
    Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IMO) 
  • BCO 
    Beneficial Cargo Owner: Refers to the importer of record, who physically takes possession of cargo at destination and does not act as a third party in the movement of such goods. 
  • BDR 
    Bunker Delivery Receipt: The purpose of the Bunker Delivery Receipt (BDR) is to record what has been transferred. Various factors are recorded including: - Location and time of transfer  - Details of product delivered - Temperature of product delivered -
  • Bear Down 
    To sail downwind rapidly towards another ship or landmark. 
  • Beer Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of beer 
  • Benzene Ring 
    6 carbon atoms in the form of a ring structure with a hydrogen atom attached to each carbon and is the basic building block of all aromatic chemicals 
  • Berth Terms 
    Shipped under rate that includes cost from end of ship’s tackle at load port to end of ship’s tackle at discharge port. 
  • Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea 
    The devil seam was the curved seam in the deck planking closest to the side of the ship and next to the scupper gutters. If a sailor slipped on the deck, he could find himself between the devil and the deep blue sea. 
  • BFO 
    Bunker fuel oil 
  • BH or BHD 
    Bulkhead 
  • BHF 
    Bulk harmless fertilizers 
  • BHP 
    Brake horse power 
  • BIBO 
    Bulk in, bag out 
  • BIBO or "Bulk In, Bags Out" 
    Bulkers are equipped to bag cargo as it is unloaded. The CHL Innovator, shown in the photo, is a BIBO bulker. In one hour, this ship can unload 300 tons of bulk sugar and package it into 50 kg sacks. 
  • BIC 
    APPE Business Intelligence Committee. For more information, click here 
  • Bill of Exchange 
    In the United States, commonly known as a “Draft.” However, bill of exchange is the correct term. 
  • Bioaccumulation 
    General term describing a process by which chemicals are taken up by aquatic organisms directly from water as well as through exposure through other routes, such as consumption of food or sediment containing the chemicals.  
  • Bioconcentration 
    A process by which there is a net accumulation of a chemical directly from water into aquatic organisms resulting from simultaneous uptake (e.g., by gill or epithelial tissue) and elimination.  
  • Bioconcentration factor 
    A term describing the degree to which a chemical can be concentrated in the tissues of an organism in the aquatic environment as a result of exposure to water-borne chemical. At steady state during the uptake phase of a bioconcentration test, the BCF is a
  • Bitumen Tank Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled tank barge for the carriage of bitumen/asphalt 
  • BK 
    Bank or Book or Backwardation or Bar keel 
  • BKRPT 
    Bankrupt 
  • BLADING 
    Bill of lading or Bleeding (wing tanks) 
  • Blanket Bond 
    A bond covering a group of persons, articles or properties. 
  • Blanket Rate 
    – A rate applicable to or from a group of points. – A special rate applicable to several different articles in a single shipment. 
  • Blanket Waybill 
    A waybill covering two or more consignments of freight. 
  • BLC 
    Bank Confirmation Letter : Bank letter confirming that the account holder has certain funds available. Mostly used to verify that a buyer has sufficient funds for a given transaction. 
  • Blender 
    someone or some organization which combines various components to produce motor gasoline. The term may accurately apply to refiners for they blend motor fuel from blendstock they produce or purchase. In many cases, however, the word designates gasoline ma
  • Blendstock 
    A component combined with other materials to produce a finished petroleum product. The term applies most frequently to motor gasoline ingredients. 
  • BLG 
    Bulk Liquids and Gases 
  • BLK 
    Bulk 
  • Block Stowage 
    Stowing cargo destined for a specific location close together to avoid unnecessary cargo movement. 
  • Blocked Trains 
    Railcars grouped in a train by destination so that segments (blocks) can be uncoupled and routed to different destinations as the train moves through various junctions. Eliminates the need to break up a train and sort individual railcars at each junction.
  • Blocking or Bracing 
    Wood or metal supports to keep shipments in place to prevent cargo shifting. See also Dunnage. 
  • Board Feet 
    The basic unit of measurement for lumber. One board foot is equal to a one–inch board, 12 inches wide and 1 foot long. Thus, a board 10 feet long, 12 inches wide, and 1 inch thick contains 10 board feet. 
  • BOB 
    Bunker on Board 
  • BOC 
    Bulk Oil Carrier 
  • Bond 
    Linkage between atoms which holds together molecules. The basic bond involves two atoms connected by a pair of shared electrons. A double bond requires linkage by two pairs (four electrons). A triple bond puts six electrons between two atoms. 
  • Bond Port 
    Port of initial Customs entry of a vessel to any country. Also known as First Port of Call. 
  • Booking 
    Arrangements with a carrier for the acceptance and carriage of freight; i.e., a space reservation. 
  • Booking Number 
    Reservation number used to secure equipment and act as a control number prior to completion of a B/L. 
  • BOR 
    Bunkers on Redelivery 
  • BORO 
    Bulk, Oil and roll-on, roll-off vessel 
  • Bottom wash 
    Crude oil washing operations restricted to the lower parts of the tank bulkheads, internal structures and bottom of tanks. This can only be carried out by vessels equipped with programmable tank washing machines. 
  • Bow Thruster 
    a device built into, or mounted to, the bow of a ship to make it more maneuverable. 
  • BPA 
    Bisphenol A. An industrial chemical used to make polycarbonate plastic used for structural parts, impact-resistant glazing, street-light globes, household appliance parts, components of electrical/electronic devices, compact discs, automotive applications
  • BPB 
    Bank post bill 
  • BR 
    Bulgarian Register of Shipping or Brazil or Builder's risk 
  • Br.ld. 
    Break load 
  • Break Bulk 
    – To unload and distribute a portion or all of the contents of a rail car, container, trailer, or ship. – Loose, non–containerized mark and count cargo. – Packaged cargo that is not containerized. 
  • Breakwater 
    Structures designed to provide shelter from waves and improve navigation conditions. Such structures may be combined with jetties where required (EM 1110-2-2904). 
  • Brent 
    The most commonly traded North Sea crude oil. Technically, it is a mix of crude from the UK Brent field and the Ninian field. 
  • BRKR or BRKRS 
    Broker(s) 
  • BRKRS 
    Brokers 
  • BROB 
    Bunkers Remaining on Board 
  • Broken Stowage 
    – The loss– The loss of space caused by irregularity in the shape of packages. – Any void or empty space in a vessel or container not occupied by cargo. of space caused by irregularity in the shape of packages. 
  • Broker 
    A person who arranges for transportation of loads for a percentage of the revenue from the load. 
  • Brokerage 
    Freight forwarder/broker compensation as specified by ocean tariff or contract. 
  • Bromine number 
    A measure of the olefins content of a hydrocarbon mixture. In the petroleum intermediates trade, it serves primarily to indicate the presence of cracked stock in a cargo or stream. California air pollution laws also make it an important specification for
  • BS 
    Broken Stowage or Balance Sheet 
  • BSA 
    British Shipbrokers Association 
  • BSEA 
    Black Sea 
  • BTU 
    British Thermal Unit - 0.252 kcal or Bow Thrust Unit 
  • Bucket Dredger 
    A vessel equipped to obtain material from the sea bed by use of circulating buckets. The material may be carried on board, transferred to other vessels, pumped ashore or deposited elsewhere using a spray 
  • Bucket Dredger Pontoon 
    A non propelled dredger pontoon fitted with an endless chain of buckets lowered to the sea bed 
  • Bulk Aggregates Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled barge for the carriage of bulk aggregates 
  • Bulk Barge, propelled 
    A self propelled barge with an arrangement of topside ballast tanks for the carriage of bulk dry cargo of a homogeneous nature 
  • Bulk Cargo 
    Not in packages or containers; shipped loose in the hold of a ship without mark and count.” Grain, coal and sulfur are usually bulk freight. 
  • Bulk Cargo Barge, self discharging, propelled 
    A self propelled bulk barge fitted with a conveyor belt (or similar system) and a boom which can discharge cargo alongside or to shore without the assistance of any external equipment 
  • Bulk Cargo Carrier, self discharging 
    A bulk carrier fitted with self trimming holds, a conveyor belt (or similar system) and a boom which can discharge cargo alongside or to shore without the assistance of any external equipment 
  • Bulk Cargo Carrier, self discharging, Laker 
    A Great Lakes bulk carrier fitted with a conveyor belt (or similar system) and a boom which can discharge cargo alongside or to shore without the assistance of any external equipment 
  • Bulk Carrier 
    A single deck cargo vessel with an arrangement of topside ballast tanks for the carriage of bulk dry cargo of a homogeneous nature 
  • Bulk Carrier (with Vehicle Decks) 
    A bulk carrier with movable decks for the additional carriage of new vehicles 
  • Bulk Carrier, Laker Only 
    A single deck cargo vessel with dimensions suited to the limitations of Great Lakes of North America trade, unsuitable for open sea navigation. Hatches are more numerous than standard bulk carriers, and much wider than they are long 
  • Bulk Carriers 
    Ships designed to carry dry or liquid bulk cargo. Category includes: ore/bulk/oil carriers (OBO) and other combination bulk/oil carriers. 
  • Bulk Cement Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled barge for the carriage of bulk cement 
  • Bulk Cement Barge, propelled 
    A self propelled barge fitted with pumping arrangements for the carriage of cement in bulk. There are no weather deck hatches. May be self discharging 
  • Bulk Cement Carrier, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel designed for the bulk transport of cement cargoes. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • Bulk Cement Storage Ship 
    A stationary storage vessel for bulk cement cargo 
  • Bulk Dry Storage Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled storage barge for dry cargoes 
  • Bulk Dry Storage Ship 
    A stationary storage vessel for bulk dry cargo 
  • Bulk/Oil Carrier (OBO) 
    A bulk carrier arranged for the alternative (but not simultaneous) carriage of crude oil 
  • Bulk–Freight Container 
    A container with a discharge hatch in the front wall; allows bulk commodities to be carried. 
  • Bulkhead 
    similar to a seawall, it is a constructed barrier in the water 
  • BUNDLING 
    This is the assembly of pieces of cargo, secured into one manageable unit. This is a very flexible description, a rule of thumb is to present cargo at a size easily handled by a large (20 ton) fork lift truck 
  • Bunker Charge 
    An extra charge sometimes added to steamship freight rates; justified by higher fuel costs. Also known as Fuel Adjustment Factor or FAF. 
  • Bunkering Tanker 
    A tanker equipped to supply other vessels with bunker fuels 
  • Bunkers 
    Fuel, usually residue grades, burned by ships' main engines. The most familiar kind, called bunker C may contain a high concentration of sulfur and have a high specific gravity but must meet a viscosity specification which assures free flow at the tempera
  • Buoy 
    Floating marker, secured to bottom of the sea, which is used as a navigational aid to mariners. 
  • Burnback 
    The distance a flame will travel from the ignition source back to the aerosol container 
  • Burning kerosene 
    Kerosene intended for use as domestic stove lamp fuel. 
  • Butadiene 
    A flammable gaseous olefin used in making synthetic rubbers. Butadiene rubber has now completely displaced natural rubber in the manufacture of automobile tires. 
  • Butane 
    Butanes are colorless, odorless, gaseous hydrocarbons. The compound in which the carbon atoms are linked in a straight chain is called normal butane, or n-butane; the branched-chain form is isobutane. Both occur in natural gas and in crude oil and are for
  • Butter 
    Made by churning cream, often after a refining process. Cream is an emulsion of very small fat droplets in water. Milk proteins and salts are dissolved in the water. During churning, the small fat droplets coalesce until they form a continuous fat phase,
  • Butyl rubbers 
    Butyl rubbers are a type of synthetic rubber prepared by polymerization of butylenes. They are a preferred option in the manufacture of automobile tires thanks to their leak-proof qualities. 
  • Butylene 
    Also called butene, any of four isomeric compounds belonging to the series of olefinic hydrocarbons. They are formed during the cracking of petroleum to produce gasoline; they can also be prepared commercially by the catalytic dehydrogenation of butanes.
  • BW 
    Brackish water 
  • BWA 
    Brackish water allowance 
  • BWAD 
    Brackish Water Arrival Draft 
  • BWDD 
    Brackish water departure draft 
  • BWT 
    Bleeding wing tanks 
  • C&F or CFR 
    Cost and Freight (named port of destination) Seller must pay the costs and freight to bring the goods to the port of destination. However, risk is transferred to the buyer once the goods are loaded on the vessel (this rule is new!). Maritime transport onl
  • C/S or CST 
    Centistokes 
  • C4 
    C4 derivatives are among the main olefin products coming from the steam cracker, along with ethylene and propylene. Butadiene is the most valuable product from the C4 fraction. 
  • CABAF 
    Currency and Bunker Adjustment Factor 
  • CALM Buoy 
    Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring Buoy - Simple system to which a tanker moors and then either loads or discharges its cargo. Buoy is moored by chains anchored to the seabed. 
  • Capesize Vessel 
    A dry bulk vessel above 80,000dwt or whose beam precludes passage via the Panama Canal and thus forces them to pass around Cape Horn or the Cape of Good Hope. 
  • Caprolactam Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of caprolactam, a chemical used in the plastics industry for the production of polyamides 
  • Car Park 
    A vessel used as a floating car park. 
  • Car Seal 
    Metal strip and lead fastener used for locking freight car or truck doors. Seals are numbered for record purposes. 
  • Carbon 
    An element forming a large number of compounds, many of which have important uses. Diamond and graphite are amongst the main forms of carbon. Coals are elemental carbon mixed with varying amounts of carbon compounds; coke and charcoal are nearly pure carb
  • Carbon residue 
    The solid, impure carbon deposits (coke) left behind by burned hydrocarbon fuels. The industry uses two tests, Conradson carbon (Con Carbon) and Ramsbottom carbon to measure oils' tendency to form such solids. 
  • Carfloat 
    A barge equipped with tracks on which up to approximately 12 railroad cars are moved in harbors or inland waterways. 
  • Cargo Tonnage 
    Most ocean freight is billed on the basis of weight or measurement tons (W/M). Weight tons can be expressed in short tons of 2000 pounds, long tons of 2240 pounds or metric tons of 1000 kilos (2204.62 pounds). Measurement tons are usually expressed as car
  • Carrier 
    Any person or entity who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of carriage by rail, road, sea, air, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes. 
  • Cartage 
    Usually refers to intra–city hauling on drays or trucks. Same as drayage. 
  • Castor Oik 
    Oil from Ricinus communis produced mainly in India, Brazil and China. Castor oil differs from all other common oils in being rich (~90%) in the hydroxyl acid, ricinoleic. Castor oil is a source of several important oleochemicals including Turkey-red oil,
  • Cat gasoline 
    The motor fuel-blending component produced by catalytic cracking units. 
  • Cat naphtha 
    see CAT GASOLINE. Some refiners could, if their markets made it desirable, hydrotreat cat gasoline to make a naphtha suitable for some use other than motor fuel blending, such as steam cracker feedstock. 
  • Catalyst 
    A catalyst is a substance which, when added to the components of a chemical reaction, speeds up the rate of that reaction but does not itself become involved chemically. An example of such compounds in the edible oil context is nickel used in hydrogenatio
  • Catalytic cracker 
    These refinery units, also widely known as cat crackers and FCC's (for fluid catalytic crackers) or FCCU's, convert heavy distillate, most commonly vacuum gasoil, to lighter fractions. Refiners use them, basically, to break molecules which boil in the hea
  • Catalytic cracking 
    The process of breaking up heavier hydrocarbon molecules into lighter hydrocarbon fractions by use of heat and catalysts. See also cracking. 
  • Catfeed 
    The charge fed to a catalytic cracker. Common usage generally restricts this term to describing vacuum gasoils 
  • CBFS 
    Carbon black feed stock 
  • CBT 
    Clean Ballast Tanks: Applies only to Pre-MARPOL vessels which adopted COW instead of converting to SBT when MARPOL 73/78 entered into Force. When operating as a "Products" tanker (typically with Fuel Oil), COW is not available so vessel adopts "CBT" mod 
  • CCC Mark 
    A mark or label indicating the cargo conforms to standards required by China for certain products. 
  • CE Mark 
    A mark or label indicating the cargo conforms to standards required by the European Union for certain products. 
  • Ce Ta 
    Center Tank 
  • Cement Carrier 
    A single deck cargo vessel fitted with pumping arrangements for the carriage of cement in bulk. There are no weather deck hatches. May be self discharging 
  • Center of Gravity 
    The point of equilibrium of the total weight of a containership, truck, train or a piece of cargo. 
  • Centigrade degrees (C) 
    Also known as Celsius degrees. A temperature scale according to which water boils at 100 and freezes at 0. Centigrade, or Celsius, degrees convert to Fahrenheit degrees by the following formula: (C x 1.8) + 32=F. 
  • Centistoke 
    The unit, commonly abbreviated cSt, of kinematic viscosity which reports a liquid's resistance to flow in terms of its measured viscosity divided by its density. 
  • CEPE 
    European Council of the Paint, Printing Ink and Artists' Colors Industry, an association affiliated to Cefic. 
  • CFR 
    Cost and Freight (named port of destination) Seller must pay the costs and freight to bring the goods to the port of destination. However, risk is transferred to the buyer once the goods are loaded on the vessel (this rule is new!). Maritime transport onl
  • CFR (Cost and Freight) (...Named Port of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale where the seller pays the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destina- tion, Terms of Sale but the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as (continued) well as any additional costs due to events occurring a
  • CH 
    Chain locker (OCIMF acronym) 
  • Charge 
    see Feedstock 
  • Charter, Trip 
    A contract where the vessel has specific beginning and end ports but where the route and time taken may vary. 
  • Chassis 
    A frame with wheels and container locking devices in order to secure the container for movement. 
  • ChE inhibitor 
    Cholinesterase inhibitor. A substance which produces inhibition of the cholinesterase group of enzymes, that play a vital role in nerve impulse transmission and other biological functions. Also known as anticholinesterase. 
  • Chemical Carrier 
    see PARCEL TANKER 
  • Chemical Refining 
    Refers particularly to the removal of free fatty acids by alkali. The alkali used is usually sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) or sodium carbonate (soda ash), either singly or in combination. One novel chemical refining technique uses aqueous ammonia as the
  • Chemical Tank Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled tank barge for the carriage of chemicals 
  • Chemical Tanker 
    A tanker built to comply with either the International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IBC Code) or the Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (BCH Code)
  • Chemical Tanker Barge, propelled 
    An self propelled tanker barge for the bulk carriage of chemical cargoes, lube oils, vegetable/animal oils and other chemicals as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code 
  • Chemical Tanker, Inland Waterways 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of chemical cargoes, lube oils, vegetable/animal oils and other chemicals as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code which is not suitable for trading in open waters. Tanks are coated with suitable materials which ar
  • Chemical/Products Tank Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled tank barge for the carriage of chemicals or oil products 
  • Chemical/Products Tanker 
    A chemical tanker additionally capable of the carriage of clean petroleum products 
  • Chemical/Products Tanker Barge, propelled 
    An self propelled chemical tanker barge additionally capable of the carriage of clean petroleum products 
  • Chemical/Products Tanker, Inland Waterways 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of chemical cargoes, lube oils, vegetable/animal oils and other chemicals as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code or Petroleum Products which is not suitable for trading in open waters.  
  • Chlorides 
    Chlorine-containing compounds. The oil trade pays most attention to these substances when discussing naphtha. Reformers need a specific amount of chloride on their catalyst to perform properly, any more or any less amounts to poison. Naphtha feedstock con
  • Chock 
    A piece of wood or other material placed at the side of cargo to prevent rolling or moving sideways. 
  • Chock-a-Block 
    Meaning something is filled to capacity or over loaded. If two blocks of rigging tackle were so hard together they couldn't be tightened further, it was said they were "Chock-a-Block". 
  • Cholesterol 
    Cholesterol is one of a class of compounds known as sterols. It is an important component in animal tissues and cell membranes but found only in trace amounts in plant tissues. While many vegetable oils are known to contain traces of cholesterol, the amou
  • Chronic 
    A long time period of action in weeks, months, or years 
  • CIA 
    UK Chemical Industries Association 
  • CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight) (...Named Place of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale where the seller has the same obligations as under the CFR but also has to procure marine insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premi
  • CIP 
    Carriage and Insurance Paid to (named place of destination) The containerized transport/multimodal equivalent of CIF. Seller pays for carriage and insurance to the named destination point, but risk passes when the goods are handed over to the first carrie
  • CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid To) (...Named Place of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale which means the seller has the same obligations as under CPT, but with the addition that the seller has to procure cargo insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts for insu
  • CKD 
    Completely or Cars knocked down 
  • Class 1 [Deck] 
    Master or Captain: Entitles the holder to act as Master on a ship of any size, with unlimited trading range. 
  • Class 2 [Deck] 
    1st Mate, Chief Mate or Chief Officer: Entitles the holder to act as Chief Mate on a ship of any size with unlimited trading or may entitle the holder to act as Master on a ship but with restrictions on size or trading area. 
  • Class 3 [Deck] 
    2nd Mate: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of a navigational watch on a ship of any size with unlimited trading but may also entitle the holder to act as Chief Mate, or possibly Master, on a ship but with restrictions on size or trading are
  • Class 4 [Deck] 
    3rd Mate: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of a navigational watch on any ship. 
  • Classification Society 
    An organization maintained for the surveying and classing of ships so that insurance underwriters and others may know the quality and condition of the vessels offered for insurance or employment. See also ABS, BV, DNV, LR and NK. 
  • Classification Yard 
    A railroad yard with many tracks used for assembling freight trains. 
  • Clayton Act 
    An anti–trust act of the U.S. Congress making price discrimination unlawful. 
  • Clean 
    Unleaded, when used to describe motor gasoline or blendstock. 
  • Clean Ballast 
    Ballast contained in cargo tanks that have been COW'd and thoroughly water washed. It may be discharged to sea and meets MARPL requirements. 
  • Clean Bill Of Lading 
    A bill of lading issued by a carrier declaring that the goods have been received in an appropriate condition, without the presence of defects. The product carrier will issue a clean bill after thoroughly inspecting the packages for any damage, missing qua
  • Clear the Deck 
    One of the things done in preparation for battle. Current usage similar to "Batten down the hatches".. 
  • Clingage 
    Material which adheres to the surface of tank walls and structures, both horizontal and vertical, within empty and part empty tanks, other than bottom surfaces. 
  • Close Quarters 
    In the 17th century the barriers that sailors laid across a ship’s deck in order to provide a safe haven from the enemy were called close-fights. By the mid 18th century that confined defensive space became called ‘close quarters’, i.e. close dwellings. T
  • Closed Operations 
    The procedure to prevent the release of cargo vapours at deck level on vessels during loading, ballasting and discharging. This is essential when handling toxic, volatile or noxious cargoes to prevent injury to personnel and risk of ignition. "Closed Ope 
  • Cloud point 
    The temperature where wax crystals begin to appear in a cooled hydrocarbon mixture. This quality consideration, usually applied to gasoil, indicates how cold the air must become to make a stream form solids which block filters halting fuel delivery. Cloud
  • CMO 
    Common Market Organization 
  • CNG Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of Compressed Natural Gas. Cargo remains in gaseous state but is highly compressed 
  • Co-products 
    substances made in one processing unit at the same time. A lot of refining hardware, especially crackers, cannot help making an assortment of hydrocarbons. The industry uses "co product" when it does not want to designate one material a plant's 
  • CO2 Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of liquefied carbon dioxide 
  • Coal 
    A black or brownish black solid, combustible carbon-rich substance formed by the partial decomposition of vegetable matter without access to air. Coal is one of the most important of the primary fossil fuels. It is indispensable to life and constitutes hu
  • Coal/Oil Mixture Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of a cargo of coal and oil mixed as a liquid and maintained at high temperatures 
  • Coast Guard-AWO Safety Partnership 
    The Coast Guard-AWO Safety Partnership, the first formal industry-Coast Guard partnership of its kind, has launched more than 25 quality action teams that address the most pressing industry safety issues. The Partnership is responsible for improving safet
  • Coastal 
    Smallest tankers and are generally used in coastal waters requiring a shallow draft. (3,001 dwt - 10,000 dwt approx ) 
  • Coastal amenity 
    Beach, mudflat, wharf, boardwalk or any other feature of the coastline considered of public value 
  • Cocoa Butter Equivalent 
    Fats which behave like cocoa butter in all respects and are able to mix with cocoa butter in any proportion without altering the melting, rheological and processing characteristics of cocoa butter in all types of formulation. These fats have the physico-c
  • Codex Alimentarius 
    A Commission operating under the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations/World Health Organisation (FAO/WHO) auspices, which has the task of preparing model standards and codes of practice for edible products and for food processes. It ope
  • COFFERDAM 
    Void space in a vessel to separate cargo tanks from each other or from the engine room 
  • COGS 
    Cost of Goods Sold : Aka Direct Costs, the sum of all expenditures for materials and labour to produce a product or provide a service. 
  • Coiled 
    Tankers fitted with tubes which carry hot water or steam through viscous cargoes, such as heavy fuel oil and certain crudes, to keep them fluid. 
  • Coke 
    solid, almost hydrogen-free carbon made on purpose in fuel oil destruction units called cokers or inescapably in other processing hardware. Coke forms on the catalyst in cat crackers and in the furnaces of ethylene plants. The coke manufactured intentiona
  • Coker 
    A thermal processing unit which cracks heavy refinery streams, such as vacuum still bottoms, into light products while reducing much of that feedstock to solid carbon. The liquids yielded by these units, often called coker naphtha and coker gasoil, usuall
  • Coking 
    A thermal cracking process to break up large molecules into smaller ones with the generation of quantities of petroleum coke. 
  • Cold blender 
    see blender. European producers of motor gasoline who have no distillation or other refining equipment go by this name. They make their product by mixing purchased "cold" components. This term has the advantage over the simple "blender" used in the USA of
  • Collecting 
    A bank that acts as an agent to the seller’s bank (the presenting bank). The collecting bank assumes no responsibility for either the documents or the merchandise. 
  • collision 
    when two moving vessels strike each other 
  • Colonial pipeline 
    The on-land pipeline system connecting US Gulf Coast refineries to Southeast and Atlantic Coast markets. The main artery runs from Deer Park, Texas, to Linden, NJ. It has the effective capability to carry roughly 2.1 million barrels per day of clean produ
  • Color 
    A spectrum which extends from absolutely colorless (usually described as water white) to dirty (black and opaque). This property only pertains usefully to light refined products and gas liquids. It makes a handy indicator of contamination or poor distilla
  • Combination Carriers (O/O) 
    Ore Oil (O/O) carriers have twin longitudinal bulkheads (similar to a conventional tanker) but have been additionally equipped with large deck hatches and strengthened double bottoms in way of the centre cargo tanks. This arrangement allows dry bulk carg 
  • Combination Carriers (OBO) 
    Oil Bulk Ore (OBO) carriers have a large central hold similar to a conventional dry bulk carrier but are also equipped to operate as an oil tanker. The large cargo "hold" (as opposed to a cargo "tank") means that lighter cargo such as grain etc. can be c 
  • Combined Carriers 
    Designed to transport both liquid and dry bulk cargoes. If both are carried simultaneously, they are segregated in separate holds and tanks. Combined carriers require special design and are expensive. They were prevalent in the 1970s, but their numbers ha
  • Compatibility 
    The suitable of two or more residues for blending. Some stocks--certain visbroken resides and hydrotreated bottoms, for instance--do not combine well enough to yield stable fuel oils. 
  • Component 
    One part of a blend. The word most commonly names streams combined to make motor gasoline. In that usage, it serves as short version of "mogas component". Though not used casually, "gasoil component," “heavy fuel oil component" and similar designations ma
  • Concealed Damage 
    Damage that is not evident from viewing the unopened package. 
  • Condensate 
    Natural gas liquids heavier than butane. The term condensates commonly covers two quite different kinds of streams: natural gasolines and heavy condensates. Natural gasolines come from LPG or LNG plants. They have properties similar to naphthas. Heavy con
  • Confirmed Letter of Credit 
    A letter of credit, issued by a foreign bank, whose validity has been confirmed by a domestic bank. An exporter with a confirmed letter of credit is assured of payment even if the foreign buyer or the foreign bank defaults 
  • Confirming Bank 
    The bank that adds its confirmation to another bank’s (the issuing bank’s) letter of credit and promises to pay the beneficiary upon presentation of documents specified in the letter of credit. 
  • Connecting Carrier 
    A carrier which has a direct physical connection with, or forms a link between two or more carriers. 
  • Conradson carbon (ConCarbon) 
    A measurement of hydrocarbon mixtures tendency to leave carbon deposits (coke) when burned as fuel or subjected to intense heat in a processing unit such as a catalytic cracker. The ConCarbon test involves destructive distillation -subjection to high temp
  • Consignee Mark 
    A symbol placed on packages for identification purposes; generally a triangle, square, circle, etc. with letters and/or numbers and port of discharge. 
  • Consignment 
    (1) A stock of merchandise advanced to a dealer and located at his place of business, but with title remaining in the source of supply. (2) A shipment of goods to a consignee. 
  • Consolidator 
    A person or firm performing a consolidation service for others. The consolidator takes advantage of lower full carload (FCL) rates, and passes on the savings to shippers. 
  • Container 
    A truck trailer body that can be detached from the chassis for loading into a vessel, a rail car or stacked in a container depot. Containers may be ventilated, insulated, refrigerated, flat rack, vehicle rack, open top, bulk liquid or equipped with interi
  • Container Booking 
    Arrangements with a steamship line to transport containerized cargo. 
  • Container Ship (Fully Cellular) 
    A single deck cargo vessel with boxed holds fitted with fixed cellular guides for the carriage of containers 
  • Container Terminal 
    An area designated for the stowage of cargoes in container; usually accessible by truck, railroad and marine transportation. Here containers are picked up, dropped off, maintained and housed. 
  • Container-on-Barge 
    Using deck barges, shipping by container-on-barge is becoming more prevalent as a means to mitigate truck traffic congestion on the nation's highways. 
  • Control zones 
    Designated areas at dangerous goods incidents, based on safety and the degree of hazard. Many terms are used to describe control zones; however, in this guidebook, these zones are defined as the hot, warm, and cold zones. (NFPA 472) 
  • Conventional Tanker 
    Crude tankers used for deep sea transportation of unrefined oil from producing countries to refineries, ranging in size from 55,000 to 500,000 deadweight tonnes. 
  • Conversion 
    Cracking molecules which boil above the threshold temperature into smaller ones which boil below it. Traditionally, the term applied to catalytic crackers. They convert oil which boils above 430 F to hydrocarbons which boil below that point. In other word
  • Copper-Bottomed 
    Copper-bottomed described ships that were fitted with copper plating on the underside of their hulls. The process was first used on ships of the British Navy in 1761 to defend their wooden planking against attack by Shipworms and to reduce infestations by
  • Copra 
    The fruit of the tree ""Cocos Nucifera"" is the well known coconut. The white meat of the coconut, when removed and dried to between 4% to 7% moisture, is called copra. Drying may be either by sun drying where the moisture is allowed to evaporate naturall
  • Corner Posts 
    Vertical frame components fitted at the corners of the container, integral to the corner fittings and connecting the roof and floor structures. Containers are lifted and secured in a stack using the castings at the ends. 
  • Correspondent Bank 
    A bank that, in its own country, handles the business of a foreign bank. 
  • Corrosion fatigue 
    Process involving conjoint corrosion and alternating straining of the metal, often leading to cracking 
  • COSWP 
    MCA Code of Safe Working Practices 
  • Covered Bulk Cargo Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled covered barge for the carriage of bulk cargoes 
  • COW 
    Crude Oil Washing: The operation carried out on crude oil ships as a statutory requirement under Marpol 73/78 to reduce the quantity of residual oil left in cargo tanks that will or might contain ballast. The operation is also employed to maximise the o 
  • COW 
    Crude oil wash. A cleaning technique used by some ships. They spray a few tons of crude around their tanks to rinse off the remains of previous cargoes. This method cannot make a dirty vessel clean. But it can do enough good to prevent excessive darkening
  • CPT 
    Carriage Paid To (named place of destination) The seller pays for carriage. Risk transfers to buyer upon handing goods over to the first carrier.  Incoterms 2010
  • CPT (Carriage Paid To) (...Named Place of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale which means the seller pays the freight for the carriage of the goods to the named destination. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time the goods have been delivered
  • CQD 
    Customary Quick Despatch 
  • CR 
    Carrier’s risk 
  • Cracked 
    Broken by a thermal or catalytic process. This term frequently describes an oil product which contains cracked components made by such a process. 
  • Cracked component 
    An ingredient in a hydrocarbon blend produced by a cracking process. The opposite of a virgin or straight-run component. Blends containing any cracked components do not qualify as straight-run. The presence of cracked components makes refinery streams uns
  • Cracked cutters 
    Cycle oils used to reduce the sulfur content or, especially, the viscosity of fuel oil. 
  • Cracked fuel 
    Fuel oil containing molecules broken in a cracking unit. The term most frequently applies to residue. It distinguishes streams unsuitable for upgrading from straight-run material of interest as feedstock. 
  • Cracked Gas 
    see UNSATURATED GASES 
  • Cracked naphtha 
    General term for any naphtha-range fraction produced by a molecule breaking process. The category includes cat gasoline from a catalytic cracker, visbroken naphtha from a visbreaker, and coker naphtha from a coking unit. In ordinary usage, this term signi
  • Cracked Stock 
    see CRACKED COMPONENT. Cracking units produce cracked stocks such as cycle oils and cat naphthas used for blending finished products. 
  • Cracker 
    A processing unit which breaks molecular bonds, usually to produce lighter hydrocarbons with lower boiling points. Commercial crackers (cracking units) include cat crackers, hydrocrackers, thermal crackers, visbreakers, and stream crackers. 
  • Cracking 
    The process of breaking down large molecules of oil into smaller ones. When this process is achieved by the application of heat only, it is known as thermal cracking. If a catalyst is used as well it is known as catalytic cracking. It is known as hydrocra
  • Cracking-Cracker 
    The process of breaking down large molecules of oil into smaller ones. When this process is achieved by the application of heat only, it is known as thermal cracking. If a catalyst is used as well it is known as catalytic cracking. Cracking causes molecul
  • Crane Platform, jack up 
    A jack up offshore crane platform 
  • Crevice corrosion 
    Localized corrosion associated with, and taking place in, or immediately around, a narrow aperture or clearance formed between the metal surface and another surface (metallic or non-metallic) 
  • Crew/Supply Vessel 
    A typically high speed vessel primarily for the transportation of crew to offshore facilities; may also have limited stores carriage capability on an open deck 
  • CRISTAL 
    Contract Regarding an Interim Settlement to Tanker Liability for Oil Pollution Damage 
  • Crude Oil Tank Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled tank barge for the carriage of crude oil 
  • Crude Oil Tanker 
    A tanker built to comply with Annex 1 of Marpol 73/78 for the carriage of oil and conforming to the requirements for the carriage of crude oil. 
  • Crude/Oil Products Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of crude oil but also for carriage of refined oil products 
  • Cruise Ship, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel used for leisure cruising on rivers/lakes/canals, not suitable for open sea voyages. 
  • CSD 
    Closed shelter deck 
  • CST 
    Abbreviation of centistoke. 
  • CT 
    Centre Tank (OCIMF acronym) 
  • CT 
    Chemical Tanker or Cargo Tank or Center Tank 
  • CTF 
    Carbon Task Force 
  • Curing 
    The chemical reaction that takes place after the mixing of 2 component paints which results in a chemically resistant film 
  • Customhouse Broker 
    A person or firm, licensed by the treasury department of their country when required, engaged in entering and clearing goods through Customs for a client (importer). 
  • Customs Entry 
    All countries require that the importer make a declaration on incoming foreign goods. The importer then normally pays a duty on the imported merchandise. The importer’s statement is compared against the carrier’s vessel manifest to ensure that all foreign
  • Cut 
    To divide a hydrocarbon mixture into fractions by distillation. Also a name for the fractions obtained, as in kerosene cut or naphtha cut. 
  • Cut and Run 
    Most often thought to mean the cutting of an anchor line in an effort to make a quick getaway. Hard to imagine that many ship’s masters enjoyed routinely losing an anchor or two, so it is probably more likely referring to the practice of securing the sail
  • Cut of his Jib 
    Warships many times had their foresails or jib sails cut thinly so that they could maintain point and not be blown off course. Upon sighting thin foresails on a distant ship a captain might not like the cut of his jib and would then have an opportunity to
  • Cutaneous Hazards 
    Chemicals which affect the skin. Signs and symptoms are defatting the skin, rashes, irritation 
  • Cutter (cutter stock) 
    A refinery stream used to thin a fuel oil or gasoil. Viscosity reduction and sulfur level adjustment provide most of the requirement for the cutter. 
  • Cutter stock 
    Diluent material used for tank washing, acting as a solvent or viscosity reducer to enable better recovery or ROB. 
  • Cycle oil 
    Cat cracking unit produced in the fuel oil or gasoil boiling range. The term light cycle oil generally describes products of this kind suitable for blending into diesel or home heating oil. Heavy cycle oil, accordingly, refers to the cat cracked material
  • NULL
    On the Ship – Owner's instruction the agent in charge of the ship will have to pay, at the expense of the ship, all established duties and dues of the port as well as cover bills for work and services done on the master's demand. On the basis of the bills
  • DAP 
    Delivered at Place (named place of destination) Seller pays for carriage to the named place, except for costs related to import clearance, and assumes all risks prior to the point that the goods are ready for unloading by the buyer. Incoterms 2010 
  • DAT 
    Delivered at Terminal (named terminal at port or place of destination) Seller pays for carriage to the terminal, except for costs related to import clearance, and assumes all risks up to the point that the goods are unloaded at the terminal. Incoterms 201
  • DBEWTS 
    Despatch (payable) both ends, working time saved 
  • DBL SKIN 
    DouBLe SKINned 
  • DBT s 
    Double Bottom Tank 
  • DD 
    Dry Dock or Daily Discharge 
  • DDC 
    Deck Decompression Chamber 
  • DDP (Delivered Duty paid) (...Named Port of Destination) 
    “Delivered Duty Paid” means that the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been made avail- able at the named place in the country of importation. The seller has to bear the risks and costs, including duties, taxes and other charge
  • DDU (Delivered Duty Unpaid) (...Named Port of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale where the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available at the named place in the country of importation. The seller has to bear the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods thereto (excluding dutie
  • DE 
    Deck (OCIMF acronym) 
  • Deadweight tonnage (DWT) 
    The standard measure of ships' carrying capacity. The trade usually abbreviates this term to speak simply of tankers "deadweight." This specification reports total weight, usually in long tons, of fresh water, stores, bunkers, and cargo a vessel can carry
  • Debottlenecking 
    Increasing production capacity of existing facilities through the modification of existing equipment to remove throughput restrictions. Debottlenecking generally increases capacity for a fraction of the cost of building new facilities. 
  • Deck Barge 
    Deck barges are flat barges that are able to transport unusually bulky cargoes. 
  • Deck Cargo Pontoon, non propelled 
    A non propelled pontoon for the carriage of general deck cargoes 
  • Deck Cargo Pontoon, semi submersible 
    A non propelled semi submersible pontoon for the carriage of general deck cargoes 
  • Deck Cargo Ship 
    A vessel arranged for carrying unitised cargo on deck only. Access may be by use of a ro-ro ramp 
  • Deck Officer 
    Officer responsible for the safe navigation of a ship, as well as communications and safe loading, carriage and discharging of cargo and ship stability. 
  • Decomposition products 
    Products of a chemical or thermal break-down of a substance. 
  • Defatting 
    The removal of natural oils from the skin by a fat-dissolving solvent 
  • Delayed coker 
    A coking unit (coker) which provides a drum where heated molecules crack and coke forms. 
  • Delivery Instructions 
    Order to pick up goods at a named place and deliver them to a pier. Usually issued by exporter to trucker but may apply to a railroad, which completes delivery by land. Use is limited to a few major U.S. ports. Also known as shipping delivery order. 
  • Demurrage 
    The cost of delaying a ship. Busy channels, occupied berths, commercial considerations, lack of shore tankage, pumping limitations, and a host of other eventualities related to how or where a charterer uses a vessel can prevent it from loading or unloadin
  • Density 
    The mass of a substance per unit volume. The density of a substance is usually compared to water, which has a density of 1. Substances which float on water have densities less than 1; substances which sink have densities greater than 1 
  • Density / Specific Gravity 
    Tank cleaning: Is the ratio of the mass of a volume of a product to the mass of an equal volume of freshwater (1.0). For a product with limited or no solubility in water the specific gravity indicates whether the product will float on water or sink. 
  • Deodorization 
    Deodorisation is the removal of those trace components, present in all edible oils, which give rise to odours and flavours. Accomplished by the application of heat, steam and vacuum, deodorisation should be the final stage of treatment before packing or d
  • Depot, Container 
    Container freight station or a designated area where empty containers can be picked up or dropped off. 
  • DEQ 
    Previous terms eliminated from Incoterms 2000 DEQ – Delivered Ex Quay (named port of delivery) This is similar to DES, but the passing of risk does not occur until the goods have been unloaded at the port of destination. 
  • DEQ (Delivered Ex Quay, [Duty Paid]) (...Named Port of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale which means the DDU term has been fulfilled when the goods have been available to the buyer on the quay (wharf) at the named port of destination, cleared for importa- tion. The seller has to bear all risks and costs including duties, taxes
  • DER or DR or DRK or DRRKS 
    Derrick(s) 
  • Dermatitis 
    An inflammation of the skin 
  • DES 
    Previous terms eliminated from Incoterms 2000 DES – Delivered Ex Ship (named port of delivery) Where goods are delivered ex ship, the passing of risk does not occur until the ship has arrived at the named port of destination and the goods made available f
  • DES (Delivered Ex Ship) (...Named Port of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale where the seller fulfills his/her obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available to the buyer on board the ship, uncleared for import at the named port of destination. The seller has to bear all the costs and risks involved i
  • Despatch on all workding time saved or Despatch on all time saved 
    DESPATCH ON ALL WORKING TIME SAVED or ON ALL LAYTIME SAVED shall mean that Despatch Money shall be payable for the time from the completion of loading or discharging until the expiry of the Laytime excluding any periods excepted from the Laytime. 
  • Det Norske Veritas 
    A Norwegian classification society which certifies seagoing vessels for compliance to standardized rules regarding construction and maintenance. 
  • Detergent 
    In simple terms a detergent is an aid to separation whether it be the separation of soil from a piece of cloth or the separation of olein from stearin in a fractionation plant. Alternatively classified as surface active agents, they work by lowering surfa
  • DHDWTSBE 
    Dispatch Half Demurrage on Working Time Saved Both Ends 
  • DHDWTSBENDS 
    Demurrage Half Dispatch on Working TIme Saved Both Ends 
  • Differential 
    An amount added or deducted from base rate to make a rate to or from some other point or via an- other route. 
  • DirectENC 
    DirectENC or dENC is a chart format which is specific to ECDIS or ECS systems that use the SevenCs EC2007 ECDIS Kernel AND that have been enabled by their manufacturer for SENC data. 
  • DIRTY 
    Crude black oil 
  • Dirty Tanker 
    MR 25-60 Panamax 60-80  Aframax 80-120 Suezmax 120-180  VLCC 180-350  ULCC 350 and up 
  • Disbursements 
    Expenses incurred in a port against the general expenses of the vessel these include wages , loading and /or discharging bunkers, water, provisions, customs clearance, port and quay dues, pilotage, tugs and other pertinent costs. 
  • Discrepancy Letter of Credit 
    When documents presented do not conform to the requirements of the letter of credit (L/C), it is referred to as a “discrepancy.” Banks will not process L/C’s which have discrepancies. They will refer the situation back to the buyer and/or seller and await
  • Diving Vessel, Naval Auxiliary 
    A naval auxiliary vessel designed and fitted with equipment to support diver operations. May have cranes for construction/maintenance work. 
  • DK 
    Deck 
  • DNV 
    Det Norske Veritas (Norwegian Class Society) 
  • Dock 
    – For ships, a cargo handling area parallel to the shoreline where a vessel normally ties up. – For land transportation, a loading or unloading platform at an industrial location or carrier terminal. 
  • Dock Gate 
    A dock gate 
  • Dock Receipt 
    A form used to acknowledge receipt of cargo and often serves as basis for preparation of the ocean bill of lading. 
  • Dockage 
    Refers to the charge assessed against the vessel for berthing at the facility or for morring to a vessel so berthed. 
  • Docket 
    Present a rate proposal to a conference meeting for adoption as a conference group rate. 
  • Doctor test 
    An indicator to detect the presence of significant amounts of mercaptan sulfur in light hydrocarbon mixture. Materials passing this test carry the designation, "Doctor negative." Doctor negative stocks have sufficiently low mercaptan levels for use in mot
  • Documents Against Acceptance (D/A) 
    Instructions given by a shipper to a bank indicating that documents transferring title to goods should be delivered to the buyer only upon the buyer’s acceptance of the attached draft. 
  • Door–to–Door 
    Through transportation of a container and its contents from consignor to consignee. Also known as House to House. Not necessarily a through rate. 
  • Double bond 
    The chemical bond between two carbon atoms can involve one, two or three pairs of electrons, producing a single (C-C), double (C=C) or triple (C≡C) bond. While the extra pairs of electrons give the bond more energy they also make it more chemically reacti
  • Downstream 
    A relative term, which indicates greater removal from origins than some point of reference. For example, a petrochemical plant which cracks naphtha lies downstream from a refinery. Money made by marketing products constitutes downstream profits compared t
  • DPK 
    Dual-purpose kerosene. Product suitable for use as burning kerosene and aviation turbine fuel. 
  • DPOR 
    Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation (ADNR) 
  • Draft 
    The distance between a ship's keel and waterline. The lowest part of a vessel lies this far below the surface of the water. Every ship's draft changes with the amount of cargo aboard it, its trim and the temperature and salt content of the water in which
  • Draft or Draught 
    The draft (or draught) of a vessel is one of the most common pieces of information used in Corps navigation studies and can be defined as the distance between the waterline and the bottom of the ship’s hull (keel) (see Figure A-1). In other words, it is t
  • Draft, Bank 
    An order issued by a seller against a purchaser; directs payment, usually through an intermediary bank. Typical bank drafts are negotiable instruments and are similar in many ways to checks on checking accounts in a bank. 
  • Draft, Discounted 
    A time draft under a letter of credit that has been accepted and purchased by a bank at a discount. 
  • Drawback 
    A partial refund of an import fee. Refund usually results because goods are re–exported from the country that collected the fee. 
  • Drayage 
    Charge made for local hauling by dray or truck. Same as Cartage. 
  • Dredging Pontoon, unknown dredging type 
    A non propelled pontoon with an unknown dredging mechanism 
  • Drilling Rig, jack up 
    A jack up offshore drilling rig 
  • DRK 
    Derrick Materials of various types, often timber or matting, placed among the cargo for separation, and hence 
  • Dry Cargo Barge 
    Dry cargo barges, or hopper barges, transport solid cargo commodities like grain, coal, sugar, sand, gravel, etc. Depending on the cargo, dry cargo barges may be open or covered. For example, sugar would likely be transported in a covered hopper barge, wh
  • Dry–Bulk Container 
    A container constructed to carry grain, powder and other free–flowing solids in bulk. Used in conjunction with a tilt chassis or platform. 
  • Drydock 
    Dock area that is drained of water so a ship can be repaired or serviced below the waterline. Ships are also built in drydocks. 
  • DSRK 
    Deutche-Schiffs-Revision Und-Klassifkation 
  • DT 
    Deep Tank 
  • Dumping 
    Attempting to import merchandise into a country at a price less than the fair market value, usually through subsidy by exporting country. 
  • Dunnage 
    Protection from damage, for ventilation and, in the case of certain cargoes, to provide space in which the types of a fork lift truck may be inserted. 
  • Dutch Courage 
    Dates to the 1600s Anglo-Dutch wars and was likely British propaganda claiming that the Dutch troops were so cowardly they wouldn’t fight unless fortified with copious amounts of schnapps. The term has come to mean false courage induced by drink, or the d
  • DWA 
    Dock water allowance 
  • EBAM 
    European Basic Acrylic Monomer Group, a sector group of the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • EBIS 
    EBIS, the European Barge Inspection Scheme: Started operations on 1st July 1998. The Scheme has been developed by oil and chemical companies as part of their commitment to improving the safety of tanker barging operations within Europe. The main aim of E 
  • EBK 
    Ethyl Butyl Ketone, solvent 
  • ECCP 
    East Coast (UK) coal port 
  • ECMC 
    The U.S. Exporters Competitive Maritime Council. An association primarily of U.S. engineering, procurement and construction companies and their freight forwarders that was formed jointly by the Maritime Administration in 1997 to seek solutions to transpor
  • ECUK 
    East Coast of United Kingdom 
  • Edge Protector 
    An angle piece fitted over the edge of boxes, crates, bundles and other packages to prevent the pressure from metal bands or other types from cutting into the package. 
  • Edible Oil Tanker 
    A cargo ship designed for the bulk transport of Edible Oils in tanks. Tanks will be stainless steel or lined. New vessels will be classified as chemical carriers 
  • Edible Oil Tanker, Inland Waterways 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of edible oils which is not suitable for trading in open waters. New vessels will be classified as chemical tankers as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code 
  • EEPC 
    European Ethylene Producers Committee (a sub-group of LOSG). For more information, click here. 
  • EGC 
    Code for Existing Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk 
  • Elastomer 
    A polymer that forms a disorganized molecular pile capable of uncoiling and recoiling in response to physical force and its removal. This ability to yield and recover makes a substance rubbery. Industry turns molecules into flexible, strectchable, compres
  • Elemica 
    Elemica is a trademark of the Elemica group of companies. 
  • Elkins Act 
    An act of Congress (1903) prohibiting rebates, concession, misbilling, etc. and providing specific penalties for such violations. 
  • Eminent Domain 
    The sovereign power to take property for a necessary public use, with reasonable compensation. 
  • Emulsifier 
    Agents which markedly lower the interfacial tension between oil and water or other liquid, thus permitting them to mix or form emulsions. Lecithin and mono and diglycerides are emulsifiers derived from fats and oils and are widely used in food products (m
  • Enhanced Survey 
    A survey carried out on tankers over 5 years of age, under the enhanced programme of inspection required by Marpol Annex 1 Reg. 13G. The Enhanced Programme of Surveys has been introduced to address the structural problems associated with "old" ships. Th 
  • Entrance Channel 
    A navigable channel connecting the ocean or lake to an enclosed water body such as a bay, estuary, river, or mouth of a navigable stream (EM 1110-2-1613). 
  • Enviroclean 
    Product name for an environmentally-adapted degreasing agent for engine rooms and tank cleaning 
  • Environmental System Inspections 
    Inspection of refrigeration systems to ensure optimum operating conditions and prevent leaks 
  • EPRA 
    European Phenolic Resins Association, an afficiliated sector group of the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • Equalization 
    A monetary allowance to the customer for picking up or delivering at a point other than the destination shown on the bill of lading. This provision is covered by tariff publication. 
  • ERV 
    Each round voyage.(usually in Tanker Trade) 
  • Escort 
    A combat vessel used to escort other vessels and protect them from attack 
  • ETBC 
    Easy trimmer bulk carrier 
  • Ethanol 
    Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol is manufactured by synthesis from ethylene. It is an oxygenated hydrocarbon used in a wide variety of high performance solvent applications (toiletries and cosmetics, paints, lacquer thinners, printing inks, dyes, dete
  • Ether 
    Ethers, like alcohols and phenols are oxygenated derivatives. An ether has two hydrocarbon groups bonded to the oxygen atom. Diethyl ether (also called simply ether) is the most common variety. It is widely used as a solvent and as a volatile, combustible
  • Ethylbenzene 
    Ethylbenzene is formed by combination of ethylene and benzene, and is then dehydrogenated to styrene for use in the production of plastics and synthetic rubber. For more information click website. 
  • Ethylene 
    Also called ethene, ethylene is the simplest member of the olefinic hydrocarbon series and one of the most important raw materials of the organic chemical industry. It occurs in both petroleum and natural gas, but the bulk of the industrial material is pr
  • Ethylene 
    Two-carbon olefin used to make plastic films, fibers, molding compounds, and other products. 
  • Ethylene plant 
    see STEAM CRACKER 
  • Ethylene Tanker 
    A semi-pressurised LPG tanker specifically for the bulk carriage of ethylene. Cargo is refrigerated at -104 deg C 
  • EUROFLEX 
    Association of Flexible Packaging in Europe 
  • Evaporation of volatile substances 
    Tank Cleaning: Cargoes consisting of mixtures with different vapor pressures should neither be cleaned by evaporation, nor prewashed hot. The evaporation of the light substances from a mixture could result in non-volatile residues, which are very difficul
  • Evaporation Rate 
    The rate at which a product will vaporize when compared to the rate of vaporization of a known material (usually Butyl Acetate with rate designated as 1.0). Evaporation rate can be useful in evaluating the health and fire hazards of a material. Rates are
  • Ex - “From” 
    When used in pricing terms such as “Ex Factory” or “Ex Dock,” it signifies that the price quoted applies only at the point of origin indicated. 
  • Ex-Works 
    An Incoterm of sale meaning the seller delivers to the buyer at seller’s named premises. 
  • Exception 
    Notations made when the cargo is received at the carrier’s terminal or loaded aboard a vessel. They show any irregularities in packaging or actual or suspected damage to the cargo. Exceptions are then noted on the bill of lading. 
  • Exhibition Vessel 
    A mobile vessel used for exhibitions, trade fairs and the like 
  • EXIM Bank 
    Export–Import Bank of the United States: An independent U.S. Government Agen- cy which facilitates exports of U.S. goods by providing loan guarantees and insurance for repayment of bank–provided export credit. 
  • Existing chemicals 
    Chemical substances, which were deemed to be on the European Community market between 1 January 1971 and 18 September 1981. An "existing" chemical substance is in the EU defined as any chemical substance listed in the European Inventory of Existing Commer
  • Extraction (Solvent) 
    The process of obtaining oil from a seed or other source by the use of an organic solvent (usually hexane) is termed extraction. Following several pretreatment steps, culminating in the production of seed flakes, whose oil cell walls have been ruptured un
  • EXW 
    Ex Works (named place of delivery) The seller makes the goods available at its premises. This term places the maximum obligation on the buyer and minimum obligations on the seller. The Ex Works term is often used when making an initial quotation for the s
  • EXW (Ex Works) (...Named Place) 
    A Term of Sale which means that the seller fulfills the obligation to deliver when he or she has made the goods available at his/her premises (i.e., works, factory, warehouse, etc.) to the buyer. In particular, the seller is not responsible for loading th
  • Fahrenheit; Fresh water load line mark 
  • FAK 
    Freight All Kinds (containtainers) 
  • fall foul of 
    Foul is an often used nautical term generally meaning entangled or impeded. An anchor tangled in line or cable is said to be a foul anchor. A foul berth is caused by another vessel anchoring too close wherein the risk of collision exists. A foul bottom of
  • FAS (Free Alongside Ship) (...Named Port of Shipment) 
    A Term of Sale which means the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been placed along- side the vessel on the quay or in lighters at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of
  • Fathom 
    A nautical measure equal to six feet, used to measure the depth of water at sea. The word was also used to describe taking the measure or “to fathom” something. Today when one is trying to figure something out, they are trying to fathom it or get to the b
  • Fatty Acid Derivatives 
    Using fatty acids as starting materials, the oleochemicals industry makes mainly fatty alcohols, esters, amines, amides and soaps as derivatives. These compounds are often reacted further to produce a very wide range of chemicals for consumer or industria
  • Fatty Acid Fractionation 
    Fatty acids which have been "split" from triglycerides or hydrolysed can effectively be separated according to chain length, by distillation under vacuum, as their volatility varies. This is known as fractional distillation. For example, palmitic acid (C1
  • Fatty Acids 
    Alkanoic and alkenoic acids are saturated or unsaturated organic acids generally having an unbranched chain of an even number of carbon atoms. They are major components of most lipids and are primarily obtained directly from animal or vegetable sources. P
  • Fatty Alcohol 
    Fatty alcohol is derived from fatty acids. Two main routes are used to obtain fatty alcohols commercially - a. hydrogenolysis of either fats or fatty acids, usually as the methyl ester, and b. reduction of fatty esters with an alcohol and alkali metal (as
  • Fatty Amines 
    Fatty amines are useful fatty acid derivatives for cationic surfactants. All cationics modify surfaces, especially textile surfaces, which makes them useful as fabric softeners, dye fixatives or water repellents. They are also useful in ore flotation, cor
  • Fatty Matter 
    This term is used by the analytical chemist to describe the fatty component of a complex food such as milk, meat, cake or seeds. Fatty matter is usually measured by weight after a suitable extraction procedure. 
  • FCA 
    Free Carrier (named place of delivery) The seller hands over the goods, cleared for export, into the disposal of the first carrier (named by the buyer) at the named place. The seller pays for carriage to the named point of delivery, and risk passes when t
  • FCSSS 
    For Christ’s sake say something 
  • FEDES 
    European Flexible Packaging Federation 
  • Feeder Vessel 
    A short–sea vessel which transfers cargo between a central “hub” port and smaller “spoke” ports. 
  • Feedstock 
    A product of oil or gas processing suitable for charging to (introduction into) an upgrading unit for further refining or transformation. In general, each stage of hydrocarbon processing regards the material, it receives for alteration as its feedstock an
  • Feedstock 
    Raw material used in a processing plant. The most important feedstock for the European petrochemical industry is naphtha. 
  • FFB 
    Fresh Fruit Bunch. The initials stand for "fresh fruit bunch" and refer to the bunch as harvested from the oil palm. Each bunch weighs 10-20 kg and may contain 1500 or more individual fruits. Calculation of oil yield and losses in the oil mill is often re
  • FIB 
    Free Into Barge or Free Into Bunkers 
  • FICS 
    Fellow of The Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers 
  • Fifth Wheel 
    The semi–circular steel coupling device mounted on a tractor which engages and locks with a chassis semi–trailer. 
  • Final boiling point 
    The temperature where a natural material or fraction finishes boiling. This temperature also goes by the name, end point. Some folks use the phrase " full boiling point." This expression has fallen into disfavor, though. It implies complete evaporation of
  • Finished gasoline 
    Motor gasoline which meets the merchantability standards of a particular market. These specification fuels differ from blendstocks called gasoline which require the addition of other components to make it fit for retail sale in one country or another. 
  • Firkin 
    A capacity measurement equal to one–fourth of a barrel. 
  • First Rate 
    Implies excellence. From the 16th century on until steam powered ships took over, British naval ships were rated as to the number of heavy cannon they carried. A ship of 100 or more guns was a First Rate line-of-battle ship. Second rates carried 90 to 98
  • Fishery Patrol Vessel 
    A vessel for the protection of fish stocks and fishing vessels 
  • Fishery Research Vessel 
    A vessel for research into fish stocks and conservation. The vessel may catch fish for scientific purposes 
  • Fits the Bill 
    A Bill of Lading was signed by the ship’s master acknowledging receipt of specified goods and the promise to deliver them to their destination in the same condition. Upon delivery, the goods were checked against the bill to see if all was in order. If so,
  • Fix 
    When a shipowner and charterer make a deal, they say they have "fixed" a ship. They have settled all of the issues including the price, to employ the vessel. 
  • Fixed price 
    The oil trade speaks of prices quoted in absolute figures, like $157 per ton and 44.875 cents per gallon, as fixed prices these numbers, and the transactions (called fixed-price deals) which use them, do not move with any price business in recent years. 
  • Flaking 
    A process used when extracting oil from seeds. The cooked seeds are usually passed through pairs of rolls which break them down and flatten them to a uniform thickness suitable for efficient solvent extraction. 
  • Flash Point/Flammable Range 
    Tank cleaning: The flashpoint is the lowest temperature at which a product gives off sufficient gas to form a flammable gas mixture that can be ignited. The pre-cleaning temperature must be well below the flashpoint. If this is not possible, avoid any ign
  • Flat Rack/Flat Bed Container 
    A container with no sides and frame members at the front and rear. Container can be loaded from the sides and top. 
  • FLATPACKING 
    Cargo to be presented stacked and secured as an integral unit. 
  • Flexibility 
    The degree to which a processing unit can make a desired product from various feed stocks. The term applies particularly to steam crackers. Some such plants can produce ethylene from a range of hydrocarbon streams spanning ethane to vacuum gasoil. Other u
  • Floating Dock 
    A submersible unit constructed and fitted out to dry dock ships whilst afloat. 
  • Floating price 
    A price tied to some sensitive reference quotation. The oil business took this approach when market volatility made fixed-price deals too risky. In the late 1980's the majority of crude and products deals which involve any substantial time exposure use ma
  • Flotsam and Jetsam 
    These are legal terms in maritime law. Flotsam is any part of the wreckage of a ship or her cargo that is lost by accident and found floating on the surface of the water. Jetsam are goods or equipment deliberately thrown overboard to make the ship more st
  • FLT 
    Full liner terms; forklift truck 
  • Fluid coker 
    A coking unit (coker) which makes coke in powdery, free-flowing form. 
  • FO 
    Free on Board means that the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have passed over the ship's rail (vessel's flange for tankers) at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss or damage
  • FOB 
    Free on Board (named port of shipment) The seller must load themselves the goods on board the vessel nominated by the buyer. Cost and risk are divided when the goods are actually on board of the vessel (this rule is new!). The seller must clear the goods
  • FOB (Free On Board) (...Named Port of Shipment) 
    An International Term of Sale that means the seller fulfills his or her obligation to deliver when the goods have passed over the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks to loss of or damage to
  • FONASBA 
    Federation of National Association of Shipbrokers and Agents 
  • FONSABA 
    The Federation of National Shipbrokers abd Agents 
  • Foreign Sales Corporation 
    Under U.S. tax law, a corporation created to obtain tax exemption on part of the earnings of U.S. products in foreign markets.Must be set–up as a foreign corporation with an office outside the USA. 
  • Fork Lift 
    A machine used to pick up and move goods loaded on pallets or skids. 
  • Forwarder Compensation 
    See Brokerage. 
  • FOT 
    Free on Truck or Free on Train 
  • Four–Way Pallet 
    A pallet designed so that the forks of a fork lift truck can be inserted from all four sides. See Fork lift. 
  • FP 
    Flash point; Fore Peak; Free Pratique 
  • FPT 
    Fore peak tank 
  • FR 
    France or Francs or Freight or Flat Rack (container) 
  • Fractionation 
    Division of a hydrocarbon mixture according to the boiling temperature of its component molecules. This general term describes both distillation, which puts heat into mixtures to separate them, and cooling techniques which work by heat removal. 
  • Fractions 
    Part of a hydrocarbon mixture isolated according to the temperature where it evaporates. Distillation units ordinarily divide a combination of liquid hydrocarbons, such as crude oil or the output stream of a cracker, by sorting its molecules into portions
  • Free of Particular Average (FPA) 
    A marine insurance term meaning that the assurer will not allow payment for partial loss or damage to cargo shipments except in certain circumstances, such as stranding, sinking, collision or fire. 
  • Freezing point 
    The temperature where aviation kerosene must remain free of wax crystals. These particles can clog jet engine fuel filters and nozzles. This specification, therefore, indicates the suitability of kerosene for propelling aeroplanes into the cold air at hig
  • Freight Forwarder 
    A person whose business is to act as an agent on behalf of the shipper. A freight forwarder frequently makes the booking reservation. In the United States, freight forwarders are now licensed by the FMC as “Ocean Intermediaries.” 
  • Freighters 
    Breakbulk vessels both refrigerated and unrefrigerated, containerships, partial containerships, roll-on/roll-off vessels, and barge carriers. A general cargo vessel de- signed to carry heterogeneous mark and count cargoes. 
  • From Stern to Stern 
    From the front of a ship to the back. Now describes something in its entirety. 
  • Fronthaul 
    cargo that is carried on the trip out vs. return trip, opposite of backhaul 
  • Fruit Juice Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of fruit juice concentrate in insulated tanks 
  • FSO, Gas 
    A tanker purpose built or converted to store gas produced from a field prior to its transfer to another vessel for transportation. May be self or non propelled. This type does not include vessels which are temporarily being used for storage of gas 
  • FSO, Oil 
    A tanker purpose built or converted to store oil produced from a field prior to its transfer to another vessel for transportation. May be self or non propelled. This type does not include vessels which are temporarily being used for storage of oil 
  • FSRU 
    FSRU (Floating Storage Regasification Unit) is special floating vessel that stores gas and regasifies the LNG tanker. 
  • Fuel blending 
    Mingling two or more materials, refinery streams ordinarily, to make a mixture that meets a grade of fuel's legal and commercial requirements. Refineries almost always sell finished products made from more than one component. Modern motor gasoline, for al
  • Full Cycle Washing 
    Crude oil washing in which the complete cargo tank is washed. 
  • Full Shipload Lot 
    The amount of cargo a vessel carries or is able to carry. Practically, it is the amount of cargo which induces the specific voyage. While the cargo lot may take up the majority of the vessel’s space or ton- nage capacity, it does not require a vessel’s vo
  • Fungible 
    Marketable product. Typically refers to petroleum products moved by pipeline. As long as a particular grade of gasoline meets Colonial pipeline specifications, for instance, it may travel and trade as fungible product. A fungible batch in the Colonial sys
  • Furnace oil 
    A term ordinarily reserved for the kind of gasoil used for household heating. The quality of this product can vary from place to place. The USA, for instance, uses a lighter distillate for this purpose than do some European countries. 
  • g/t-km 
    denotes emissions in grams per tonne of cargo shipped over a kilometre 
  • Gas Carrier 
    A specialised tanker built to comply with Marpol 73/78 Annex 1 and the appropriate IMO Code for Vessels Carrying Liquefied Gases in bulk. 
  • Gas Free 
    This refers to a steady state ‘gas free’ condition, meaning the atmosphere in the tank is “safe for man-entry”. The most common value taken for ‘gas free’ is that the atmosphere is below the LEL (Lower Explosive Limit) and that sufficient oxygen is presen
  • Gas plant 
    Facilities, which remove liquids from natural gas streams, bear this name. So do processing units in refineries which fractionate the light ends distilled from crude or produced by cracking and other upgrading equipment. In both cases, the plant separates
  • Gasoil 
    An intermediate distillate product used for diesel fuel, heating fuel and sometimes as feedstock. 
  • Gasoil 
    A refined petroleum product denser than motor gasoline and kerosene but lighter than residual oil. This hydrocarbon mixture has two common uses: fuel for furnaces and for small diesel engines. It gets several popular names from these applications, includi
  • GD/GD 
    GDynia/GDansk 
  • GE 
    Glycol Ether. Manufactured from either propylene oxide or ethylene oxide reacted with an alcohol. They are mainly used as solvents, plasticizers and brake fluids. 
  • GEAR 
    A general term for ropes, blocks, tackle and other equipment 
  • Geared Bulk Carriers 
    Typically in the handysize to handymax size range although there are a small number of geared panamax vessels, like all bulkers they feature a series of holds covered by prominent hatch covers. They have cranes, derricks or conveyors that allow them to lo
  • Gearless Carriers 
    Bulkers without cranes or conveyors. These ships depend on shore-based equipment at their ports of call for loading and discharging. They range across all sizes, the larger bulk carriers (VLOCs) can only dock at the largest ports, some of these are design
  • General Cargo 
    Goods unpackaged or packaged, but not shipped in bulk 
  • General Cargo Barge, non propelled 
    A barge without means of independent propulsion which carries break bulk cargoes, may be single or multi decked.  
  • General Cargo Barge, propelled 
    An self propelled barge with a single deck for the carriage of various types of dry cargo 
  • General Cargo Carriers 
    Breakbulk freighters, car carriers, cattle carriers, pallet carriers and timber carriers. A vessel designed to carry heterogeneous mark and count cargoes. 
  • General Cargo Ship 
    A single or multi deck cargo vessel for the carriage of various types of dry cargo. Single deck vessels will typically have box shaped holds. Cargo is loaded and unloaded through weather deck hatches 
  • General Cargo, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel designed for the transportation of Break Bulk Cargoes, May Be Single Or Multi Decked. Not designed for operation in open sea. 
  • General Cargo/Tanker 
    A general cargo ship fitted with tanks for the additional carriage of liquid cargo 
  • General Cargo/Tanker (Container/oil/bulk - COB ship) 
    A general cargo ship with reversible hatch covers; one side is flush and the other is fitted with baffles for use with liquid cargoes. Containers can be carried on the hatch covers in dry cargo mode 
  • General Purpose Tanker 
    Tanker ranging in size between 10,000-24,999 DWT 
  • Ghee 
    A word derived from the Hindi word ""Chi"" meaning clarified and crystallised butter fat from buffalos or cows milk. Ghee made from buffalos milk is white, whereas that made from cows milk is yellow in colour. These products have a rich and pleasant flavo
  • Glue Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of glue 
  • Gooseneck 
    The front rails of the chassis that raise above the plane of the chassis and engage in the tunnel of a container leading to the connection to tractor. 
  • Gossypol 
    A natural constituent of cotton seeds which, if transferred to the crude oil, results in colour instability and an oil which is difficult to process. The cooking procedure of the cotton seeds is critical in determining whether gossypol is bound in the mea
  • Grab Dredger 
    A vessel equipped to obtain material from the sea bed by use of a grab or backhoe. The material may be carried on board, transferred to other vessels, pumped ashore or deposited elsewhere using a spray 
  • Grade trade 
    A swap of one kind of oil for another. Such business involves exchanges like sour crude for sweet and gasoil for gasoline. 
  • Granularity 
    Agglomeration of crystals resulting in the formation of granules generally visible to the naked eye. There are a number of fat-based products, such as vanaspati and ghee, where a granular structure is very much appreciated by the consumers and is consider
  • Groggy 
    In 1740, British Admiral Vernon (whose nickname was "Old Grogram" for the cloak of grogram which he wore) ordered that the sailors' daily ration of rum be diluted with water. The men called the mixture "grog". A sailor who drank too much grog was"groggy".
  • Gross Registered Tonnage (GRT) 
    Gross Register Tonnage. Internal cubic capacity of the ship expressed in tons on the basis of 100 cubic feet per ton. This differs from DWT because it measures the area versus the weight. NOTE: GRT was replaced by GT back in 1982. 
  • Gross Weight 
    Entire weight of goods, packaging and freight car or container, ready for shipment. Generally, 80,000 pounds maximum container, cargo and tractor for highway transport. 
  • Grounding 
    when a vessel strikes the bottom of the sea or channel 
  • Groundnut Oil or Peanut Oil 
    The oil expressed or extracted from the seed of the groundnut ("Arachis Hypogaea") after removing the husk and the germ. Groundnuts are extensively cultivated in China, India, USA and in a number of African countries, for example Senegal, Nigeria and Suda
  • GSP 
    Government selling price. The price of crude or products established by a government marketing company. Sometimes written GEP, for government established price. See posted price. 
  • GT, G.T. or G/T 
    Refers to any Gas Turbine tanker, i.e. tanker fitted with a Gas Turbine for propulsion. 
  • H-TYPE 
    Hakodate (vessel) type 
  • H.A. OR D. 
    Havre, Antwerp or Dunkirk 
  • H.S.A. 
    Hellenic Shipbrokers Association 
  • Hallmarks 
    A mark indicating quality or excellence. 
  • Hand over Fist 
    Hand over hand was a British term for the act of moving quickly up a rope or hoisting a sail, which was a matter of pride and competition among sailors. It is thought that American sailors changed this term to ‘hand over fist’, and the term now means to a
  • Handy 
    Vessel designed for carrying refined petroleum products in bulk tanks (19,001 dwt - 25,000 dwt approx ) 
  • Handy-sized vessel 
    A tankship suited to tie up at a T2 type pier. The mooring capacity of such berths restricts vessel length (LOA) to a maximum of 560-600 feet. In modern ship designs, this LOA allows a deadweight tonnage slightly exceeding 30,000. Such a tanker defines th
  • Handymax 
    Handymax or Supramax is a naval architecture term for a bulk carrier, typically between 35,000 and 60,000 metric tons deadweight (DWT). A handymax ship is typically 150–200 m (492–656 ft) in length, though certain bulk terminal restrictions, such as those
  • Handymax Vessel 
    A dry bulk vessel of 35,000 to 49,000dwt. (Note that a “Handy” drybulk carrier is from 10,000 to 34,000dwt.) A “Handymax Tanker” is a liquid bulk carrier of 10,000 to 60,000dwt. 
  • Handysize 
    Usually refers to a dry bulk vessel with deadweight of about 15,000–35,000 tons. The most common industry-standard specification handysize bulker is now about 32,000 metric tons of deadweight on a summer draft of about 10 metres (33 ft), and features 5 ca
  • Handysize Tanker 
    A product tanker that ranges in size between 27,000 and 39,999 deadweight tonnes. 
  • Harbor 
    A harbor is a sheltered part of a body of water deep enough to provide anchorage for ships or a place of refuge. Key features of all harbors include shelter from both long-and short period open ocean waves, easy safe access to the ocean in all types of we
  • Harbor and Ship Assist Tugs 
    Tugboats are designed to be powerful enough to push and pull objects many times their size. Harbor tugs are essential in every port to help maneuver large ships through narrow harbors and to assist them in docking and undocking from confined spaces. Harbo
  • Hard Up 
    Hard is another often used nautical term. To put the helm hard over is to put it as far as it will go in that direction. Hard and fast describes a vessel firmly aground and unable to make progress and has come ashore to mean rigid. ‘Hard up in a clinch an
  • Hatch 
    The opening in the deck of a vessel; gives access to the cargo hold. 
  • Hazard 
    The hazard associated with a chemical is its intrinsic ability to cause an adverse effect. It should be compared to risk, which is the chance that such effects will occur. Whilst a chemical may have hazardous properties, provided it is handled safely unde
  • HBF 
    Harmless Bulk Fertilizer 
  • HBL 
    Hydrostatic Balanced Loading (Marpol 13g): A process that may be adopted by single hull tankers if they wish to trade beyond 25 years of age through to final "phase-out" date at 30 years of age. This method of operation is designed to reduce the environ 
  • HDPE 
    High-density polyethylene. A plastic that is used predominantly in the manufacture of blow-molded bottles for milk and household cleaners and injection-molded pails, bottle caps, appliance housings, and toys. 
  • HDWTS 
    Half Despatch Working Time Saved 
  • HDWTSBE 
    Half dispatch working time saved both ends 
  • HDWTSBENDS 
    Half despatch working time saved both ends 
  • Heart cut 
    A distillation fraction restricted to a narrow range to meet specific needs. The navy, for instance, buys a heart cut of ordinary jet kero known as JP-5. 
  • Heavy fuel oil 
    A dense, opaque petroleum derivative made from the unboiled material, the bottoms or residue, from crude vacuum distillation units plus, perhaps heavy product from crackers. Blends made to meet market or specific customers standards often also include qua
  • Heavy Grade Oil 
    Heavy grade Oil: o crude oils, having a density at 15º C higher than 900 kg/m3; o oils, other than crude oils, having either a density at 15º C higher than 900 kg/m3 or a kinematic viscosity at 50 º C higher than 180 mm2/s; or; o bitumen, tar and their e
  • In-line blending 
    The practice of pumping various motor gasoline components from their individual storage tanks into a single pipe and mixing them in the process. Gasoline made in such fashion generally is intended for bulk in shipment. Typically it flows directly aboard a
  • Indication 
    A suggestion given by a prospective buyer or seller of what he might do. Indications imply no commitments. At this level of discussions, folks can change their minds without serious consequences. 
  • Inert Gas 
    The atmosphere introduced into the ullage space of a tank to reduce its oxygen content to 8% O2 or less in order to prevent ignition of the vapour or cargo. Inert gas on vessels is usually the cleaned products of combustion from a boiler or inert gas gen 
  • Inert Gas Blanketing 
    Inert gas, usually nitrogen, put in the ullage space in a pressurised tank to prevent air oxidation of the product. 
  • Inland Barge Tow 
    Towboats push barges on the nation's inland waterways loaded with materials and products that are the building blocks of America's economy - coal, grain, petroleum products, petrochemicals, fertilizers, sand, gravel, metal scrap, etc. One tow can be compr
  • Inland Barges 
    Self-propelled barges or dumb barges employed in port areas, on inland waterways sheltered or estuarial waters, which are not classified as seagoing vessels, including tankers not covered by international convention. Inland barges may be regulated by loca
  • Inland Bill Of Lading 
    An inland bill of lading allows the transporter to move goods across domestic land, via rail or truck. If the goods are to be shipped overseas, an addition document known as an "ocean bill of lading" is required. The inland bill only allows the materials
  • INNNGWB 
    If New York, not north of George Washington bridge 
  • Installment Shipments 
    Successive shipments are permitted under letters of credit. Usually they must take place within a given period of time. 
  • Insulated Container Tank 
    The frame of a container constructed to hold one or more thermally insulated tanks for liquids. 
  • Insurance with Average–clause 
    This type of clause covers merchandise if the damage amounts to three percent or more of the in- sured value of the package or cargo. If the vessel burns, sinks, or collides, all losses are fully covered. In marine insurance, the word average describes pa
  • Insurance, All–risk 
    This type of insurance offers the shipper the broadest coverage available, covering against all losses that may occur in transit. 
  • Insurance, General–Average 
    In water transportation, the deliberate sacrifice of cargo to make the vessel safe for the remaining cargo.Those sharing in the spared cargo proportionately cover the loss. 
  • Integrated oil companies 
    Organizations which find, produce, transport, and refine oil, and market oil products. Less complete enterprises concentrate on a part of this sequence. The industry calls its largest integrated companies the majors. 
  • Interesterication  
    A term given to the production of esters by interaction of two esters in the presence of an alkaline or enzymatic catalyst. 
  • Intermediate 
    A partially refined petroleum stream. Such materials require further processing to make finished products. Various intermediates sell as feedstocks. The industry also uses this word as an adjective to designate a medium score on some quality ranking--betw
  • INTERTANKO 
    The International Association of Independent Tanker Owners: An international organisation based in London whose aim is to represent the views of its members at International Forums. 
  • IPF 
    Intaken piled fathorn 
  • Irrevocable Letter of Credit 
    Letter of credit in which the specified payment is guaranteed by the bank if all terms and conditions are met by the drawee and which cannot be revoked without joint agreement of both the buyer and the seller. 
  • Irritant 
    A substance that produces an irritating effect when it contacts the skin, eyes, nose or respiratory system. 
  • ISGOTT 
    International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals: A comprehensive guide to the safe conduct of all tanker and terminal cargo related operations 
  • ISIF 
    International Styrene Information Forum. For more information, click here. 
  • ISLWG 
    International Shipping Legislation Working Group (UNCTAD) 
  • Isomerate 
    The motor gasoline blendstock made by a C5-C6 isomerization unit. 
  • Isophorone 
    Isophorone is a clear liquid that can be dissolved in water. It is an industrial chemical used extensively as a solvent in some printing inks, paints, lacquers, adhesives, vinyl resins, copolymers, coatings, finishes, and pesticides, in addition to being
  • Issuing Bank 
    Bank that opens a straight or negotiable letter of credit and assumes the obligation to pay the bank or beneficiary if the documents presented are in accordance with the terms of the letter of credit. 
  • ISTEC 
    Intertanko Technical Committee 
  • ISWG 
    Intersessional Working Group on Maritime Security 
  • ITF 
    International Transport Workers Fedration 
  • ITF 
    International Transportworkers Federation 
  • ITF or ITFW 
    International Transport Worker’s Federation 
  • ITOPF 
    International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation 
  • ITOSF 
    Informal Tanker Operator's Safety Forum 
  • IVR 
    Rhine Barge Register: International Association for the representation of the mutual interests of the inland shipping and the insurance and for keeping the register of inland vessels in Europe. 
  • Jacket 
    A wood or fiber cover placed around such containers as cans and bottles. 
  • Jacket Launching Pontoon 
    A pontoon designed for positioning and launching jackets for offshore use 
  • Jacket Launching Pontoon, semi submersible 
    A semi submersible pontoon designed for positioning and launching jackets for offshore use 
  • JCRA 
    Joint Common Risks Agreement 
  • Jet 
    A nickname for kerosene-range aviation turbine fuel. A somewhat longer expression, jet kero, also enjoys wide popularity as a substitute for the formal designation. 
  • JET KERO 
    A shortened version of “jet kerosene.” See aviation turbine fuel. 
  • JP-4 
    Jet B. A common grade of military jet fuel. The industry habitually calls this product naphtha-type jet because it has a lower boiling range than civil jet kero. 
  • Junk 
    Old rope no longer able to take a load, it was cut into shorter lengths and used to make mops and mats. 
  • Jury Rig 
    A temporary repair to keep a disabled ship sailing until it could make port, such as a jury sail erected when the mast was lost or a jury rudder as an emergency means of steering when the ship’s rudder was damaged. 
  • Kilo or Knot 
  • Ship Stability: Symbol for keel 
  • K OW 
    Octanol-water partition coefficient. The ratio of a chemical's solubility in n-octanol and water at steady state; also expressed as P. The logarithm of P or K OW (i.e., log P or K OW) is used as an indication of a chemical's propensity of bioconcentration
  • K.D. 
    Knocked down 
  • K.D.F. 
    Knocked down flat 
  • Kamsramax 
    A Kamsarmax type bulk carrier is basically a 82,000 dwt Panamax with an increased LOA = 229 m (for Port Kamsar in Equatorial Guinea). 
  • Karl Fischer 
    The measurement of small amounts of water in oils and fats is most suitably done by the Karl Fischer procedure in which the water is reacted with a special reagent. Unlike methods using oven drying, the Karl Fischer method is specific for water. It is par
  • KB 
    Ship Stability: Linear, distance from the keel to the center of buoyancy. 
  • Keel 
    Longitudinal girder at lowest point of a ship, from which the framework is built up. The keel provides ship with stability and structural integrity. 
  • Kelp Dredger 
    A vessel equipped for harvesting kelp seaweed 
  • KERO 
    Kerosene 
  • Kerosene 
    A petroleum product which boils between naphtha gasoil. This cut's distillation range can vary to accommodate other products. Many refiners want to take naphtha as high as 350 or 375 F. In those cases, the kerosene cut has a rather high initial boiling po
  • Ketone 
    An important starting material and intermediate in organic synthesis. Many ketones of industrial significance are used as solvents, perfumes, and flavoring agents or as intermediates in the manufacture of plastics, dyes, and pharmaceuticals. 
  • KG 
    Ship Stability: Height of center of gravity of the vessel above keel or baseline 
  • KG 
    Kilogram 
  • KI 
    Klasifikasi Indonesia 
  • Kilogram 
    1,000 grams or 2.2046 pounds. 
  • Kinematic viscosity 
    A measure of liquid's rate of flow under gravity. The standard test of this property determines the time a sample of material requires to drain through a laboratory vessel. 
  • King Pin 
    A coupling pin centered on the front underside of a chassis; couples to the tractor. 
  • KMC 
    cargo refrigerating system 
  • KN 
    Knot(s) 
  • KN or KTS or KNOTS 
    Nautical miles per hour 
  • Knocked Down (KD) 
    Articles which are taken apart to reduce the cubic footage displaced or to make a better shipping unit and are to be re–assembled 
  • Knocking 
    Preignition. If the gasolineair vapor in a motor's cylinders is too compressed, the heat produced will cause it to ignite without the aid of a spark. This uncontrolled combustion probably will not occur at the ideal moment to transfer energy and promote r
  • Knot 
    One nautical mile (6,076 feet or 1852 meters) per hour. In the days of sail, speed was measured by tossing overboard a log which was secured by a line. Knots were tied into the line at intervals of ap- proximately six feet. The number of knots measured wa
  • Known Loss 
    A loss discovered before or at the time of delivery of a shipment. 
  • Kommandittselskap (K/S) 
    Limited partnership. A form of shipfinancing  
  • KOS 
    Kilos 
  • KPH 
    Kilometres per hour 
  • KPIA 
    Korean Petrochemical Industry Association . 
  • KR 
    Korea or Korean Register 
  • KRS 
    Koreans 
  • KT 
    Knott(s) 
  • KT 
    Kilo ton 
  • KTM 
    Keel To Mast 
  • Kyoto Protocol 
    International agreement, adopted under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions  
  • L&R 
    Lake and rail 
  • Lakers 
    Bulkers prominent on the Great Lakes, often identifiable by having a forward house which helps in transiting locks. Operating in fresh water, these ships suffer much less corrosion damage and have a much longer lifespan than saltwater ships. 
  • LAKES 
    Great Lakes (US/CA) 
  • Landbridge 
    Movement of cargo by water from one country through the port of another country, thence, using rail or truck, to an inland point in that country or to a third country. As example, a through movement of Asian cargo to Europe across North America. 
  • Landing Craft 
    An open deck cargo vessel onto which cargo is loaded and unloaded over a bow door/ramp 
  • Landing Ship (Dock Type) 
    A combat vessel designed for the transport of troops, using a semi submersible dock to launch landing craft or helicopters, and with ro-ro ramp facilities 
  • LANE METER 
    whereby each unit of space (Linear Meter) is represented by an area of deck 1.0 meter in length x 2.0 meters in width. 
  • Lanemeter 
    Primarily used to indicate the cargo capacity of a roll–on/roll–off car carrier. It is one meter of deck with a width of 2.5 to 3.0 meters. 
  • Lard 
    The rendered fat of the pig. One of the traditional cooking fats, especially in Europe and USA. The best quality lard is obtained from the internal fats surrounding the kidney etc. Pork backfat is significantly softer in character. 
  • Latex Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of latex 
  • Lauric Acid 
    Lauric acid is a commonly distributed, naturally occurring saturated fatty acid (C12:0). The richest common sources of lauric acid are coconut, palm kernel and babassu oils. 
  • Lauric Fats and Oils 
    The largest volume lauric fats and oils are coconut and palm kernel, which are vital to the manufacture of surfactants among other applications. Lauric oils typically contain 40-50% lauric acid (C12) in combination with lesser amounts of other relatively
  • Lauric Oils 
    Oils containing 40-50% lauric acids (C12 ) in combination with other relatively low molecular weight fatty acids. Coconut and palm kernel oils are principal examples. 
  • Laytime 
    A specific number of hours, named in the pertinent charter party, a tanker must prepare to spend on berth at the shipowner's expense. Details vary from one fixture to another. Usually, though, owner and charterer agree on a total laytime for a voyage whic
  • LC-50 
    Lethal Concentration 50. This concentration of a hazardous material in air is expected to kill 50% of a group of test animals when given as a single respiratory exposure in a specific time period 
  • LD 
    Lethal Dose. The dose of a substance being tested which will kill a test+ animal. 
  • LDPE 
    Low Density Polyethylene. A plastic used predominantly in film applications due to its toughness, flexibility and relative transparency. LDPE has a low melting point, making it popular for use in applications where heat sealing is necessary. Typically, LD
  • Lead 
    Tetra-ethyl (TEL) or tetra-methyl (TML) lead, primarily. These lead alkyls improve the octane rating of certain motor gasoline blendstocks quite inexpensively. Concern about the health effects of lead and other airborne pollutants generated restrictions o
  • Lead response 
    The susceptibility of a motor gasoline blending component to octane improvement by addition of lead alkyl anti- knock compounds. 
  • Less Than Truckload 
    Also known as LTL or LCL. 
  • Let the Cat Out of the Bag 
    In the Royal Navy the punishment prescribed for most serious crimes was flogging. This was administered by the Bosun's Mate using a whip called a cat o' nine tails. The "cat" was kept in a leather or baize bag. It was considered bad news indeed when the c
  • Letter of Credit (LC) 
    A document, issued by a bank per instructions by a buyer of goods, authorizing the seller to draw a specified sum of money under specified terms, usually the receipt by the bank of certain documents within a given time. 
  • Letter of Indemnity 
    In order to obtain the clean bill of lading, the shipper signs a letter of indemnity to the carrier on the basis of which may be obtained the clean bill of lading, although the dock or mate’s receipt showed that the shipment was damaged or in bad conditio
  • LGFM 
    London Grain Fixtures Market 
  • LIBA 
    Lloyd's Insurance Brokers Association 
  • Lift 
    To take purchased product by loading it aboard a transportation vessel at the point of production or storage. 
  • Lifter 
    A product purchaser who takes (lifts) crude, fuel, or feedstock physically from a producer's or reseller's facility. Oil frequently has a buyer and a lifter. The buyer, some times a contract holder, sells his stem to someone else who lifts it from the sou
  • Lightship 
    A vessel specifically designed for use as a lightship for use as a navigational mark 
  • Limestone Carrier 
    A single deck cargo vessel for the carriage of limestone in bulk. There are no weather deck hatches. May be self discharging 
  • Linkspan/Jetty 
    Any classified linkspan, jetty or floating access pontoon 
  • Liquefaction 
    Process that takes clean natural gas and condenses it using a refrigeration process. Temperature of the gas is reduced to a very frigid - 260°F (-163°C), reducing its volume by more than 600 times. At this temperature LNG can be stored and transported as
  • Listless 
    When a ship was listless, she was sitting still and upright in the water, with no wind to make her lean over (list) and drive ahead. 
  • Live Fish Carrier (Well Boat) 
    A vessel for the carriage of live fish in water tanks 
  • Livestock Carrier 
    A cargo vessel arranged for the carriage of livestock 
  • LKG&BKG 
    Leakage and breakage 
  • Lloyds’ Registry 
    An organization maintained for the surveying and classing of ships so that insurance underwriters and others may know the quality and condition of the vessels offered for insurance or employment. 
  • LNG Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of Liquefied Natural Gas (primarily methane) in independent insulated tanks. Liquefaction is achieved at temperatures down to -163 deg C 
  • LNGC (LNG Carrier) 
    An ocean-going ship specially constructed to carry LNG in tanks at 160 C. Current average carrying capacity of LNGs is 125,000 cubic metres. Many LNGCs presently under construction or on order are in the 210,000 – 215,000 cubic metre range. 
  • Load Line 
    The waterline corresponding to the maximum draft to which a vessel is permitted to load, either by freeboard regulations, the conditions of classification, or the conditions of service. See also Plimsoll Mark. 
  • Load on Top 
    The procedure where a crude oil cargo is loaded into tanks on top of residues from a previous cargo (these residues are normally held in a "slop tank" and are the result of tank washing and dirty ballast decanting operations on pre-MARPOL ships). 
  • Lock and Dam 
    a device for raising and lowering boats from one water level to another. It is often associated with a dam. 
  • Locks 
    Tows must navigate through locks in order to get around dams on the rivers. Many locks on the nation's waterways are now over 60 years old and are too small to accommodate the size of the modern tows, forcing those tows to be broken up and taken through t
  • Long Shot 
    In old warships, the muzzle-loading cannon were charged with black powder of uncertain potency that would propel the iron shot an equally uncertain distance with doubtful accuracy. A 24-pounder long gun, for instance, was considered to have a maximum effe
  • Loose 
    Without packing. 
  • Loose Cannon 
    A cannon having come loose on the deck of a pitching, rolling, and yawing deck could cause severe injury and damage. Has come to mean an unpredictable or uncontrolled person who is likely to cause unintentional damage. 
  • LOSG 
    Lower Olefins Sector Group, a sector group of the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • Low pour 
    A description of distillate or residual fuel oils, which flow at relatively low temperatures. Sometimes, the industry uses this term, and its opposite, informally. Frequently, though, it designates oil meeting specific standards of a particular market. 
  • LPG Barge, propelled 
    A self propelled tanker barge for the bulk carriage of Liquefied Petroleum Gas 
  • LPG carriers 
    Tankers fitted to transport such volatile products as propane, butane, ammonia, and vinyl chloride monomer. These cargoes require high-pressure or refrigerated storage to keep them in liquid form. In these times of slack employment in their specialty, som
  • LPG Tank Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled tank barge for the carriage of LPG 
  • LPG Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of Liquefied Petroleum Gas in insulated tanks, which may be independent or integral. The cargo is pressurised (smaller vessels), refrigerated (larger vessels) or both ('semi-pressurised') to achieve liquefaction.  
  • LPG/Chemical Tanker 
    An LPG tanker additionally capable of the carriage of chemical products as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code 
  • LR-1 
    AFRA's large-range 1 tankers. These ships' deadweight tonnages fall between 45,000 and 79,999. 
  • LR-2 
    AFRA's large-range 2 tankers. These vessels have deadweight tonnages between 80,000 and 159,999. 
  • LR1 Tanker 
    Long Range 1 (LR1) Tanker - Product tanker ranging in size between 45,000 and 79,999 deadweight tonnes. Main trade routes are Middle East Gulf to the Far East and Europe, or from northwest Europe to the United States. 
  • LR2 Tanker 
    Long Range 2 (LR2) Tanker - Product tanker ranging in size from 80,000 to 159,999 deadweight tonnes. Main trade routes are Middle East Gulf to the Far East and Europe, or from northwest Europe to the United States. The LR2 segment consists of the largest
  • LRF 
    Lloyds Register Fairplay: Publications such as the Register of Ships and the World Shipping Directory, Lloyd's Register - Fairplay also provides bespoke data services and market analyses. 
  • LSD 
    Landing Ship Dock or Landing Storage and Delivery 
  • LTI 
    Lost Time Injury - Key performance indicator measuring the loss of productive time due to injury. 
  • Lubricating Oil 
    Is a Clean Petroleum Product (CPP) as defined in this section. It is a product of many specialist grades derived through the blending of components known as Base Oils. 
  • LWM 
    Low water mark 
  • Macro-Bridge 
    Also known as "land bridge:. It is the same as mini-bridge, except that it involves substitution of land transportation across the United States in place of water service, for traffic that originates and terminates outside of the United States. 
  • Maintenance Platform, jack up 
    A jack up offshore maintenance platform 
  • MAK 
    Maximale ArbeitsplatzKonzentrationen (maximal occupational exposure concentrations) 
  • Malpractice 
    A carrier giving a customer illegal preference to attract cargo. This can take the form of a money refund (rebate); using lower figures than actual for the assessment of freight charges (undercubing); misdeclaration of the commodity shipped to allow the a
  • Manifold 
    Area of a tanker featuring pipes and valves for intake and offloading of cargo. 
  • Marine Insurance 
    Broadly, insurance covering loss or damage of goods at sea. Marine insurance typically compensates the owner of merchandise for losses sustained from fire, shipwreck, etc., but excludes losses that can be recovered from the carrier. 
  • Maritime Waterways 
    Inland waterways linked to the sea, basically used for the traffic of seagoing vessels and designated as such under national law 
  • Mark I 
    WW designation for ro-ro carriers built in 1978-79 
  • Mark II 
    WW designation for ro-ro carriers built in 1984 
  • Mark III 
    WW designation for ro-ro carriers built in 1996 
  • Mark IV 
    WW designation for ro-ro carriers built in 2000-01 
  • Market related 
    see FLOATING PRICE 
  • Markets 
    Markets for oleochemicals continue to evolve, with niche markets developing continually. Nonetheless, the main end-use markets include building auxiliaries, candles, cleaning agents, cosmetics, detergents, fire extinguishing agents, flotation agents, food
  • Marking 
    Letters, numbers, and other symbols placed on cargo packages to facilitate identification. Also known as marks. 
  • Marlinespike 
    A pointed metal spike, used to separate strands of rope in splicing. 
  • Mate’s Receipt 
    An archaic practice. An acknowledgement of cargo receipt signed by a mate of the vessel. The possessor of the mate’s receipt is entitled to the bill of lading, in exchange for that receipt. 
  • MB 
    Merchant Broker 
  • MB/T 
    Motor blocks/ turnings 
  • MBL 
    Minimum Breaking Load 
  • Mechanical Lift Dock 
    A lifting dock facility using winches to lower and raise platform 
  • Medium-speed diesel 
    Moderately large diesel engines such as those which propel large boats and heavy-duty locomotives. These engines burn a heavy gasoil which sometimes takes their name. 
  • MEK 
    Methyl Ethyl Ketone 
  • Melting 
    When heated sufficiently, a solid changes state to a liquid. The melting of a fat depends on its previous triglyceride composition. The baking or spreading performance of commercial fats depends greatly on their melting behaviour. Solid fat content measur
  • Mercaptans 
    Mercaptan sulfur. Excessive concentrations of these malodorous organic sulfur molecules make motor gasoline unmerchantable. Blenders, therefore, want to know the mercaptan content of components they could consider buying. The kerosene trade pays careful a
  • Metals content 
    A specification of concern to buyers of fuel oil and vacuum gasoil.Heavy metals, such as nickel, vanadium, and copper, poison cat-cracking catalysts.Most refiners specify a maximum metals limit for the catfeed and vacuum unit feedstock they would consider
  • Metaxylene 
    Metaxylene is an isomer of mixed xylene. It is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of polyesters for coatings, inks, reinforced plastics, and packaging applications. 
  • Methylamines 
    Methylamines (mono-, di- and tri) and their derivatives are alkaline substances that are produced by reacting ammonia and methanol, in the gas phase at high temperatures and high pressure. Methylamines are available as anhydrous liquefied gases and as aqu
  • Metric Ton 
    2,204.6 pounds or 1,000 kilograms. 
  • MIBK 
    Methyl Isobutyl Ketone 
  • Microbridge 
    A cargo movement in which the water carrier provides a through service between an inland point and the port of load/discharge. The carrier is responsible for cargo and costs from origin on to destina- tion. Also known as IPI or Through Service. 
  • MICS 
    Member of The Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers, London 
  • Middle distillates 
    Products heavier than motor gasolinenaphtha and lighter than residual fuel oil.This range includes heating oil, diesel, kerosene, and jet kero. 
  • Mill Scale 
    A thick oxide coating formed on the steel when heated, e.g., in connection with hot working or heat treatment 
  • Mini Landbridge 
    An intermodal system for transporting containers by ocean and then by rail or motor to a port previously served as an all–water move (e.g., Hong Kong to New York over Seattle). 
  • Mini-Bridge 
    Substitution of rail or truck service for water transportation between two U.S. port cities for cargo originating or terminating in a port city. 
  • Minimum Bill of Lading 
    A clause in a bill of lading which specifies the least charge that the carrier will make for issuing a lading. The charge may be a definite sum or the current charge per ton for any specified quantity. 
  • Miscible 
    In this guidebook, means material that mixes readily with water. 
  • Mission Ship 
    A mobile vessel used for missionary work 
  • MKT 
    Market 
  • MM 
    Marketing Manual 
  • MMS 
    APPE Monthly Monitoring of Monomers. APPE is a major group within the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • Molasses Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of molasses 
  • Molten Sulphur Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of molten sulphur in insulated tanks at a high temperature 
  • MON (Motor Octane Number) 
    A rating of the anti-knock properties of a finished motor gasoline or blendstock. The test determines MON simulates demanding engine operating conditions such as substantial loads and high speeds. The MON method yields lower numbers than the RON (research
  • Monomer 
    One molecular unit which links with others of its own or a similar kind to form a Styrene monomers, for instance, connect to form the familiar plastic, polystyrene. 
  • Motor alkylate 
    Full name of a gasoline blendstock often simply called alkylate. 
  • Motor gasoline 
    Petroleum-derived fuel blend intended to power spark-ignited internal combustion automobile engines. This propellant's boiling range can span C4 through 430 F. In practice, it usually has a somewhat lower end point. Mogas must meet various specifications
  • MR 
    Medium Range (tanker): A vessel designed for carrying refined petroleum products in bulk tanks (25,000 dwt - 44,999 dwt approx). MR tankers primarily transport refined oil products on intra-regional routes between the oil refineries. Only on rare occasion
  • MRX 
    Medium range cross-purpose tanker 
  • MSG 
    Methacrylates Sector Group, a sector group of the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • MT, M.T. or M/T 
    Refers to any self-propelled tanker, i.e. tanker fitted with diesel engine for propulsion. 
  • MTSA 
    The Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002, is designed to protect ports and waterways from terrorists attacks. The law is the U.S. equivalent of the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code(ISPS), and was fully implemented on July 1, 2004
  • MultiTank Container 
    A container frame fitted to accommodate two or more separate tanks for liquids. 
  • Myristic Acid 
    Myristic acid (C14:0) is a saturated intermediate chain length fatty acid found mainly in coconut, palm kernel and milk fats. It is also a minor constituent of most animal and vegetable fats. 
  • n-Butene 
    Butenes are formed during the cracking of petroleum to produce gasoline; they can also be prepared commercially by the catalytic dehydrogenation of butanes. 
  • N.R. 
    No risk until confirmed or Net Register or Northern Range (of Ports in US) 
  • N.Y.T. 
    New York Standard Time 
  • Naphthenes 
    Hydrocarbon molecules with a carbon ring structure similar to aromatics. Naphthenes have saturated bonds rather than the unsaturated ones which characterize aromatics. Reformers make aromatics, the high-octane components they intend to produce, most easil
  • Natural Antioxidant 
    An antioxidant which is naturally present in fat, e.g. tocopherols and tocotrienols. Their presence confers good keeping properties on the fat. Most vegetable oils have a relatively high content of tocopherol and tocotrienols. 
  • Negative Stability 
    Ship Stability: Exists when G is above M. The vessel will list to either side and will not remain upright. A list due to a negative initial stability is known as an angle of loll. 
  • Negotiable Instruments 
    A document of title (such as a draft, promissory note, check, or bill of lading) transferable from one person to another in good faith for a consideration. Non–negotiable bills of lading are known as “straight consignment.” Negotiable bills are known as “
  • Neobulk 
    type of general cargo such as cars, timber, steel, etc.. 
  • Nested 
    Articles packed so that one rests partially or entirely within another, thereby reducing the cubic–foot displacement. 
  • NESTING 
    Implies that cargo is presented stacked in the contour of similarly shaped cargo, it may be likened to a stack of plates 
  • Netback 
    Calculating the FOB value or price of a hydrocarbon from prices or values at delivery points. The derivation involves subtracting various costs such as freight, handling, interest, duties, transit losses, and commissions from reports or estimates of outle
  • Neutral Body 
    An organization established by the members of an ocean conference acts as a self–policing force with broad authority to investigate tariff violations, including authority to scrutinize all documents kept by the carriers and their personnel. Violations are
  • Neutral Oil 
    When a crude oil has been neutralised with an alkali, the residual material, i.e. crude oil less FFA, phosphatides, moisture and impurities, is then neutral oil. 
  • Neutralization  
    The reduction of free fatty acids in a crude oil by the action of an alkali solution is ordinarily termed ""neutralisation"". 
  • New Worldscale 
    The Worldscale tanker rate schedule based on revised assumptions which take effect on January 1, 1989. 
  • Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (NK) 
    A Japanese classification society which certifies seagoing vessels for compliance to standardized rules regarding construction and maintenance. 
  • NK 
    Nippon Kaiji Kyokai 
  • NK or NKK 
    Nippon Kaiji Kyokai 
  • NKORL 
    No known or reported loss 
  • NNGWB 
    Not north of George Washington Bridge (i.e. New York) 
  • No Great Shakes 
    When casks became empty they were "shaken" (taken apart) so the pieces, called shakes, could be stored in a small space. Shakes had very little value. 
  • No oil 
    ASTM's grade of oil for commercial applications which benefit from heavy fuel but lack heated storage tanks. Refiners sell heavy distillate or a blend of distillate and residue as No. 4 oil. Medium-speed diesels can burn a version of this product designat
  • No–show 
    Cargo which has been booked but does not arrive in time to be loaded before the vessel sails. See also “Windy Booking.” 
  • NOKUS - company 
    Norwegian controlled foreign company in lowtax country 
  • Nomenclature of the Customs Cooperation Council 
    The Customs tariff used by most countries worldwide. It was formerly known as the Brussels Tariff Nomenclature and is the basis of the commodity coding system known as the Harmonized System. 
  • NPK 
    Nitro Phosphatic Kompound 
  • NRAD 
    No risk after discharge 
  • Nuclear Fuel Carrier 
    A cargo vessel arranged to carry nuclear fuel in flasks 
  • NY or NYK 
    New York 
  • NYPE 
    New York Produce Exhange (charter party) 
  • NYSA 
    The New York Shipping Association 
  • O/D 
    On Deck or Over Deck 
  • O/S 
    On Sale or Out of Stock or Out Standing 
  • OBO 
    Ore Bulk Oil Carrier-ship for transporting bulk cargo such as coal and grain, and high-density cargoes such as iron ore, as well as crude petroleum products 
  • OBO 
    Oil-Bulk-Ore carriers. These versatile ships can transport cargoes as various as crude oil, grain, coal, and metal ore. They feature simply-shaped holds without exposed hull framework to permit easy cleaning between cargoes of different kinds. Certain OBO
  • Occupational exposure 
    The occupational exposure is a standard term that concerns adult workers in good health, with a possible exposure of 8 hours per day, 5 days a week, 11 months per year. See exposure. 
  • Octane 
    For a gasoline engine to work efficiently, gasoline must burn smoothly without premature detonation, or knocking. Severe knocking can dissipate power output and even cause damage to the engine. When gasoline engines became more powerful in the 1920s, it w
  • Octane 
    A measure of a motor gasoline's or blendstock's resistance to preignition (knocking). The industry commonly uses two different indexes of this quality RON (research octane number), and MON (motor octane number). The USA employs an average of the two: (R+M
  • Off-hire 
    A chartering term indicating the time a chartered vessel is no longer attracting a daily fixture rate. It arises i.e. upon break down of machinery, equipment or when owing to poor performance such as slower speed than prescribed in the voyage charter, the
  • Offshore Tug/Supply Ship 
    A vessel for the transportation of stores and goods to offshore platforms on an open stern deck and equipped with a towing facility 
  • OHBC 
    Open hatch bulk carrier 
  • Oil Tanker, Inland Waterways 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of refined petroleum products, either clean or dirty, which is not suitable for trading in open waters 
  • Oilseed Meals 
    The product obtained by grinding the cake, chips or flakes which remain after removal of most of the oil from oilseeds. Oilseed meals are mainly a feedstuff for livestock and poultry. Some meals are also used as a raw material for producing edible vegetab
  • Olefin 
    A straight or branched-chain hydrocarbon with at least one unsaturated carbon-carbon bond. The petrochemical industry's highest volume product, ethylene, belongs to this family of molecules. Cracking processes produce such molecules in considerable quanti
  • Olefins 
    Olefins are petrochemical derivatives produced by cracking feedstocks from raw materials such as natural gas and crude oil. Lower olefins have short chains with only two, three or four carbon atoms, and the simplest one is ethylene. The higher olefins hav
  • Olive Oil 
    Olive oil is obtained from the flesh of the fruit of the olive tree (""Olea Europaea Sativa""). The cultivation of olives in the countries of the Mediterranean basin goes back several thousand years and it remains today a highly prized edible oil used in
  • On Deck 
    A notation on a bill of lading that the cargo has been stowed on the open deck of the ship. 
  • OPEC 
    Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Includes Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Venezuela. 
  • Open Bulk Cargo Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled open barge for the carriage of bulk cargoes 
  • Open Hatch Cargo Ship 
    A large single deck cargo vessel with full width hatches and boxed holds for the carriage of unitised dry cargo such as forest products and containers. Many are fitted with a gantry crane 
  • Open Sea 
    The water area of the open coast seaward of the ordinary low-water mark, or seaward of inland wa- ters. 
  • Operational tolerance 
    Flexibility in the quantity of a stem, usually expressed as a small percentage of the stern's nominal size. This provision makes it easier to find suitable ships to lift crude and products. 
  • OR 
    Owner's risk 
  • ORB 
    Owner's risk of breakage 
  • ORC 
    Owner's risk of chafing 
  • ORD 
    Owner's risk of damage 
  • ORDET 
    Owner's risk of detoriation 
  • Ore Carrier 
    A single deck cargo ship fitted with two longitudinal bulkheads. Ore is carried in the centreline holds only 
  • Ore/Bulk/Products Carrier 
    A bulk carrier arranged for the alternative (but not simultaneous) carriage of oil products 
  • ORF 
    Owner's risk of fire/freezing 
  • Organic chemicals 
    Organic chemicals are based on carbon compounds and form the backbone of the petrochemicals industry, while inorganic chemicals are non-carbon chemicals, such as chlorine, alkalis or hydrogen peroxide. Every chemical is either organic or inorganic. 
  • Original Bill of Lading (OBL) 
    A document which requires proper signatures for consummating carriage of contract. Must be marked as “original” by the issuing carrier. 
  • ORL 
    Owner's risk of leakage 
  • ORS 
    Owner's risk of shifting 
  • ORW 
    Owner's risk of becoming wet 
  • OSC 
    Olefin Steering Committee (a sub-group of LOSG). LOSG is a sector group of the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • OSD 
    Open shelterdecker 
  • OSD/CSD 
    Open shelter deck or closed shelter deck (vessel) 
  • OSH 
    Open Shelter Deck 
  • OSPA 
    Oxygenated Solvent Producers Association, a sector group of the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • OT 
    Overtime or On truck or railway or Open top (container) 
  • Outturn 
    As measured at vessel discharge. The industry uses this term as a description of the oil unloaded at a buyer's terminal. It indicates that measurements taken at the delivery of a parcel will determine the quality or quantity, or both, of a parcel changing
  • Over the Barrel 
    The most common method of punishment aboard ship was flogging. The unfortunate sailor was tied to a grating, a mast or over the barrel of a deck cannon. 
  • Overland Common Point (OCP) 
    A term stated on the bills of lading offering lower shipping rates to importers east of the Rockies, provided merchandise from the Far East comes in through the West Coast ports. OCP rates were es- tablished by U.S. West Coast steamship companies in conju
  • Overreach 
    If a ship holds a tack course too long, it has overreached its turning point and the distance it must travel to reach it's next tack point is increased. 
  • Oxidized Oil 
    Deteriorated oil due to attack by atmospheric oxygen which has occurred either during processing or during subsequent storage and transport. The chemical change is gradual and progressive but the effect on quality can be very great. Commonly assayed by pe
  • Packing List 
    Itemized list of commodities with marks/numbers but no cost values indicated. 
  • PADAG 
    Please Authorize Delivery Against Guarantee: A request from the consignee to the shipper to allow the carrier or agent to release cargo against a guarantee, either bank or personal. Made when the consignee is unable to produce original bills of lading. 
  • PAH 
    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon. PAH's occur mainly, and to high levels, in coconut oil because of the practice of smoke drying the copra. However, PAH's have also been detected in other oils, although at a much lower level. Removal of PAH's is by proper
  • Pallet 
    A platform with or without sides, on which a number of packages or pieces may be loaded to facilitate handling by a lift truck. 
  • Palletised Cargo Ship 
    A single or multi deck cargo ship loaded and unloaded by way of pallets lift(s). There are no weather deck hatches 
  • Palm Acid Oil 
    It is a by-product obtained from the alkali refining of palm oil resulting from the acidulation of soapstock. It is normally used for making laundry soaps. 
  • Palm Kernel Cake 
    The residue after pressing and/or solvent extraction of palm kernels to obtain the oil. Used as a component of animal feed. 
  • Palm Olein 
    Palm oil is separated into palm stearin (30-35% of the original oil ) and palm olein (65-70%). The latter finds a ready market as a high-quality, highly stable frying oil. With improved filtration procedures the yield of olein has been raised to 71-78%. 
  • Palm Stearin 
    As mentioned above, palm oil is separated into palm stearin and palm olein. The olein is the more valuable product, but the stearin can be used as a hard fat in margarine stock or as an alternative to tallow in the oleochemical industry where it serves as
  • Paml Kernel Oil 
    The oil obtained from the kernel of the oil palm fruit. Its chemical composition is quite different from that of the palm oil obtained from the flesh. Palm kernel oil is a lauric type oil similar to coconut oil. 
  • Panamax 
    Medium Range Tanker, maximum size possible to pass through the locks of the Panama Canal- designed for carrying bulk crude oil in tanks. (60,000 dwt - 80,000 dwt approx with 32.2m beam limitation) 
  • Panamax Tanker 
    A liquid cargo vessel of 50,000 to 70,000dwt. 
  • Panamax tankers 
    Oil carriers which meet the 32.2 meter beam and 259 meter LOA limitations of the Panama Canal. Modern ship design translates those dimensions into a vessel with a maximum deadweight tonnage around 70,000. 
  • Panamax Vessel 
    Ships built to maximize capacity within the Panama Canal lock size limits of 950 feet long, 106 feet wide. Design draft is usually no greater than 40 feet and sails no greater than the 39.5 feet canal limit, with deadweights up to 80,000 tons. 
  • Paper barrels 
    Also known as dry barrels or electric barrels, these units trade in the futures or other non-physical markets. These terms designate the opposite of the wet barrels traded in physical deals. Since short sales in the wet market involve product the seller d
  • Paraxylene 
    One of the forms of xylene, paraxylene is used to make polyesters, which have applications in clothing, packaging and plastic bottles. The most widely-used polyester is polyethylene terephthalate (PET), used in lightweight, recyclable soft drinks bottles,
  • Parcel Receipt 
    An arrangement whereby a steamship company, under rules and regulations established in the freight tariff of a given trade, accepts small packages at rates below the minimum bill of lading, and issues a parcel receipt instead of a bill of lading. 
  • Parcel tanker 
    A ship fitted to segregate a large number of products. Some of these vessels, called chemical carriers, can handle more than a dozen materials simultaneously. Most of these ships have tanks made of stainless steel or lined with inert, easily cleaned coati
  • Parcels Tanker 
    A chemical tanker with many segregated cargo tanks to carry multiple grades of chemicals as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code. Typically these can have between 10 and 60 different tanks 
  • Parraffinic naphtha 
    A naphtha composed primarily of paraffinic molecules. In general, the feedstock trade considers 65 percent paraffins content the minimum for a paraffinic naphtha. Paraffins have a low octane rating. They crack readily, however. This combination of propert
  • Passenger Ship, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel used for carriage of passengers with purpose of a to b transport on rivers/lakes/canals, not suitable for open sea voyages. 
  • Passivation 
    A nitric acid wash of high chromium stainless steel ship's tanks to form a very thin oxide film on the metal surface which serves as a protective barrier. 
  • Passivation potential 
    Corrosion potential, at which the corrosion current has a peak value, and above which there is a range of potentials, where the metal is in a passive state 
  • Payee 
    A party named in an instrument as the beneficiary of the funds. Under letters of credit, the payee is either the drawer of the draft or a bank. 
  • Payer 
    A party responsible for the payment as evidenced by the given instrument. Under letters of credit, the payer is the party on whom the draft is drawn, usually the drawee bank. 
  • PB 
    Permanent Bunkers or Poop and Bridge 
  • PCTC 
    Pure Car and Truck Carrier 
  • PD 
    Production deck (OCIMF acronym) 
  • PEL 
    Permussible Exposure Limit. This is one of the most important OSHA limits used. It is defined as the allowable limit for air containment in which works may be exposed day after day without adverse health effects.  
  • Per Working Hatch Per Day or Per Workable Hatch Per Day 
    PER HATCH PER DAY shall mean that the Laytime is to be calculated by dividing the quantity of cargo by the result of multiplying the agreed daily rate per hatch by the number of the Vessel’s hatches. Thus: Laytime = Quantity of cargo / (Daily rate x Numbe
  • Percutaneous toxicity 
    Systemic toxic effects produced as a result of a substance being absorbed across the skin. 
  • Perils of the Sea 
    Those causes of loss for which the carrier is not legally liable. The elemental risks of ocean trans- port. 
  • PET 
    Polyethylene terephthalate. PET is derived from xylene and is one of the most widely used industrial polyesters. It is used in lightweight, recyclable soft drink bottles, as fibers in clothing, as a filling for anoraks and duvets, in car tyre cords and co
  • pH 
    A measure of acidity or alkalinity on a scale of 1 to 14. 1 is strongly acidic, 7 is neutral and 14 is strongly alkaline 
  • Phenanthrene 
    Phenanthrene is a crystalline polycyclic hydrocarbon isomeric to Anthracene. It is distilled from coal tar and is found in some coal tar oils which are used for example as wood preservatives and as carbon black feedstocks.  
  • Phenol 
    Phenol is an aromatic alcohol mainly used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. It essentially serves as a raw material for the production of bisphenol A, phenolic resins, alkylphenols and caprolactam. 
  • Phenolic resin 
    Phenolic resins are manufactured from phenol. They are used in wood products and molding powders applications, and also have a wide range of applications on the electrical, mechanical and decorative markets, in the automotive industry, in building and con
  • Photosensitizer 
    A substance which is converted in the skin circulation by light into a derivative capable of causing skin sensitization 
  • Phototoxic 
    A substance which is converted in the skin circulation by light into a derivative capable of causing local irritation 
  • Physical Hazard 
    A physical hazard is one in which harm could be caused to humans or wildlife as a consequence of the physical properties of chemical, e.g., stickiness or viscosity 
  • Pickling 
    A chemical or electrochemical method of removing mill scale, rust and similar coating from steel 
  • Pickling bath 
    Solution used for pickling. The pickling bath is normally composed of acids, but can in electrolytic pickling consistent of a salt solution 
  • Pickup 
    The act of calling for freight by truck at the consignor’s shipping platform. 
  • Pigging 
    At any bulking installation loading, unloading and other pumping lines are used interchangeably for different types of oils or different products of the same oil. The oil left behind in any pipeline after the pumping operation could be as much as 5-10 ton
  • Piggy Packer 
    A mobile container–handling crane used to load/unload containers to/from railcars. 
  • Piggyback 
    A transportation arrangement in which truck trailers with their loads are moved by train to a destination. Also known as Rail Pigs. 
  • Pile Dike 
    A dike constructed of a group of piles braced and lashed together along a riverbank 
  • Pipe Carrier 
    A platform supply ship equipped with increased scantlings & longer deck space for the transportation of pipes 
  • Pipe Down 
    Means stop talking and be quiet. The Pipe Down was the last signal from the Bosun's pipe each day which meant "lights out" and "silence". 
  • Pipe Layer Crane Vessel 
    A pipe layer also equipped with a large crane or derrick 
  • Pipe layer Platform, jack up 
    A jack up offshore pipe layer platform 
  • Pipeline 
    Line of pipe equipped with pumps and valves and other control devices for moving liquids and gases. It is one of the main modes of transport for many chemicals, including olefins, the main building blocks of the petrochemical industry. 
  • PKD 
    Partially knocked down 
  • PKGE 
    Package 
  • Plasticizer 
    A plasticizer is a substance which when added to a material, usually a plastic, makes it flexible, resilient and easier to handle. Modern plasticizers are manmade organic chemicals; the majority of which are esters, such as adipates and phthalates. They a
  • Platform Supply Ship 
    A vessel for the transportation of stores and goods to offshore platforms on an open deck, typically at the stern. May also be fitted with specialist under deck tanks for water, cement and/or drilling mud 
  • Plimsoll 
    A Plimsoll line or mark shows the safe 'freeboard' (distance from water to weather deck). There are 6 load lines as follows:Tropical Fresh, Fresh, Tropical, Summer, Winter, Winter North Atlantic. 
  • Plimsoll Mark 
    A series of horizontal lines, corresponding to the seasons of the year and fresh or saltwater, painted on the outside of a ship marking the level which must remain above the surface of the water for the vessel’s stability. 
  • PMRC 
    APPE Petrochemicals Market Research Committee. APPE is a major group within the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • Polycarbonates 
    Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastics.They are easily worked, molded, and thermoformed; as such, these plastics are very widely used in modern manufacturing. Polycarbonate is becoming more common in housewares as well as laboratories and
  • Polyester 
    Any of a group of polymers that consist basically of repeated units of an ester and are used especially in making fibers or plastics. Polyesters can be made into woven and knitted fabrics, either alone or blended with other fibers; they also have industri
  • Polyethylene 
    A polymer of ethylene, especially any of various lightweight thermoplastics that are resistant to chemicals and moisture, have good insulating properties, and are used especially in packaging and insulation. 
  • Polymer 
    Polymer is derived from the Greek word poly meaning many while the term monomer is derived from mono meaning one. When identical simple molecules (monomers) come together and link up in a chain-like fashion they form a polymer. Polymers can be short chain
  • Polymer 
    A strand of monomers. By [Definition], it takes five or more of these combining units to make a polymer. Shorter chains have individual names (dimer, trimer, and tetramer). Most familiar synthetic polymers, plastics like polystyrene, polypropylene, and po
  • Polymerisation 
    Tank cleaning: The initial wash of products that tend to polymerise should be carried out with cold (ambient) water. Washing with hot water may result in polimeric residues being left in tanks and lines, which are very difficult to remove. 
  • Polyurethane 
    A synthetic compound derived from toluene, belonging to the family of organic polymers. Polyurethanes are used to make the foam in furniture, mattresses, car seats, building insulation, coatings for floors and furniture and refrigerators. They are also us
  • Pomerene Act 
    U.S. federal law enacting conditions by which a B/L may be issued. Penalties for issuing B/L’s containing false data include monetary fines and/or imprisonment. Also known as (U.S.) Federal Bill of Lading Act of 1916. 
  • PONA 
    A breakdown of the kind of molecules which compose a hydrocarbon mixture. The trade uses PONA most frequently to describe naphthas. See paraffins, olefins, naphthenes, and aromatics. All hydrocarbons fall into one of these four categories. The feedstock t
  • Pontoon (Function Unknown) 
    A non propelled pontoon whose function is unknown 
  • Port 
    Left side of a ship as perceived when facing toward the front (bow). Also refers to a shore facility where ships dock to be loaded and unloaded. 
  • Port Facility Security Plan 
    Is a plan developed to ensure the application of measures designed to protect persons on board, cargo, cargo transport units and ship’s stores within the port facility from the risks of a security incident. 
  • Port Security Grant Program (PSGP) 
    As a result of the Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2005, fiscal year grant funding is provided annually to the Nation’s most at–risk seaports for physical security enhancements to be used in the protection of critical port infrastruc
  • Post Curing 
    The input of heat to a coating after the initial cure has taken place to enhance the chemical resistance 
  • Post-Fixture Operations 
    Voyage planning operations that take place after a voyage has been contracted, or "fixed". 
  • Pour point 
    The temperature where a hydrocarbon mixture becomes too thick to flow. The industry uses this property to assure that gasoil will fuel furnaces and diesel engines properly during cold weather. In particularly harsh climates, pour point indicates how warm
  • Powder Carrier 
    A single deck cargo vessel for the carriage of fine powders such as fly ash. There are no weather deck hatches 
  • PP 
    Per Procurationem (on behalf of) or Picked Ports 
  • PPB 
    Parts per billion. A thousand times less than a ppm. An expression for tiny concentrations of one ingredient (usually a contaminent) in a mixture. One milligram per kilogram equals one weight ppm. 
  • PPM 
    Parts per million. A convenient expression for very small concentrations of one ingredient (usually a contaminent) in a mixture. One milligram per kilogram equals one weight ppm. So does 1 gram in a metric ton. The industry does not regularly use volume p
  • PPUK 
    Picked ports of U.K 
  • PR 
    Polski Rajestr Statkow (polish register) 
  • Pre–cooling 
    A process employed in the shipment of citrus fruits and other perishable commodities. The fruit is packed and placed in a cold room from which the heat is gradually extracted. The boxes of fruit are packed in containers that have been thoroughly cooled an
  • Press into Service 
    The British navy filled their ships' crew quotas by kidnapping men off the streets and forcing them into service. This was called Impressment and was done by Press Gangs. 
  • Pro Forma 
    A Latin term meaning “For the sake of form.” 
  • Pro Forma Invoice 
    An invoice provided by a supplier prior to the shipment of merchandise, informing the buyer of the kinds and quantities of goods to be sent, their value, and specifications (weight, size, etc.). 
  • PROBO 
    Product-Bulk-Oil carriers. See OBO. 
  • PROBO 
    Product/Bulk/Ore Carrier 
  • Product 
    Refined petroleum product such as gasoline, kerosene or fuel oil. 
  • Product Tanker 
    A tanker built to comply with Annex 1 of Marpol 73/78 for the carriage of oil and engaged in the trade of carrying oil other than crude oil. This includes both clean and black products. 
  • Production Platform, jack up 
    A jack up offshore production platform 
  • Products Tank Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled tank barge for the carriage of oil products 
  • Products Tanker  
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of refined petroleum products, either clean or dirty 
  • Products Tanker Barge, propelled 
    A self propelled tanker barge for the bulk carriage of refined petroleum products, either clean or dirty 
  • Products with a high melting Point 
    Tank cleaning: These products should be washed at a temperature of 15-20 C above the melting point. During washing there should be no ballast water or cold cargoes adjacent to the tank to be cleaned. During cleaning special attention must be given to liqu
  • Products with a high viscosity 
    Tank cleaning: These products should be washed at higher temperatures. In general the viscosity is closely related to the temperature and will decrease at higher temperatures. During washing there should be no ballast water or cold cargoes adjacent to the
  • Propylene 
    Three-carbon olefin produced in refineries by catalytic crackers and in petrochemical plants by steam crackers. Refiners process part of their supply into motor gasoline blendstock, particularly alkylate. Some refinery material and that from steam cracker
  • Propylene glycol ethers 
    Propylene glycol ethers are formed from the base catalyzed reaction of propylene oxide with alcohols like methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol or phenol. For further information please see http://www.ethers-de-glycol.org 
  • Protected Waters 
    an area of sheltered waters presenting no special hazards such as most rivers, harbours and lakes, designated by the Administration for the operation of small vessels and where not so designated means an area not more than 3 miles from a safe haven. 
  • PSI 
    Pounds per square inch (lbsin2). A common unit of pressure particularly vapor pressure. Some folks express pressure specifications in kPa or bars. 1.0 lbin2 = 0.068947 bar = 6.8947 kPa 
  • PSPC 
    Polystyrene Packaging Council (USA) 
  • PT 
    Port or Private Terms or Product Tanker 
  • pt B 
    Port bunkers 
  • Purplefinder 
    Tracks, monitors and reports on remote assets. PurpleFinder® uses satellite GPS in conjunction with satellite or land-based communication services to provide global, two-way, real-time, web-access to standard and exception-based asset position reporting, 
  • Pusher Tug 
    A vessel equipped to push cargo carrying barges and pontoons. May be articulated to work with specifically designed barge(s) 
  • PVC 
    Polyvinyl Chloride. A polymer of vinyl chloride used to make a diverse range of cost-effective products with various levels of technical performance suited to a wide range of applications. Many of these PVC products are used everyday and include everythin
  • PW 
    Packed weight or Piece weight 
  • PWH 
    Per Workable Hatch 
  • PWHD 
    Per Workable Hatch Day 
  • PWWD 
    Per Weather Working day 
  • Pyrolisis gasoline 
    Pyrolysis Gasoline, or Pygas, is a naphtha-range product with a high aromatic content, used either for gasoline blending or as a feedstock for a BTX extraction unit. Pygas is produced in an ethylene plant that processes butane, naphtha or gasoil. 
  • Pyrolysis 
    Application of heat to change molecular structure. The oil industry ordinarily reserves this term for processes which break hydrocarbons without the assistance of a catalyst, such as steam cracking and cooking. 
  • Pyrolysis gasoil 
    The distillate fuel oil produced by a heavy liquids steam cracker. This material usually finds use as a distillate blendstock. 
  • Pyrolysis gasoline 
    The aromatics-rich naphtha-range stream produced in sizeable quantities by an ethylene plant when it cracks butane, naphtha, or gasoil. Pygas resembles reformate. It can serve as a high-octane blendstock for motor gasoline or as a feedstock for an aromati
  • QTE 
    Quote. The act of a charterer to make known that a ship is sought for a particular cargo or, as a shipowner, to advertise the availability of his ship for charter. Most often this activity is carried out using the services of shipbrokers. 
  • Quay 
    A structure attached to land to which a vessel is moored.See also Pier and Dock. 
  • R&L 
    Rail and lake 
  • R+M/2 
    A misleading, but popular, expression of (R+M)2. See antiknock index. 
  • Rack blending 
    The practice of adding one or more components to a gasoline blend at an inland distribution terminal. Frequently, due to logistics, this type of blending occurs at the end of the distribution line. For instance, a supplier will add ethanol to finished gas
  • Rack price 
    The truckload price charged by a supplier to customers which buy motor gasoline on an FOB terminal basis. 
  • Raffinate 
    What remains of a reformate or pyrolysis gasoline stream after aromatics extraction. These paraffinic, naphtha-range mixtures usually have too low an octane rating for use in motor gasoline, but good properties for steam cracking. Butylene streams produce
  • Rail Vehicles Carrier 
    A single or multi deck cargo ship with rails for the carriage of rail vehicles which are loaded via ramps 
  • Ramp 
    Railroad terminal where containers are received or delivered and trains loaded or discharged. Original- ly, trailers moved onto the rearmost flatcar via a ramp and driven into position in a technique known as “circus loading.” Most modern rail facilities
  • Ramsbottom carbon 
    A measurement of hydrocarbon mixtures' tendency to leave carbon deposits (coke) when burned as fuel or subjected to intense heat in a processing unit such as a catalytic cracker. See CONRADSON CARBON. 
  • Rate Basis 
    A formula of the specific factors or elements that control the making of a rate. A rate can be based on any number of factors (i.e., weight, measure, equipment type, package, box, etc.). 
  • Rateably 
    On a rateable basis. The industry uses this expression for paced delivery of product. Crude, for instance, can move from buyer to seller at some speed like a thousand barrels per day. The idea applies most naturally to pipeline-carried commodities. 
  • Raw Materials 
    The primary raw materials of the oleochemicals industry are tall oil, tallow, coconut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil and canola oil. 
  • RC&L 
    Rail, canal and lake 
  • RCC&S 
    Riots, civil commotion and strikes 
  • Reachable on arrival 
    REACHABLE ON ARRIVAL shall mean that the charterer undertakes that an available loading or discharging Berth be provided to the Vessel on arrival at the Port which the Vessel can reach safely without delay. 
  • Reaction with Oxygen 
    Tank Cleaning: Drying and semi-drying vegetable and animal oils react with oxygen to form a varnish-like polymeric film. This is very difficult to remove from the bulkheads etc. Since heat increases the reaction speed the initial washing of these products
  • Reaction with water 
    Tank Cleaning: Isocyanates must never come into contact with water, not even the residues, because the reaction product and insoluble urethane (plus CO2) are very difficult to remove. Such products must be washed with a suitable solvent, that does not con
  • Reaction with water hardness compounds  
    Tank Cleaning: Water hardness is formed by the calcium and magnesium content of the water. Sea water has a very high water hardness. Some products like fatty acids and vegetable oils with a high free fatty acid content will form white sticky residues, if
  • Realization 
    Evaluation based on theoretical (often negotiated) estimates of how much money a refiner or petrochemicals producer can make by processing a feedstock. Many netback deals price oil according to a formula which considers the quantity and spot value of prod
  • Recovery Package 
    Advanced equipment package for secure recovery of refrigerants. Satisfies all relevant marine regulations 
  • Redwood viscosity 
    A method of measuring and reporting viscosity which lost popularity in recent years. Tables available from various sources convert Redwood figures to the more widely used Kinematic and Saybolt scales. 
  • Refined Sugar Carrier 
    A single deck cargo vessel for the carriage of refined sugar. Sugar is loaded in bulk and bagged in transit (BIBO - Bulk In - Bag Out) 
  • Reformate 
    The product of a catalytic reformer. An aromatics-rich high-octane motor or aviation gasoline blendstock. Many refineries route a part of the reformate they produce through aromatics extraction units to recover the benzene, toluene, and xylenes it contain
  • Reformer 
    A catalytic processing unit which produces a highly aromatic stream (reformate) used primarily as high-octane blendstock. 
  • Reforming 
    The thermal or catalytic conversion of petroleum naphtha into more volatile products of higher octane number. It represents the total effect of numerous simultaneous reactions such as cracking, polymerization, dehydrogenation, and isomerisation. 
  • Refrigerated Cargo Ship  
    A multi deck cargo ship for the carriage of refrigerated cargo at various temperatures 
  • Reg (EC) 2037/2000 
    EU regulation covering ozone-depleting substances which seeks to protect the ozone layer 
  • Regasification 
    Process that occurs after LNG has been shipped and transferred to a storage tank. It is then warmed to convert it back into natural gas for distribution via pressurized pipeline to residential, commercial and industrial users. 
  • Regional Bulk Sizes 
    Kamsarmax, with a maximum length of 229 meters, the maximum length that can load in the port of Kamsar in the Republic of Guinea. Other terms such as Seawaymax, Setouchmax, Dunkirkmax, and Newcastlemax also appear in regional trade. 
  • Relay 
    To transfer containers from one ship to another when both vessels are controlled by the same network (carrier) manager. 
  • Relet 
    A ship offered for hire by its time-charterer. Large international oil companies, because they take far more tankers on a period basis than anyone else, engage in reletting most frequently. 
  • Repair Vessel, Naval Auxiliary 
    A naval auxiliary vessel for general work and repair operations 
  • Replenishment Tanker 
    A naval auxiliary vessel. Designed for fuel, lubricants & general stores for transfer to warships at sea. 
  • Residue 
    The bottoms taken from distillation units. Both atmospheric and vacuum stills yield a residue. The industry sometimes uses "bottoms" to designate this unboiled material. Atmospheric residue can undergo further distillation in a vacuum unit. Heavy fuel oil
  • RightShip 
    RightShip is a boutique ship vetting specialist, promoting safety and efficiency in the global maritime industry, including drybulk.  
  • Risk 
    Risk should be clearly distinguished from hazard. Risk is the chance that a given hazardous effect will occur. The use of fire by humans is an example of optimizing the balance between hazard and risk, as fire, being extremely hazardous, must be used unde
  • Risk Assessment 
    Substances on European priority lists must undergo an in-depth risk assessment covering the risks posed by the priority chemical to man (covering workers, consumers and man exposed via the environment) and the environment (covering the terrestrial, aquati
  • Ro-Ro Cargo Ship 
    A single or multi deck cargo ship for the carriage of laden vehicles which are loaded via ramps 
  • ROB 
    Remaining on board. The volume of cargo, usually expressed in barrels or cubic meters, left on board a tankship at a particular point of a voyage. Final ROB volumes after the completion of discharge, if too high (& deemed pumpable IAW C/P terms), can resu
  • Rocket Launch Support Ship 
    A vessel equipped to transport rocket sections to isolated launch sites 
  • ROCKPHOS 
    Phosphate Rock 
  • Roll 
    To re–book cargo to a later vessel. 
  • Roll-on/Roll-off vessels 
    Ships specially designed to carry wheeled containers or trailers using interior ramps. Includes all forms of car and truck carriers. 
  • Rolling 
    Ship Stability: is when the vessel rotates about the longitudinal (front/back) axis 
  • RON (Research Octane Number) 
    A rating of the anti-knock properties of a finished motor gasoline or blendstock. The test to determine RON stimulates mild engine operating conditions such as motoring at moderate speeds. The RON method yields higher numbers than the MON (motor octane nu
  • RoRo Barge 
    The Roll On/Roll Off, or RO/RO barge is a deck barge with multiple decks that can accommodate enormous numbers of containers, trailers, or rail cars, allowing them to be wheeled directly onto or off the barge. 
  • ROT 
    Residual Oil Tank 
  • RS&CC 
    Riots, strikes and civil commotions 
  • RVP 
    Reid vapor pressure. A measure of the volatility of hydrocarbons. The Reid test can measure volatility at any practical temperature. A testing temperature must accompany any RVP report to make it most informative. Ordinarily, the feedstock and petroleum p
  • S d/k 
    Shelter deck 
  • Safety Case 
    Some countries such as Canada, Australia, Norway and the UK require a Safety Case to be developed before permission is given to develop and operate an oil field. Various safety studies are conducted and reviewed. If approved, the oil company is allowed to
  • SATV 
    Safe Access to Vessels Working Group 
  • SBR 
    Styrene-Butadiene Rubber. SBR is a rubber manufactured from styrene. Because of its excellent abrasion resistance, it is widely used in automobile and truck tires, as well as for carpet backing and paper coating. Other applications are in belting, floorin
  • SBT 
    Segregated Ballast Tanks: These are tanks that are completely segregated from the cargo oil and fuel oil systems and which are permanently allocated to the carriage of ballast. Requirements for meeting the SBT criteria are detailed in MARPOL 13. 
  • SBT/PL 
    Segregated Ballast Tanks Protectively Located  
  • SCBRA 
    Speed Reduction and Bunker Consumption Algorithm 
  • SCOS 
    Submerged Crude Oil Storage - This Teekay-designed system stores crude oil underwater in an inflatable balloon-type structure made of a flexible polyester fabric, with a coating impervious to seawater and oil. 
  • SCP 
    Sub-area Contingency Plan (10 regional plans that supplement the AK Unified Plan) 
  • screen 
    Oil trading jargon for the electronic network quotes of futures market prices. Other nicknames include "the TV" and "the print." The industry discusses physical market activity and does business at levels which sound like "screen plus 25" and "85 points u
  • Scuttlebutt 
    A butt was a barrel. Scuttle meant to chop a hole in something. The scuttlebutt was a water barrel with a hole cut into it so that sailors could reach in and dip out drinking water. The scuttlebutt was the place where the ship's gossip was exchanged. 
  • SD 
    Self-Discharging or Single Deck or Sight Draft or Short Delivery 
  • SD or SID 
    Single decker 
  • SDBC 
    Single Decker bulk carrier 
  • SDSTBC 
    Single Decker Self-trimming bulk carrier 
  • SKIDS 
    Are bearers (timber or steel) positioned under cargo to enable fork lift handling at port, and for ease of rigging and lashing on board ship 
  • SKO 
    Superior kerosene oil 
  • SKOR 
    South Korea 
  • Skyscraper 
    A small triangular sail set above the skysail in order to maximize effect in a light wind. 
  • Slip Point 
    Fats consist of a complex mixture of glycerides and therefore do not have sharp melting points, unlike pure chemical substances. The slip point of a fat is the temperature at which a column of fat in an open capillary tube moves up the tube when it is sub
  • Slop Tank Charging Operations 
    Whereby a dedicated slop handling vessel supplies a quantity of oil to a vessel for tank washing and/or line flushing purposes. 
  • Slop tanks 
    A tank utilized to store the COW medium and receipt of tank washings. 
  • SLPTA 
    Slop Tanks 
  • SLT 
    Sludge Tank 
  • Sludge 
    That element of the material in a ship's cargo tank which is essentially not free flowing. It consists or hydrocarbon waxes and may contain water/oil emulsions and sediments. 
  • Slush Fund 
    A slushy slurry of fat was obtained by boiling or scraping the empty salted meat storage barrels. This stuff called "slush" was often sold ashore by the ship's cook for the benefit of himself or the crew. The money so derived became known as a slush fund.
  • Small 
    Tankers often used in coastal waters -Size: 10,001 dwt - 19,000 dwt 
  • Smell  
    Tank Cleaning: Minor residues of a smell-producing cargo left in lines, valves and pumps (including pump cofferdams) can contaminate a sensitive cargo. To neutralise the smell of some chemicals (e.g. Acrylate, Nitrobenzene or Pygas) the use of a smell kil
  • Smoke Point 
    The temperature at which smoke is visibly evolved from an oil as it is being heated. The smoke point is highly dependent on the content of free fatty acids in the oil. A high smoke point is desirable, particularly when using an oil for frying. 
  • smoke point 
    An indication of how cleanly kerosene burns. The test reports how high a flame can extend above a wick-fed lamp without making soot. 
  • Soap 
    Soap is commonly used to describe the chemical compound formed by the reaction of an alkali or a metal with fat or fatty acids. Sodium soaps are the most usual products used for toilet and laundry washing. Calcium, potassium and ammonium salts have some s
  • Soap Stock 
    The aqueous by-product from the chemical refining operation that is comprised of soap, hydrated gums, water, oil and other impurities. 
  • Soapstock 
    In the chemical refining of crude oils, free fatty acids are removed by neutralisation with alkali and settle to the bottom as alkali soaps, known as soapstock. 
  • SOF or S/F 
    Statement of facts. At the end of the stay of the ship in the port the agent will make up the history with all data which are important for the Ship Owner and for the Charterer and that are related to the loading and the discharging of the ship. This hist
  • Solid Fat Content 
    Fats such as butter, margarine, bakery shortening, beef tallow and cocoa butter appear to be solid but are, in fact, a mixture of solid and liquid components. The proportion of solid present at various temperatures of use is often of interest in relation
  • Solvent 
    A solvent is a liquid that has the ability to dissolve, suspend or extract other materials, without chemical change to the material or solvent. Solvents make it possible to process, apply, clean or separate materials. Water is an inorganic solvent. Organi
  • Solvent Extraction 
    A process which usually uses hexane as a solvent to extract oil from oil-bearing materials. The residual oil left in extracted soyabean flakes or meal can be reduced to one percent or less. In the United States, nearly all soyabeans are processed by solve
  • SOUS PALAN 
    Under hook 
  • SOUSPALAN 
    Under hook discharge 
  • SPASS 
    Skaw - Passero range 
  • spike 
    Injection of one stream into another for later recovery. Transportation of some condensates, for instance, takes place by spiking them into crude oil cargoes. 
  • Spine Car 
    An articulated five–platform railcar. Used where height and weight restrictions limit the use of stack cars. It holds five 40–foot containers or combinations of 40– and 20–foot containers. 
  • spot Deal 
    An isolated sale. In transactions of this kind, a specific quantity of oil, usually a convenient unit like a cargo, a bargeload, or a pipeline batch, changes from seller's hands to buyer's. The notion once assumed promptness. That element has vanished now
  • Squat 
    the tendency of a ship to draw more water astern than when stationary, this amounts to less available underkeel clearance 
  • SS, S.S. or S/S 
    A steamboat or steamship, sometimes called a steamer, is a ship in which the primary method of propulsion is steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels. The term steamboat is usually used to refer to smaller steam-powered boats working on l
  • SSSCL 
    Ship/Shore Safety Checklist for Safe Transport, Handling and Storage of Dangerous Substances in Port Areas 
  • ST 
    Side tank 
  • Stability 
    Ship Stability: The tendency of a vessel to return to an erect position after being inclined by an exterior force.Also known as positive stability. 
  • STABILITY 
    It is paramount that a vessel is stable in all respects at all times. When cargo is loaded / discharged, the stability is monitored by a computer, which takes into account the weight and position of cargo within the vessel 
  • Stabilization 
    An addition of titanium or niobium, making stainless steels less sensitive to intergranular corrosion 
  • Stabilizer 
    A stabilizer is a substance added to another substance to prevent an alteration of its physical state. Stabilizers are added to plastics so as to allow them to have a long and useful life in any application, by keeping their properties stable. 
  • Stack Car 
    An articulated five–platform rail car that allows containers to be double stacked. A typical stack car holds ten 40–foot equivalent units (FEU’s). 
  • Stacktrain 
    A rail service whereby rail cars carry containers stacked two high on specially operated unit trains. Each train includes up to 35 articulated multi–platform cars. Each car is comprised of 5 well–type platforms upon which containers can be stacked. No cha
  • standard Export Quality 
    A common description of crude oils sold on the world market. The normal run of a crude grade as available at a loading point. 
  • Start Over with a Clean Slate 
    A slate tablet was kept near the helm on which the watch keeper would record the speeds, distances, headings and tacks during the watch. If there were no problems during the watch, the slate would be wiped clean so that the new watch could start over with
  • STBC 
    Self-trimming bulk carrier 
  • STCW 
    Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping 
  • STCW 95 
    Standards of Training Certification and Watchkeeping Convention (IMO) 
  • STCW V Para 1 
    Completed basic tanker training that applies to junior officers who have cargo-handling responsibilities 
  • steam Cracker 
    A petrochemical plant unit which produces olefins, particularly ethylene, and in some cases aromatics, by pyrolysis. The trade often calls these plants ethylene crackers, after their primary product. Some units, called light liquids crackers, crack ethane
  • Steam cracking-Steam cracker 
    Steam cracking, a further application of thermal cracking, is a petrochemical process used to produce olefinic raw materials (e.g. propylene, ethylene) from various feedstocks for petrochemicals manufacture. The feedstocks range from ethane to vacuum gas
  • Steamship Guarantee 
    An indemnity issued to the carrier by a bank; protects the carrier against any possible losses or dam- ages arising from release of the merchandise to the receiving party. This instrument is usually issued when the bill of lading is lost or is not availab
  • STEW CONVE 
    International convention on standards of training certification and watch-keeping for seafarers 
  • STEW CONVE or STCW 
    International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification, and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978 
  • STEWCODE 
    Seafarers training certification and watch-keeping 
  • stoke 
    The basic unit of kinematic viscosity. Most of the time, the industry uses a smaller unit, CST (centistokes). One stoke equals 100 centistokes. 
  • Stone Carrier 
    A vessel for the carriage of large stones for the construction of breakwaters and the like; stones are discharged sideways from a flat deck 
  • Store–Door Pick–up Delivery 
    A complete package of pick up or delivery services performed by a carrier from origin to final con- sumption point. 
  • Straddle Carrier 
    Mobile truck equipment with the capacity for lifting a container within its own framework. 
  • straight-Run 
    A product of crude distillation as opposed to cracking. Some feedstock outlets require straight run materials. Production of catfeed, for instance, demands straight run residue. 
  • Stripping 
    The removal of the final contents of a cargo tank using equipment additional to the main cargo pumps. 
  • STW 
    Standards of Training and Watchkeeping 
  • subjects 
    Unresolved items which prevent confirmation of a deal. Tanker chartering and oil trading both involve negotiations which conclude "subject to" removal of some exception. A charterer might fix a ship subject to stem confirmation or subject manage
  • Submarine Chaser 
    A combat vessel specifically designed for the pursuit and attack of submarines 
  • Suezmax 
    Vessel designed for carrying bulk crude oil in tanks.(120,000 dwt - 200,000 dwt) 
  • Suezmax Tanker 
    A tanker of 120,000 to 199,000dwt. 
  • sulfur 
    An element which contaminates crude and refined products. Its presence in troublesome or objectionable quantity makes a stream sour. Oil which contains much sulfur can corrode processing hardware, smell bad, fetch less money than sweet grades, and require
  • Sunflower Oil 
    Sunflower oil is obtained from the decorticated seeds of the sunflower (""Helianthus Annuus""). A high quality unrefined edible oil may be obtained by cold pressing of the seeds but the bulk of the commercial product is obtained by hot pressing and solven
  • Superabsorbents 
    Polymers of acrylic acid, superabsorbent material is widely-used in personal care products to absorb fluids. It comes in the form of large particles, about the size of table salt, that are enclosed in the interior of the product, and helps to keep skin he
  • Supply Platform, jack up (Lift Boat) 
    A supply platform, jack up (Lift Boat) 
  • Surfactants 
    Surfactants, or surface active agents, are substances that, when dissolved in water, give a product the ability to remove dirt from surfaces such as the human skin, textiles, and other solids. Each surfactant molecule has a hydrophilic (water-loving) head
  • Surge 
    The longitudinal oscillatory linear motion about the center of gravity (origin of body axis) in the ship travel direction, usually due to wave effects; motion backward and forward (fore and aft direction) (EM 1110-2-1613). 
  • Surging 
    Ship Stability: is the linear longitudinal (front/back) motion 
  • survey 
    An assessment of oil quantity and or quality prepared by an inspection company. A loading survey, for instance, involves determination of how much crude or product a supplier pimped aboard a vessel. it may also entail taking samples of the 
  • sweetening 
    Processing to remove sulfur. Hydrodesulfurization, for instance, can produce sweet catfeed. Caustic washing can sweeten sour natural gasolines to make them suitable for motor gasoline blending. 
  • SWL 
    Safe Working Load or Statutory Water Level 
  • Syngas 
    This is an abbreviation of synthesis gas and is applied to several kinds of mixtures that are produced by reacting steam, or steam and oxygen, with a heated carbon-containing material such as natural gas, heavy petroleum oil, coal or coke. Syngas consists
  • Synonym 
    This is another name that a particular chemical or composition may be known as. A chemical can have a number of different names or synonyms. For example, METHYL ALCOHOL is the Product Name; however this cargo is also known as methanol, wood alcohol etc –
  • Ton (of 1000 kilos) or Tropical (loadline) 
  • TA 
    Tanks or Transatlantic 
  • Tail 
    A protraction at the end of a feedstock or product's distillation curve. A wide spread between the 95 percent point and final boiling point of a stream. A heavy contaminant in a product. Less than ideal distillation can produce tails. 
  • Tainting 
    Refers to a substance which is known to be taken up by marine organisms with the result that it is tainted and rendered unpalatable as seafood. Examples are chlorophenols. A taint is defined as "a foreign flavor or odor in the organisms induced by conditi
  • Taken Aback 
    A dangerous situation where the wind is on the wrong side of the sails pressing them back against the mast and forcing the ship astern. Most often this was caused by an inattentive helmsman who had allowed the ship to head up into the wind. 
  • Taking turns 
    Changing watches with the turn of the hour glass. 
  • Taking wind out of his sails 
    Sailing in a manner so as to steal or divert wind from another ship's sails. 
  • Tall Oil 
    A by-product of the sulphite digestion of wood pulp for kraft paper manufacture. Tall oil is not a true fat or oil but consists of a natural mixture of 45 percent each of rosin acids and fatty acids and 10 percent unsaponifiable matter. The fatty acids ar
  • Tallyman 
    Controls the cargo going into and out of the vessel. Checks that volume and number tallies with the manifests 
  • Tank Barge 
    Tank barges transport liquid cargoes like petroleum, petrochemicals and liquid fertilizers. Tank barges contain one or many tank compartments below deck with regulated temperature and pressure, depending on the cargo. Tank barges have special safety and s
  • Tank Cleaning Vessel 
    A vessel equipped to clean the tanks of other vessels and remove and transport slops 
  • Tank Landing Craft 
    A combat vessel with strengthened bow ro-ro ramp for loading and discharge of tanks and other military vehicles 
  • Tank Vessel (Tanker) 
    Ships which carry liquid products, such as crude petroleum, petroleum product, chemicals, liquid natural gas and molasses. 
  • Tanker 
    A popular name for the tankships which carry bulk oil, oil products, chemicals, and other liquids in some cases. 
  • Tanker 
    A seagoing vessel capable of carrying oil, gas or chemicals in bulk, whether it be a barge or ship. 
  • Tanker (unspecified) 
    A tanker whose cargo is unspecified 
  • Tankers 
    Ships fitted with tanks to carry liquid bulk cargo such as: crude petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, Liquefied gasses (LNG and LPG), wine, molasses, and similar product tankers. 
  • TBOOK 
    To the Best Of Owners Knowledge 
  • TC 
    Tank Cleaning or Till Countermanded or Temperature Controlled (container) 
  • TCL 
    Tank Cleaning 
  • TDI 
    Tolune Diisocyanate. TDI is an isocyanate used in the production of polyurethanes for flexible foam applications ranging from furniture, bedding, and carpet underlay, to transportation and packaging. TDI is also used in the manufacture of coatings, sealan
  • TDK or TWD 
    Tween Decker 
  • Technical Operator 
    Technical Operator means an entity dealing with the responsibility for operation of the ship and which, on assuming such responsibility, has agreed to take over all the duties and responsibilities imposed by the ISM code and, where applicable, holds the
  • The Devil to Pay 
    To pay the deck seams meant to seal them with tar. The devil seam was the most difficult to pay because it was curved and intersected with the straight deck planking. Some sources define the "devil" as the below-the-waterline-seam between the keel and the
  • Thermal Cracker 
    Originally, the name of the refining industry's first molecule breaker. These units used heat and pressure to turn heavy fuel oil into gasoline and distillate. Today, the term applies to a category of bottoms crackers, including visbreakers and cokers, wh
  • Thermal cracking 
    Thermal cracking is a petroleum refining process used to break up heavy oil molecules into lighter, more valuable fractions (e.g. gasoline, kerosene) by the use of high temperature without the aid of catalysts. It is used to convert gas oils into naphtha.
  • Thermoforming 
    The process of heating a thermoplastic sheet to a working temperature and then forming it into a finished shape by means of heat or pressure. (Modern Plastics Encyclopedia 1995) 
  • Thermoset 
    A polymer that solidifies when heated, in other words it sets and cannot thereafter be changed, is called a thermoset. Some polymers behave like this because the heating process causes the chains of the polymer to bind to each other, via cross-links, and
  • TIB 
    Trimmed in bunkers 
  • Tide Over 
    At first glance, this would seem to be an obviously nautical term. Today it means to make a small bit of something, usually money, last until a supply comes in, as in borrowing some money to tide you over till payday. However, the meaning has changed over
  • Time Swap 
    An exchange which involves today's barrels for tomorrow's or next week's for next month's. 
  • Time-Charter 
    Lease of a ship to a charterer for a period of time rather than for the performance of a specific voyage. An elemental version of this arrangement, called a bare boat charter, works like renting an unfurnished apartment. The charterer must provide his own
  • TIP 
    Taking inward pilot 
  • Titration  
    The strength of a chemical solution is often determined by reacting the chemical with another in measured amounts. Knowing the chemical reaction involved and the amount of the second reactant, the amount of the first reactant can be calculated. The proces
  • Titre Test 
    The titre is the highest temperature reached during the crystallisation of fatty acids under controlled cooling conditions. It is an important characteristic of inedible fats used for soap making or as a raw material for acid manufacture and it is also an
  • TL 
    Turkish LLoyd 
  • TMK 
    Tonnage mark 
  • TMSA 
    Tanker Management Self Assessment: The Tanker Management and Self Assessment (TMSA) programme provides ship operators with a means to improve and measure their own management systems. The programme encourages ship operators to assess their safety managem 
  • To Know the Ropes 
    There was miles and miles of cordage in the rigging of a square rigged ship. The only way of keeping track of and knowing the function of all of these lines was to know where they were located. It took an experienced seaman to know the ropes. 
  • Toe the Line 
    When called to line up at attention, the ship's crew would form up with their toes touching a seam in the deck planking. 
  • TOFA 
    Tall Oil Fatty Acids. An important industrial feedstock that is a by-product of the wood pulp industry. The term ""tall oil"" is derived from the Swedish word for ""pine oil"", or tallolja. Production occurs mainly in North America and Scandinavia. TOFA a
  • TOFC 
    Trailer on Flat Car: The movement of a highway trailer on a railroad flatcar. Also known as Piggyback. 
  • Toll Processing 
    Refining or petrochemicals production done on a fee basis. A plant owner puts another party's feedstock through his equipment and charges for the service. A portion of the product retained by the processor may constitute payment. This form of compensation
  • Toluene 
    Gasoline blenders and petrochemicals makers continually compete for possession of this aromatic. Its high octane and low vapor pressure make it an excellent blendstock. The chance to turn it into benzene appeals to the chemical industry. Refineries and st
  • TOMK 
    To make 
  • TON 
    Ton of 1000 Kilos. a unit of measurement used in shipping assuming 100 cubic feet of cargo equals one ton, equals 2000 pounds and is also called a “short ton”, a “long ton” equals 2240 pounds, and a “tonne” is 2204 pounds 
  • Tonne 
    Metric ton equivalent to 1,000 kilograms or 2204 pounds 
  • TOP 
    Taking Outward Pilot 
  • Topping Plant 
    A simple refinery, one which lacks cracking and other upgrading equipment. The name comes from what such basic installations can do. They boil the straight-run light products, the top, off crude oil. The most rudimentary topping plants have no complex har
  • Topside 
    The sides of a ship between the waterline and the deck; sometimes referring to onto or above the deck  
  • TOR 
    Time on risk 
  • Touch and Go 
    This referred to a ship's keel touching the bottom and getting right off again. 
  • TOVALOP 
    Tanker Owners Voluntary Agreement to Limit Oil Pollution 
  • Towline 
    Towlines or hawsers are constructed of extremely strong synthetic materials or steel wire. When the towline connection with the barge forms a "Y" shape to reduce chafing, it is known as abridle. 
  • Toxic 
    Poison which can affect personnel through inhalation, absorption or ingestion. For the purposes of this policy the term toxic is taken to include all products which give off vapours containing substances for which exposure limits are recommended as they  
  • TPC Immersion 
    the amount of tons that it takes to lower a ship's draft one centimeter 
  • Trailer 
    The truck unit into which freight is loaded as in tractor trailer combination. See Container. 
  • Transhipment 
    Applies to lightening operations and "ship to ship" (STS) transfers both at anchor and underway, or where vessels are "double banked" alongside a berth. 
  • Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC) 
    Established by Congress through the Maritime Transportation Security Act (MTSA) and is adminis- tered by the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) and U.S. Coast Guard. TWICs are tamper– resistant biometric credentials that will be issued to all cr
  • Trim 
    The angle at which a ship floats when viewed from the side. It can rest stern high, bow high, or on an even keel. Masters must load their ships with safe trim in mind. 
  • Trust Receipt 
    Release of merchandise by a bank to a buyer while the bank retains title to the merchandise. The goods are usually obtained for manufacturing or sales purposes. The buyer is obligated to maintain the goods (or the proceeds from their sales) distinct from
  • Try a Different Tack 
    The direction in which a ship moves as determined by the position of its sails and regarded in terms of the direction of the wind (starboard tack). If one tack didn’t bring the ship up properly, one could always attempt another. 
  • TSG (C)(G) 
    Tanker Safety Guide (Chemicals) and (Gas) (ICS) 
  • TST 
    Topside tank 
  • TT 
    Turn Time or Telegraphic Transfer or That or TankTop 
  • Tugboat / Ocean Towing 
    Tugboats are used to pull ortow barges on the ocean or on wider inland rivers that have rough waters. Ocean towing involves long towlines between the tugboat and tow, to provide the necessary slack to accommodate rough water and varied weather conditions.
  • Turn a Blind Eye 
    From Admiral Lord Nelson’s awesome display of badassery at the Battle of Copenhagen. When the signal was given to stop fighting, Nelson held his spyglass to his blind eye and insisted he didn’t see the signal. He then proceeded to kick butt, of course. 
  • Turnaround 
    In water transportation, the time it takes between the arrival of a vessel and its departure. 
  • Turret 
    An attachment for a Floating Storage and Offtake vessel or Floating Production, Storage and Offloading vessel that allows vessel to rotate around its mooring according to direction of wind and current. 
  • TVE 
    Tank Vessel Examination (USCG) 
  • TW 
    Tween Deck (OCIMF acronym) 
  • TW 
    Twin Decker 
  • TWA 
    Time Weighted Average. Time-weighted average concentration for an 8-hour workday and a 40-hour-work week in which a worker may be repeatedly exposed without adverse health effects 
  • TWD 
    Tween Decker 
  • TWHD 
    Tons per working or Workable hatch per day 
  • Twist Locks 
    A set of four twistable bayonet type shear keys used as part of a spreader to pick up a container or as part of a chassis to secure the containers. 
  • Two–Way Pallet 
    A pallet so designed that the forks of a fork lift truck can be inserted from two sides only. 
  • TX 
    Tank (OCIMF acronym) 
  • Typicals 
    specifications considered representative of a crude or product stream. Parcels, particularly of feedstocks, often trade on typicals even though such data carries no absolute commitments or legal obligations. 
  • TYT 
    Thanks your telex 
  • U-bend specimen 
    Horseshoe-shaped test piece used to detect the susceptibility of a material to stress corrosion cracking 
  • U.K.f.o. 
    United Kingdom for orders 
  • U.K.H.A.D. 
    United Kingdom and Le Havre-Antwerp-Dunkirk range 
  • U.K.H.H. 
    United Kingdom and Le Havre-Hamburg range 
  • U/D 
    Under deck 
  • U/on deck 
    Under or on deck 
  • UCP 
    Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits: Published by the In- ternational Chamber of Commerce. This is the most frequently used standard for making payments in international trade; e.g., paying on a Letter of Credit. It is most frequently ref
  • UK 
    United Kingdom 
  • UK/CONT 
    United Kingdom / continent range 
  • UK/Cont (B.H.) 
    United Kingdom or Continent (Bordeaux-Hamburg range) 
  • UK/Cont (G.H.) 
    United Kingdom or Continent (Gibraltar-Hamburg range) 
  • UK/Cont (H.H.) 
    United Kingdom or Continent (Le Havre-Hamburg range) 
  • UKC 
    Under Keel Clearance or United Kingdom / Continent 
  • UKCS 
    United Kingdom Continental Shelf 
  • ULBC 
    Ultra Large Bulk Carrier 
  • ULCC 
    Ultra large crude carrier. The largest tankers. AFRA defines them as 320,000 DWT and larger. Most folks use the term a little less precisely. They might use it for ships as small as 300,000 or even 280,000 tons. 
  • Ullage 
    The difference between the total volume of a tank and the volume of the material it is presently holding. 
  • Unclaimed Freight 
    Freight that has not been called for or picked up by the consignee or owner. 
  • UND 
    Undarker 
  • Underkeel Clearance 
    the distance between the bottom of the ship and the sea or channel floor directly under the vessel 
  • UNFCCC 
    United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 
  • Uniform Customs and Practices for Documentary Credits (UCP) 
    Rules for letters of credit drawn up by the Commission on Banking Technique and Practices of the International Chamber of Commerce in consultation with the banking associations of many coun- tries. See Terms of Payment. 
  • Unit Load 
    Packages loaded on a pallet, in a crate or any other way that enables them to be handled at one time as a unit. 
  • Unsaponifiable Matter 
    The term refers to material present in oils and fats which, after saponification of the oil or fat by alkali, is extractable by solvent and remains nonvolatile on drying. Unsaponifiable matter generally constitutes less than 1% in most oils and fats. It c
  • Unsaturated Gases 
    Light ends produced by refinery cracking units, particularly catalytic crackers and cokers. “Unsaturated” indicates the high olefins content of these gases. They ordinarily go to their own separation unit, plainly labeled an unsaturate gas plant, to avoid
  • Unseaworthiness 
    Unfitness of a ship for a particular voyage with a particular cargo. This can be a function of many variables, including but not limited to insufficient crew stores or fuel, machinery or equipment failure, or unfitness (unclean tanks) to receive or carry
  • Urea Carrier 
    A single deck cargo vessel for the carriage of urea in bulk. May be self discharging 
  • V/L Ratio 
    VaporLiquid ratio. A measure of volatility which observes volume of vapor a given volume of liquid forms at various temperatures. Gasoline blenders, who make more use of this property than anyone else, report it as the temperature where a sample reaches,
  • Vacuum Bottoms 
    The 1050 or 1100 F+ pitch which remains after a vacuum flasher removes vacuum gasoil from atmospheric bottoms. This thick residue has no direct use unless it meets asphalt specifications. Many refineries need to blend it into heavy fuel oil. The more fort
  • Vacuum Distillation 
    A technique for recovering heavy distillates from residue. The process lowers pressure under the level of the atmosphere, thereby reducing the temperature where hydrocarbons boil. This approach gives refiners access to molecules which would crack before t
  • Vacuum Gasoil 
    A product of vacuum distillation with a typical boiling range of 550-700 F to 1050-1150 F. Cat crackers process vacuum gasoil (catfeed). So do a few heavy liquids steam crackers. 
  • Vanaspati 
    The term ""vanaspati"" originated in Indo-Pakistan sub-continent. In sanskrit ""Vanas"" means forest and ""Pati"", lord. Hence, literally vanaspati means Lord of the Forest, thus a tree, plant or a vegetable. This emphasises the vegetable origin of vanasp
  • Vapor Pressure/Boiling Point 
    Tank cleaning: Products with a high vapor pressure (higher than some 50 mbar at 20 C) can be removed from the tank by evaporation. As always during ventilation, special care must be taken to prevent the risk of explosion (flammable products) and emission
  • Vapour Destruction Unit (VDU) 
    An installation, normally located at a terminal, which receives gasoline vapours from cargo tanks and destroys them by thermal oxidation or other means. 
  • Vapour Recovery Unit (VRU) 
    An installation, normally located at a terminal, which receives gasoline vapours from cargo tanks and recovers them for subsequent use. 
  • Variable Cost 
    Costs that vary directly with the level of activity within a short time. Examples include costs of mov- ing cargo inland on trains or trucks, stevedoring in some ports, and short–term equipment leases. For business analysis, all costs are either defined a
  • VCM 
    Vinyl Chloride Monomer. A colorless, flammable gas, used principally in making synthetic resin. Also called chloroethylene. 
  • Vegetable Oil Tanker 
    A cargo ship designed for the bulk transport of Vegetable oils in tanks. Tanks will be stainless steel or lined. New vessels will be classified as chemical carriers 
  • Vegetable Oil Tanker, Inland Waterways 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of vegetable oils which is not suitable for trading in open waters. New vessels will be classified as chemical tankers as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code 
  • Vehicles Carrier 
    A multi deck cargo ship for the carriage of new cars and trucks which are loaded via ramps 
  • Vessel 
    All ships, tankers and barges used or capable of being used for the transportation of bulk hydrocarbons (including liquefied gases), bulk chemicals and bulk dry cargoes, and all craft involved in marine related operational activity associated with the hig
  • Vessel Manifest 
    The international carrier is obligated to make declarations of the ship’s crew and contents at both the port of departure and arrival. The vessel manifest lists various details about each shipment by B/L number. Obviously, the B/L serves as the core sourc
  • VGO 
    An acronym for vacuum gasoil. Some organizations use the term process gasoil, and the acronym PGO, for this feedstock. 
  • VHF 
    Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. Frequencies immediately below VHF are denoted High frequency (HF), and the next higher frequencies are known as Ultra high frequency (UHF). 
  • Visbreaker 
    A mild thermal cracker that treats crude unit or vacuum distiller bottoms to make them more fluid. Such units break some of the molecules, which flow poorly in these mixtures. The residue gives up some small molecules cracked off long hydrocarbon chains.
  • Visbroken Naphtha 
    The cracked naphtha produced by a visbreaker. 
  • Viscosity 
    A measure of liquids' resistance to flow. The oil industry uses several measurements, including Saybolt, Redwood, Engler, and Kinematic, to report how fast crude or product moves, or should move, at specified temperatures. Since heavier hydrocarbon mixtur
  • Viscosity 
    Measure of a liquid's internal resistance to flow. This property is important because it indicates how fast a substance will leak out through holes in containers or tanks. 
  • Viscosity Breaker 
    see VISBREAKER 
  • VLBC 
    Very Large Bulk Carrier 
  • VLCC 
    Very large crude carrier. A tanker between 160,000 and 319,999 deadweight tons, according to AFRA. In common usage, the industry tends to apply the term loosely. A round 150,000 to 300,000 DWT fits casual expectations. 
  • Volatile 
    A liquid from which gas evaporates rapidly. For the purpose of this policy the term volatile is taken to include any naturally volatile product with a "flash point" of less than 60 degrees C or any product being carried at a temperature that is higher tha
  • (Working Day) Weather Permitting 
    (WORKING DAY) WEATHER PERMITTING shall have the same meaning as WEATHER WORKING DAY OF 24 CONSECUTIVE HOURS. 
  • Weight (per 1000 kilos) or Winter (loadline) 
  • War Risk 
    Insurance coverage for loss of goods resulting from any act of war. 
  • Warm zone 
    Area where personnel and equipment decontamination and hot zone support take place. It includes control points for the access corridor and thus assists in reducing the spread of contamination. Also referred to as the decontamination, contamination reducti
  • Warning Shot Across the Bow 
    From the literal practice of firing a warning shot across another ship’s bow to encourage the captain to strike without engaging. 
  • Warranty 
    The declaration given by an owner that action has or will be taken to ensure that his vessel complies with International, statutory, or company requirements. (It requires a degree of trust in its use - an owner found to have broken a warranty might gain  
  • Water Reaction 
    A hydrocarbon mixture's tendency to hold water and other impurities in suspension. Aviation turbine fuel has specifications, including a water separation index, to avoid putting kerosene with this problem aboard aero planes. 
  • Water Tank Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled tank barge for the carriage of water 
  • Water Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of water 
  • Water Tanker Barge, propelled 
    A self propelled tanker barge for the bulk carriage of water 
  • Water Tanker, Inland Waterways 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of water which is not suitable for trading in open waters 
  • Water Tanker, Naval Auxiliary 
    A naval auxiliary vessel. Designed for the carriage of bulk water in tanks expressly for naval support 
  • Water White Standard 
    Tank cleaning: Water White Standard means visually clean, dry and odour-free. Wall wash not required.  
  • Water-Soluble or Water-Miscible products 
    Tank Cleaning: Water-Soluble substances and water-miscible substances are easy to clean with water, and the solubility of the substances might increase at higher temperatures. The use of a cleaning agent is only advisable for reduction of the cleaning tim
  • Waterline 
    A line painted on a hull which shows the point to which a ship sinks when it is properly trimmed 
  • Wax Content 
    A synonym for paraffins content most frequently applied to catalytic cracker feedstocks. A high wax, or paraffins, content makes a residue of gasoil more susceptible to cracking. 
  • WBT 
    Water Ballast Tank 
  • WCDC 
    Wind and Current Drag Coefficient Task Group 
  • WCUK 
    West Coast United Kingdom 
  • WD 
    Working days 
  • Weather Working Day 
    WEATHER WORKING DAY shall mean a Working Day or part of a Working Day during which it is or, if the Vessel is still waiting for her turn, it would be possible to load/discharge the cargo without interruption due to the weather. If such interruption occurs
  • Weather Working Day of 24 consecutive hours 
    WEATHER WORKING DAY OF 24 CONSECUTIVE HOURS shall mean a Working Day or part of a Working Day of 24 consecutive hours during which it is or, if the vessel is still waiting for her turn, it would be possible to load/discharge the cargo without interruption
  • Weather Working Day of 24 Hours 
    WEATHER WORKING DAY OF 24 HOURS shall mean a period of 24 hours made up of one or more Working Days during which it is or, if the Vessel is still waiting for her turn, it would be possible to load/discharge the cargo without interruption due to the weathe
  • Well Car 
    Also known as stack car. A drop–frame rail flat car. 
  • Wharf 
    A waterside structure, usually parallel to the waterway bank, at which a vessel may be berthed alongside from which cargo or passengers can be loaded or discharged. A pier or dock built on the shore of a harbor, river, or canal. 
  • WHD 
    Working Hatch per Day 
  • Whfge 
    Wharfage: Charge assessed by a pier or dock owner against freight handled over the pier or dock or against a steamship company using the pier or dock. 
  • Windy Booking 
    A freight booking made by a shipper or freight forwarder to reserve space but not actually having a specific cargo at the time the booking is made. Carriers often overbook a vessel by 10 to 20 percent in recognition that “windy booking” cargo will not act
  • Wine Tanker 
    A cargo ship designed for the bulk transport of Wine in tanks. Tanks will be stainless steel or lined. New vessels will be classified as chemical carriers 
  • WITA 
    WIng TAnk 
  • WITA or WT 
    Wing Tank 
  • WM or W/M 
    Weight or Measurement: The basis for assessing freight charges. Also known as “worm.” The rate charged under W/M will be whichever produces the highest revenue between the weight of the shipment and the measure of the shipment. The comparison is based on
  • Wood Chips Carrier, self unloading 
    A single deck cargo vessel with high freeboard for the carriage of wood chips. May be self discharging 
  • Work/Maintenance Pontoon, non propelled  
    A non propelled pontoon used for working or maintenance functions 
  • Work/Repair Vessel 
    A multi functional vessel for general work and repair operations 
  • Working Copy 
    (Copy of Charter Party - not being signed and may contain unchecked errors 
  • Working Day 
    WORKING DAY shall mean a Day when by local law or practice work is normally carried out. 
  • World Scale 
    First introduced during World War II, and subsequently developed and refined, world scale is a system whereby a tanker can obtain the same net return per day at the same world scale percentage regardless of the voyage actually undertaken. 
  • Worldscale 
    Worldwide Tanker Nominal Freight Scale. Worldscale Association, a shipping industry group, publishes a lengthy schedule of rates for popular tanker voyages. The printed figures, called World scale 100's, reflect application of tanker operating cost assump
  • WRO 
    War risk only 
  • WT 
    Wing tank (OCIMF acronym) 
  • WTL 
    Western Truck Lines. 
  • WTS 
    Working time saved 
  • WTSBE 
    Working time saved both ends 
  • WTSBE or WTSBENDS 
    Working time saved both ends 
  • WW 
    World Wide or Weather working 
  • WWD 
    Weather Working Day 
  • WWDSHEX 
    Weather working days, Sundays and holidays excluded 
  • WWF 
    Australian Waterside Workers Federation 
  • XPS 
    Extruded Polystyrene. Manufactured from styrene, is a thermal plastic material manufactured by a variety of extrusion processes. Polystyrene foam board and extruded foam sheet have properties that make it a frequent choice for thermal insulation, sheathin
  • Xylenes 
    Xylene comes in three different isomers: ortho-xylene, meta-xylene, and para–xylene. The first and last of this threesome have important chemical uses. All of them, separately or together, make superior motor gasoline blendstock. Refinery reformate and st
  • Y/A 
    York/Antwerp (rules) 
  • YAR 
    York-Antwerp Rules 
  • Yaw 
    A temporary swing off course by a vessel, usually because of waves, but may be caused by poor steering, currents, or wind. The horizontal angular deviation of a vessel’s longitudinal axis from the desired line of track. The angular, oscillatory motion (ro
  • YB 
    Yellow Book - onboard the ships on management  
  • Yield 
    The quantity andor quality of derivatives a process can make, or actually makes, from a feedstock or raw material. The industry speaks of gasoline yields from CRUDE; ethylene yields from naphtha, VGO yields from long residue, light products yields from ca
  • Yield slate 
    The breakdown of various derivatives from processing a feedstock or raw material. Typical yield slates could list the quantities of various fuels made from a grade of crude in a certain type of refinery, or basic petrochemicals from steam cracking a parti
  • Benzene Ring 
    6 carbon atoms in the form of a ring structure with a hydrogen atom attached to each carbon and is the basic building block of all aromatic chemicals 
  • Class 2 [Deck] 
    1st Mate, Chief Mate or Chief Officer: Entitles the holder to act as Chief Mate on a ship of any size with unlimited trading or may entitle the holder to act as Master on a ship but with restrictions on size or trading area. 
  • Class 3 [Deck] 
    2nd Mate: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of a navigational watch on a ship of any size with unlimited trading but may also entitle the holder to act as Chief Mate, or possibly Master, on a ship but with restrictions on size or trading are
  • Class 4 [Deck] 
    3rd Mate: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of a navigational watch on any ship. 
  • Kilogram 
    1,000 grams or 2.2046 pounds. 
  • Metric Ton 
    2,204.6 pounds or 1,000 kilograms.