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  • A Square Meal 
    In good weather, crews' mess was a warm meal served on square wooden platters. 
  • A/B 
    Able bodied seaman, a member of the crew who is able to perform all duties of an experienced seaman. 
  • A/R 
    Arrived or Antwerp - Rotterdam range 
  • AA 
    Always afloat or Always accessible or Apparent altitude 
  • AAAA 
    Always afloat always accessible 
  • AAGR 
    Average Annual Growth Rate  
  • AAOSA 
    Always afloat or safely aground 
  • AARA 
    Amsterdam-Antwerp-Rotterdam Area 
  • AASO 
    Association of American Shipowners 
  • AB 
    Above bridges or Answer Back 
  • Abaft 
    A point beyond the midpoint of a ship’s length, towards the rear or stern. 
  • Abandon 
    A proceeding wherein a shipper/consignee seeks authority to abandon all or parts of their cargo. 
  • Abatement 
    A discount allowed for damage or overcharge in the payment of a bill. 
  • ABI 
    U.S. Customs’ “Automated Broker Interface,” by which brokers file importers’ entries electronically. 
  • Above Board 
    Anything on or above the open deck. If something is open and in plain view, it is above board. 
  • Absolute Viscosity 
    An observation of liquid's rate of flow under pressure applied to neutralize density's influence. This property, sometimes called dynamic viscosity, converts to kinematical viscosity by division. With density ex-pressed in gramscm, centistokes the units o
  • Absorption 
    One carrier assumes the charges of another without any increase in charges to the shipper. 
  • Accelerated Corrosion Test 
    Corrosion test carried out under more severe conditions that will yield results in a shorter time than in service 
  • Acceptance 
    A time draft (or bill of exchange) that the drawee (payer) has accepted and is unconditionally obligated to pay at maturity. Broadly speaking, any agreement to purchase goods under specified terms. 
  • Accommodation Ship 
    A vessel providing accommodation for those working on other vessels and installations 
  • Acetyl 
    Any chemical compound with an acetate group.  
  • Acid 
    Any substance that in water solution tastes sour, changes the color of certain indicators, promotes certain chemical reactions, etc.. Examples of acids include inorganic substances such as sulfuric, nitric, and phosphoric acids, and organic compounds such
  • Acid Oil 
    Acid oil is a general term for a by-product obtained from the alkali refining of oils and fats. During alkali refining the free fatty acids are neutralised with alkali and this soapstock containing some emulsified neutral oil is separated. Acidification o
  • Acid Pre-Treatment 
    The crude oil or fat is pre-treated with phosphoric acid or citric acid to remove impurities such as gums, mucilaginous materials and phosphatides present. Also referred to as "degumming", it is essential since it removes impurities which would otherwise
  • Acid Value 
    This is defined as the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralise the free fatty acids in one gram of fat. Since acid value is an indication of the extent of hydrolysis and deterioration, oils with low acid value are sought after. 
  • Acidity 
    Free fatty acids have, as the name implies, a weak acidic nature. There will be a naturally occurring level of these present in each oil and levels can be further increased by hydrolysis (water breakdown) of triglyceride. The level of acidity may be expre
  • Acidulate soapstock (Acid Oil) 
    Soapstock, which contains mainly soaps and entrained neutral oil, is treated with sulphuric acid and heated to decompose the soaps. This produces a layer of oil of high free fatty acid content (acid oil) and an aqueous phase which is separated and treated
  • Acquiescence 
    When a bill of lading is accepted or signed by a shipper or shipper’s agent without protest, the shipper is said to acquiesce to the terms, giving a silent form of consent. 
  • Acquittance 
    A written receipt in full, in discharge from all claims. 
  • Acrylic acid 
    Acrylic acid and the basic alkyl esters (methyl, ethyl, butyl and 2-ethylhexyl esters) are important monomers used for the manufacture of polymer dispersions, adhesives, flocculants, detergents, varnishes, fibers and plastics as well as chemical intermedi
  • Acrylic esters 
    When polymerized, acrylic esters, esters derived from acrylic acid, are the film-forming components of acrylic paints, coatings, textiles, adhesives, plastics and other applications.  
  • Acrylic fibers 
    Acrylic fibers are artificial, thermoplastic fibers made from acrylonitrile. Fabrics produced from acrylic fibers wash and dry easily 
  • ACS or ACE 
    U.S. Customs’ master computer system, “Automated Commercial Systems.” Now being replaced by the Automated Commercial Environment system. 
  • Activation Potential 
    The electrode potential at which a steel is changed from passive to active condition 
  • Active State 
    state of a corroding metal surface which is below the passivation potential and associated with uniform corrosion 
  • Activity 
    The level of catalyst's ability to do its work. The scale descends from fresh (full capacity right from the box or rejuvenator) to spent (coated, poisoned, or other wise neutralized.) 
  • Acute (aquatic) toxicity 
    Adverse effects that occur rapidly as a result of a short-term exposure to a chemical or physical agent. In fish or other aquatic organisms, effects that occur within a few hours, days or weeks are considered acute. Generally, acute effects are severe, th
  • Acute Effects of Overexposure 
    Refers to the adverse effects that normally are evident immediately or shortly after exposure to a hazardous material without implying a degree of severity 
  • Added Weight Method 
    Ship Stability: A method of solving for damage stability where the water that enters the vessel is considered an added weight. 
  • Additives 
    In many plastic products, the polymer is only one constituent. In order to arrive at a set of properties appropriate to the product, the polymer is almost always combined with other ingredients, or additives, which are mixed in during processing and fabri
  • Administrative Law Judge 
    A representative of a government commission or agency vested with power to administer oaths, examine witnesses, take testimony, and conduct hearings of cases submitted to, or initiated by, that agency. Also called Hearing Examiner. 
  • ADNR 
    The transport of dangerous goods on the River Rhine and most inland waterways in Europe is regulated by ADNR. 
  • Advanced Notice of Arrival (ANOA) 
    Any vessel entering United States waters from a foreign port is required to give a 96–hour ANOV. Any vessel of 300 gross registered tonnage and greater is required to give the ANOA to the U.S. Coast Guard’s National Vessel Movement Center. Any vessel unde
  • Adventure 
    Shipment of goods on shipper’s own account. A bill of adventure is a document signed by the master of the ship that carries goods at owner’s risk. Also, a term used in some insurance policies to mean a voyage or a shipment. 
  • Advice of Shipment 
    A notice sent to a local or foreign buyer advising that shipment has gone forward and containing details of packing, routing, etc. A copy of the invoice is often enclosed and, if desired, a copy of the bill of lading. 
    The hiring of a ship in whole or part 
  • AFRA 
    Average Freight Rate Assessments. A monthly estimate of tanker rates issued by London tanker brokers, AFRA, quoted on a Worldscale basis, assists large oil companies' internal accounting, provides a freight element for some netback deals, and serves other
    AFRA - (Average Freight Rate Assessment) designed for carrying For bulk crude oil in tanks (80,000 dwt - 120,000 dwt) 
  • Aframax Tanker 
    A vessel of 70,000 to 119,000 DWT capacity. The largest tanker size in the AFRA (average freight rate assessment) tanker rate system. 
  • After Perpendicular 
    Ship Stability: Usually established at the intersection of the design waterline and the vessels rudder stock or stern post 
  • Agent or Ship's Agent 
    Person looking after the interests of a ship whiøe in port. Duties include organising pilotage, towage and berth for the ship, collecting freight and signing bills of lading 
  • Aggregates Carrier 
    A single deck cargo vessel for the carriage of aggregates in bulk. Also known as a Sand Carrier. May be self discharging 
  • Agreed Weight 
    The weight prescribed by agreement between carrier and shipper for goods shipped in certain packages or in a certain number. 
  • AGW 
    All going well 
  • AGW WP 
    All going well weather permitting 
  • AH 
    Range of ports between and including Antwerp and Hamburg 
  • AHTS 
    Anchor Handling Towage and Supply-vessels which supply oil rigs, tow them to location and anchor them up. They can also be used for supply roles. 
  • Aids to Navigation 
    Artificial objects to supplement natural landmarks indicating safe and unsafe waters  
  • Air Cushion Vehicle Crew Boat 
    An air cushioned vehicle or hovercraft specifically designed as a crew boat 
  • Air Cushion Vehicle Patrol Vessel 
    An air cushion vehicle or hovercraft used as a patrol vessel (perhaps change to work vessel) 
  • Air Cushion Vehicle, work vessel 
    An air cushioned vehicle or hovercraft specifically designed as a work vessel 
  • Air Draft 
    The distance between the surface of navigable water, such as a channel, and the lowest point on some obstruction above it, a bridge for instance. A ship cannot use a waterway if it needs more vertical clearance than available. This consideration prevents
  • Air Draft 
    Ship Stability: The vertical distance from the vessel's actual waterline upward to a point on the vessel. 
  • Air Waybill 
    The forwarding agreement or carrying agreement between shipper and air carrier and is issued only in nonnegotiable form. 
  • AIS 
    Automatic Identification System - Real-time ship identification. All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards engaged on international voyages and cargo ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards not engaged on international voyages and passenger ships irrespe 
  • AL 
    Action Level. Certain OSHA regulations take effect if this exposure level is reached. These regulations include workplace air analysis, employee training, medical monitoring, and record keeping. This level is about half of the permissible exposure limit. 
  • Alcohol resistant foam 
    A foam that is resistant to "polar" chemicals such as ketones and esters which may break down other types of foam. 
  • Alcohols 
    Alcohols are amongst the most common organic compounds. Well-known alcohols include methanol (methyl alcohol, or wood alcohol), ethanol (ethyl alcohol, or grain alcohol) and isopropyl alcohol (the common alcohol known as rubbing alcohol and used as a germ
  • Aliphatic 
    Any organic compound in which the main structure is a chain of carbon atoms joined to each other is classified as being aliphatic. 
  • Alkali 
    A substance having a pH between 7 and 14 
  • Alkali Refining 
    The traded quality of oils and fats is determined primarily by the level of free fatty acids present. In crude oils, this may be as low as 0.5% as in soya, or as high as 6.0% as in the case of palm oil. Removal of this impurity is the major source of calc
  • Alkryd Resin 
    The reaction product of polyols, diacids, acids and anhydrides used primarily in the surface coating industry in which fatty acids, oils and glycerine are used to impart properties, e.g. chemical resistance, hardness, drying speed and flexibility. 
  • Alkyl benzene 
    One of the most important organic raw material for the production of synthetic detergents. 
  • Alkylate 
    A high-quality motor gasoline component made by combining isobutene and propylene or butylene. Butylene alkylate has a particularly high motor octane rating which suits it well for blending lead-free grades of automobile fuel and aviation gasoline. Both b
  • Alkylation 
    Olefins such as propylene and butylene are produced by catalytic and thermal cracking. Alkylation refers to the process using sulfuric or hydro-fluoric acid as a catalyst to combine these olefins with isobutane to produce a high octane product known as al
  • All at Sea 
    This dates to the time when accurate navigational aids weren’t available. Any ship that was out of sight of land was in an uncertain position and in danger of becoming lost.. 
  • Allision 
    When a moving vessel strikes a fixed object. 
  • Alongside 
    A phrase referring to the side of a ship. Goods delivered “alongside” are to be placed on the dock or barge within reach of the transport ship’s tackle so that they can be loaded. 
  • Aloof 
    Now means to stand apart or be indifferent, but it came from the Old Dutch word loef which meant “windward” and was used to describe a ship within a fleet which sailed higher to the wind and was thus drawn apart from the rest of the fleet. 
  • Alternative Rates 
    Privilege to use the rate producing the lowest charge. 
  • Always Accessible 
    ALWAYS ACCESSIBLE shall mean that the charterer undertakes that an available loading or discharging Berth be provided to the Vessel on arrival at the Port which the Vessel can reach safely without delay. The charterer additionally undertakes that the Vess
  • Always Afloat Or Always Safely Afloat 
    A charter party clause which requires that a ship is to berth for loading or discharging without touching the bottom of the sea / river / lake, etc. 
  • Ambient Temperature 
    The temperature of a surrounding body. The ambient temperature of a container is the atmospheric temperature to which it is exposed, 
  • America's Inland Waterways System 
    America's 12,000 mile navigable inland waterways system is the envy of the world because it allows the safe, economical, and environmentally friendly transportation of commodities that are essential to the nation's economic well-being. For example, barges
  • American Bureau of Shipping 
    U.S. classification society which certifies seagoing vessels for compliance to standardized rules regarding construction and maintenance. 
  • Amidships 
    In or toward the centre of the ship 
  • Amines 
    Amines are produced from fatty acids for use as surface-active compounds. The primary and secondary amines can be converted to tertiary amines, quats and amine oxides, all of which have valuable surface-active properties. Based on their cationic nature an
  • Amino Acids 
    Chief components of proteins which are the building blocks of living tissues. Eighteen different amino acids commonly occur in our food supply and eight are considered essential because the body cannot make them from other materials. 
    Americanised welsh coal charter party 
  • Anchor Handling Tug Supply 
    An offshore tug/supply ship equipped with a high bollard pull and a stern roller for anchor handling 
  • Anchor handling Vessel 
    A vessel equipped to assist with the handling of anchors in coastal waters 
  • Anchorage 
    An area inside a water body providing the ships some protection from the weather while lying at anchor to stand by, load or unload cargo, await repairs, etc. They are protected areas where shippers lay down their anchors and wait to exit the harbor. 
  • Anhydride 
    Any chemical compound obtained, either in practice or in principle, by the elimination of water from another compound.  
  • Anhydrous-Free of Water 
    Anhydrous means dry or free from water. Oils are essentially anhydrous after refining and deodorisation, the usual specified maximum moisture level being 0.1%. Butter, made from dairy cream, consists of an emulsion with up to 16% of water. Margarine is fo
  • Aniline 
    An organic base used to make dyes, drugs, explosives, plastics, and photographic and rubber chemicals. Aniline owes its name to the indigo-yielding plant, Indigofera anil, from the distillation of which aniline was first obtained. 
  • Aniline point 
    A specification, quoted in degree Fahrenheit in the USA and Centigrade elsewhere, which reports the aromatics content of a hydrocarbon mixture. This quality consideration indicates the susceptibility of a vacuum gasoil to catalytic cracking because paraff
  • Anode 
    Electrode at which the anodic reaction predominates 
  • Anodic protection 
    Electrochemical protection achieved by increasing the corrosion potential to a value within the potential range of the passive state 
    Antwerp - Hamburg range 
  • Anthracene 
    Anthracene is a solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon consisting of three benzene rings derived from coal tar. Anthracene is used in the artificial production of the red dye alizarin. It is also found in some coal tar oils which are used for example as wo
  • Anti–Dumping Duty 
    A tariff imposed to discourage sale of foreign goods, subsidized to sell at low prices detrimental to local manufacturers. 
  • Antifoam 
    Foam is a two phase system consisting of liquid and gas wherein gas is distributed in the form of small bubbles throughout the liquid. Formation of foam is quite common in some oils and fats during prolonged heating/frying. To overcome or minimise foaming
  • Antifouling 
    Normally contains toxic compounds to prevent marine growth. Non-toxic products are gradually being introduced to the market 
  • Antiknock index 
    The average of a motor gasoline's or blending component's RON and MON (RON + MON)2, sometimes written (R + M)2. 
  • Antioxidants 
    Substances which inhibit the oxidation of fats and oils. They are added to fats and oils or fatcontaining products to provide greater stability and longer shelf-life by delaying the onset of oxidative rancidity. 
  • AOCS 
    American Oil Chemists Society. One of the largest professional bodies for oils and fats technologists. It has a large international membership and publishes a comprehensive book of analytical methods and two journals - "Lipids" and "Journal of the America
  • AOR-W 
    Atlantic Ocean Region West 
  • API Gravity 
    A density scale expressed in API degrees. The following formula relates this representation of density to specific gravity: API = (141.5specific gravity @ 60`F)-131.5. AR: American rate. Tanker hire prices according to the American Tanker Rate Schedule. T
  • Apparent Good Order 
    When freight appears to be free of damage so far as a general survey can determine. 
  • Appraisement 
    Determination of the dutiable value of imported merchandise by a Customs official who follows procedures outlined in their country’s tariff, such as the U.S. Tariff Act of 1930. 
  • Appraiser’s Stores 
    The warehouse or public stores to which samples of imported goods are taken to be inspected, analyzed, weighed, etc. by examiners or appraisers. 
  • Aquabreak PX 
    Product name for an environmentally-adapted cleaning agent which can be used throughout the ship 
  • ARA 
    Antwerp - Rotterdam - Amsterdam range 
  • ARAG 
    Amsterdam - Rotterdam - Antwerp - Gent range 
  • ARAGH 
    Antwerp - Rotterdam - Amsterdam - Ghent range 
  • ARAZ 
    Antwerp - Rotterdam - Amsterdam - Zeebrugge range 
  • Arbitration 
    Method of settling disputes which is usually binding on parties concerned. A clause usually in a charter party 
  • Area of water plane 
    Ship Stability: Area of WP= 420*TPI 
  • ARH 
    Antwerp - Rotterdam - Hamburg range 
  • ARHB 
    Antwerp - Rotterdam - Hamburg - Bremen range 
  • Aromatic 
    Aromatics are a highly reactive group of hydrocarbons with unsaturated rings of carbon atoms, producing a great variety of products. As their name implies, they have a strong odor, which is not unpleasant. 
  • Aromatics 
    A family of hydrocarbons characterized by a single or multiple ring structure containing unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds. Common aromatics which boil in the gasoline range (benzene, toluene, and xylenes, in particular) have a very high octane rating. Refo
  • Arrival Notice 
    A notification by carrier of ship’s arrival to the consignee, the “Notify Party,” and – when applicable – the “Also Notify Party.” These parties in interest are listed in blocks 3, 4 and 10, respectively, of the Bill of Lading. 
  • Articulated Tug Barge (ATB) 
    The articulated tug barge is a new state-of-the-art design aimed to increase efficiency and safety in ocean towing by eliminating the long towline. Instead, the tugboat fits into a notch designed into the stern of the barge and the two units are tightly c
  • As the Crow Flies 
    When lost or unsure of their position in coastal waters, ships would release a caged crow. The crow would fly straight towards the nearest land thus giving the vessel some sort of a navigational fix. The tallest lookout platform on a ship came to be know
  • ASA 
    Always safely afloat 
  • ASF 
    Asian Shipowners'' Forum 
  • Ash 
    Carbonaceous residue produced by burning crude oil and petroleum products. The industry tests fuels and other hydrocarbon mixtures in order to determine how much of this combustion by-product will form in ordinary use of its products. Refiners and others
  • Asphalt 
    A mixture of heavy carbon-based compounds containing a high percentage of multiple-ring aromatics, many of them involving sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms. Some folks use the word, asphalt, interchangeably with bitumen, the name of its characteristic co
  • Asphalt/Bitumen Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of asphalt/bitumen at temperatures between 150 and 200 deg C 
  • Asphaltenes 
    Complex molecules which reveal their ring-structures by dissolving in aromatic liquids but not in paraffins. These compounds may influence the burning and blending characteristics of residual oils, if present in sufficient concentrations. They contribute
  • ASPW 
    Any Safe Port in the World 
  • Assignment 
    A term commonly used in connection with a bill of lading. It involves the transfer of rights, title and interest in order to assign goods by endorsing the bill of lading. 
  • ASTM 
    American Society for Testing and Materials. An organization which determines and publishes consensus standards of suitability and quality for a wide variety of materials including petroleum and refined products. ASTM develops and endorses methods of testi
  • At Loggerheads 
    An iron ball attached to a long handle was a loggerhead. When heated it was used to seal the pitch in deck seams. It was sometimes a handy weapon for quarrelling crewmen. 
  • Athwartships 
    A direction across the width of a vessel. 
  • Atmospheric corrosion 
    Corrosion with the earth's atmosphere at ambient temperature as the corrosive environment 
  • Atmospheric distillation 
    A technique for separating hydrocarbon mixtures which uses distillation apparatus operated at atmospheric pressure. Generally, the industry specifies ambient pressure to distinguish products of crude distillers, atmospheric fractions, from the products of
  • Atmospheric gasoil 
    The heaviest product boiled by a crude distillation unit operating at atmospheric pressure. This fraction ordinarily sells as distillate fuel oil, either in pure form or blended with cracked stocks. In blends atmospheric gasoil, often abbreviated AGO, usu
  • Atmospheric residue 
    The portion of crude oil taken as a bottoms product in a crude distillation unit which operates at atmospheric pressure under several other names apply to this product including atmos (atmospheric) reside, atmos bottoms, atmospheric fuel oil long reside,
  • Atom 
    The smallest unit into which matter can be divided without the release of electrically charged particles, and also the smallest unit of matter that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by ordinary chemical processes. Hence the atom is the basic bu
  • Attack Vessel, Naval 
    A combat vessel which is designed for high speed with a limited weaponry for rapid attack manoeuvres 
  • Auto Oil programme 
    A technical work programme launched in 1992 by the European Commission and in which the European automobile and oil industries participated. The aim of this programme was to assess the most cost-effective measures for reducing emissions from the road tran
  • Automated Identification System (AIS) 
    It is a system used by ships and Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) principally for the identification and the locating of vessels. AIS provides a means for ships to electronically exchange ship data including: identification, position, course, and speed, with
  • Aviation turbine fuel (ATF) 
    The fuel burned by aero planes jet engines. Civilian aircrafts consumes a kerosene-range product variously known as jet kero, jet A-1, avtur, DERD-2494, and JP1. Warplanes needed special fuels. Two military grades, JP-4 and JP-5 fall within the common not
  • AWB 
    Air waybill : Shipping document specifying terms for the courier and instructions for the airline. 
  • AWES 
    Association of Western European Shipbuilders 
  • AWH 
    Available workable hatches 
  • AWIWL 
    Always Within Institute Warranty Limits 
  • AWRI 
    Additional War Risk Insurance 
    All working time saved both ends 
    All working time saved discharging only 
    All working time saved loading only 
  • AWWL 
    Always within Institute Warranties Limits (Insurance purpose). 
  • B.H.(range) 
    Range of ports between and including Bordeaux & Hamburg 
  • B.P. 
    Between Perpendiculars or Boiling Point 
  • B.S. & W. 
    Bottom (or base) sediment and water 
  • B/D 
    Below Deck 
  • B/F 
    Brought forward 
  • B/P 
    Bill payable or Brake power 
  • Back and Fill 
    A technique of tacking when the tide is with the ship but the wind is against it. 
  • Backhaul 
    A tanker's revenue-producing return voyage. Some ships shuttle between two tankers ports. They travel in one direction as dictated by normal oil flow patterns or refining system's needs. Often, they have no natural employment from when they discharge to t
  • Baking or Frying Fats (Shortening) 
    Baking or frying fats are products which meet all of the following conditions - a. manufactured from vegetable oils, meat fats or marine oils, singly or in combination; b. deodorised or hydrogenated and deodorised; c. containing a significant amount of gl
  • Ballast 
    Water taken aboard a vessel to increase its draft, steady its motion, correct its trim, or otherwise make it more seaworthy when sailing without cargo. The trade uses this word to describe repositioning voyages or empty backhauls forced on ship. Hence, ph
  • Ballast Bonus 
    Special payment above the Chartering price when the ship has to sail a long way on ballast to reach the loading port. 
  • Bareboat 
    Method of chartering of the ship leaving the charterer with almost all the responsibilities of the owner. 
  • Bareboat Charter  
    Bareboat Charter Owners lease a specific ship and control its technical management and commercial operations only 
  • Barge 
    A flatbottom boat for transporting freight that is generally unpowered and towed or pushed by other craft 
  • Barge Carrier 
    A cargo vessel arranged for the carriage of purpose built barges (lighters) loaded with cargo. Typically loading is by way of a gantry crane. Also known as Lighter Aboard SHip vessels (LASH) 
  • Barge Carrier, semi submersible 
    A barge carrier which is semi submersible for the float on loading/unloading of the barges 
  • Barge Carriers 
    Ships designed to carry barges; some are fitted to act as full container- ships and can carry a varying number of barges and containers at the same time. At pres- ent this class includes two types of vessels LASH and Sea-Bee. 
    Fraudulent of Master/Crew against ship/cargo 
  • Base chemicals 
    A group of chemicals produced in bulk from raw materials such as oil, gas and coal. Other chemicals are derived from base chemicals 
  • Base stock 
    A hydrocarbon mixture which makes up much of the volume of a gasoline blend. Usually such stocks have properties not too far removed from finished fuel because the minor components have to bring the entire blend within accepted limits of gasoline quality.
  • BAT 
    Best Available Techniques. The EU Directive (96/61 EC) on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) allows local authorities to grant environmental permits to process industries, including new and existing petrochemical and chemical installations
  • BB 
    Bareboat or Below bridges 
  • BB 
    Bulbous bow or Bill book 
  • BCM 
    Bow to Center Manifold 
  • BCO 
    Beneficial Cargo Owner: Refers to the importer of record, who physically takes possession of cargo at destination and does not act as a third party in the movement of such goods. 
  • BDR 
    Bunker Delivery Receipt: The purpose of the Bunker Delivery Receipt (BDR) is to record what has been transferred. Various factors are recorded including: - Location and time of transfer  - Details of product delivered - Temperature of product delivered -
  • Beam 
    The breadth of a ship at its widest point 
  • Bear Down 
    To sail downwind rapidly towards another ship or landmark. 
    A measure of wind speed 
  • Belt Line 
    A switching railroad operating within a commercial area. 
  • Beneficial Owner 
    The registered owner of a vessel who can charter the vessel out to others 
  • Beneficiary 
    – Entity to whom money is payable. – The entity for whom a letter of credit is issued. – The seller and the drawer of a draft. 
  • Benzene 
    Benzene is the simplest aromatic compound, with a ring of six carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms. It is a colorless liquid occurring naturally in fossil raw materials such as crude oil and coal, produced during processing of petroleum liquids and through
  • Benzene Ring 
    6 carbon atoms in the form of a ring structure with a hydrogen atom attached to each carbon and is the basic building block of all aromatic chemicals 
  • Berth 
    BERTH shall mean the specific place where the Vessel is to load or discharge and shall include, but not be limited to, any wharf, anchorage, offshore facility or other location used for that purpose. 
  • Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea 
    The devil seam was the curved seam in the deck planking closest to the side of the ship and next to the scupper gutters. If a sailor slipped on the deck, he could find himself between the devil and the deep blue sea. 
  • Beyond 
    Used with reference to charges assessed for cargo movement past a line–haul terminating point. 
  • BHP 
    Brake horse power 
  • BIBO or "Bulk In, Bags Out" 
    Bulkers are equipped to bag cargo as it is unloaded. The CHL Innovator, shown in the photo, is a BIBO bulker. In one hour, this ship can unload 300 tons of bulk sugar and package it into 50 kg sacks. 
  • Bill of Exchange 
    In the United States, commonly known as a “Draft.” However, bill of exchange is the correct term. 
  • Bill of Lading (B/L) 
    A document that establishes the terms of a contract between a shipper and a transportation company. It serves as a document of title, a contract of carriage and a receipt for goods. 
  • Bill of Lading B/L BL BOL 
    Bill Of Lading: A legal document between the shipper of a particular good and the carrier detailing the type, quantity and destination of the good being carried. The bill of lading also serves as a receipt of shipment when the good is delivered to the pre
  • Bill of Lading Port of Discharge 
    Port where cargo is discharged from means of transport. 
  • Bill of Sale 
    Confirms the transfer of ownership of certain goods to another person in return for money paid or loaned. 
  • Billed Weight 
    The weight shown in a waybill and freight bill, i.e, the invoiced weight. 
  • BIMCO 
    Baltic & International Maritime Council. From 16 to 18 February 1905, 112 distinguished gentlemen assembled in Copenhagen and formed what is today the world’s largest and most diverse private shipping organisation. BIMCO has come a long way since then an 
  • Bioaccumulation 
    General term describing a process by which chemicals are taken up by aquatic organisms directly from water as well as through exposure through other routes, such as consumption of food or sediment containing the chemicals.  
  • Bioconcentration 
    A process by which there is a net accumulation of a chemical directly from water into aquatic organisms resulting from simultaneous uptake (e.g., by gill or epithelial tissue) and elimination.  
  • Bioconcentration factor 
    A term describing the degree to which a chemical can be concentrated in the tissues of an organism in the aquatic environment as a result of exposure to water-borne chemical. At steady state during the uptake phase of a bioconcentration test, the BCF is a
  • Biodegradation 
    The transformation of a material resulting from the complex enzymatic action of microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, fungi). It usually leads to disappearance of the parent structure and to the formation of smaller chemical species, some of which are used for
  • Biofuel 
    Biofuels are gas or liquid fuel (alcohols, ethers, esters, and other chemicals) made from plant material, agricultural and forestry residues, and a large portion of municipal solid and industrial waste. Biofuels include material as diverse as wood, wood w
  • Biomagnification 
    Result of the processes of bioconcentration and bioaccumulation by which tissue concentrations of bioaccumulated chemicals increase as the chemical passes up through two or more trophic levels. The term implies an efficient transfer of chemical food to co
  • Bitumen 
    Mineral pitch rich in asphaltenes and other complex, high-molecular-weight molecules. These mixtures of heavy hydrocarbons and resins form the base of, and impart adhesive, semi-solid consistency to asphalt cement and tar. 
  • BK 
    Bank or Book or Backwardation or Bar keel 
    Bill of lading or Bleeding (wing tanks) 
  • Blanket Waybill 
    A waybill covering two or more consignments of freight. 
  • Bleaching 
    This is a process whereby coloured pigments, impurities, trace metals, gums and oxidised materials are removed from oils and fats by adsorptive cleansing using bleaching clays and/or activated carbons. Bleaching is carried out on highly degummed oils, or
  • Bleaching Earth 
    Bleaching earths are montmorillonite clays which, in their natural state or after chemical or physical activation, have the capacity to adsorb colouring matters from oils. They are finely-crystalline silicates of aluminium and/or magnesium with variable a
  • Blender 
    someone or some organization which combines various components to produce motor gasoline. The term may accurately apply to refiners for they blend motor fuel from blendstock they produce or purchase. In many cases, however, the word designates gasoline ma
  • Blendstock 
    A component combined with other materials to produce a finished petroleum product. The term applies most frequently to motor gasoline ingredients. 
  • Blind Shipment 
    A B/L wherein the paying customer has contracted with the carrier that shipper or consignee infor- mation is not given. 
  • Block Stowage 
    Stowing cargo destined for a specific location close together to avoid unnecessary cargo movement. 
  • Blocking or Bracing 
    Wood or metal supports to keep shipments in place to prevent cargo shifting. See also Dunnage. 
  • BM 
    Ship Stability: Symbol for transverse metacentric radius; distance between B and M. 
  • Board Feet 
    The basic unit of measurement for lumber. One board foot is equal to a one–inch board, 12 inches wide and 1 foot long. Thus, a board 10 feet long, 12 inches wide, and 1 inch thick contains 10 board feet. 
  • Boat 
    A relatively small, usually open craft/vessel a small, often open vessel for traveling on waterAn inland vessel of any size. 
  • Bobtail 
    Movement of a tractor, without trailer, over the highway. 
  • Bogie 
    A set of wheels built specifically as rear wheels under the container. 
  • Boiling range 
    The temperature spread between the points where a material starts and finishes evaporating. This term has an abstract usage- naphtha-range, for example. It also has a specific one, such as "naphtha with a 140-350 F range." 
  • Bollard pull 
    The thrust developed at zero ahead speed. Bollard pull is the most commonly used measure of ship-assist tugs performance which have propellers optimized for maximum thrust at close to zero speed. 
  • Bond 
    Linkage between atoms which holds together molecules. The basic bond involves two atoms connected by a pair of shared electrons. A double bond requires linkage by two pairs (four electrons). A triple bond puts six electrons between two atoms. 
  • Bond Port 
    Port of initial Customs entry of a vessel to any country. Also known as First Port of Call. 
  • Bonded Warehouse 
    A warehouse authorized by Customs authorities for storage of goods on which payment of duties is deferred until the goods are removed. 
  • Booby Hatch 
    Aboard ship, a booby hatch s a sliding cover or hatch that must be pushed away to allow access or passage. 
  • Booking 
    Arrangements with a carrier for the acceptance and carriage of freight; i.e., a space reservation. 
  • Bottom wash 
    Crude oil washing operations restricted to the lower parts of the tank bulkheads, internal structures and bottom of tanks. This can only be carried out by vessels equipped with programmable tank washing machines. 
  • Bottoms 
    Unvaporized material drawn from the lowest point of a fractionation column. 
  • Bow 
    Forward most point of a ship. 
  • Bow Thruster 
    a device built into, or mounted to, the bow of a ship to make it more maneuverable. 
  • BPA Bisphenol-A 
    (4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol) An intermediate used in the production of epoxy, polycarbonate and phenolic resins. The name was coined after the condensation reaction by which it may be formed-two (bis) molecules of phenol with one of acetone (A). (Whittin
  • Breakwater 
    Structures designed to provide shelter from waves and improve navigation conditions. Such structures may be combined with jetties where required (EM 1110-2-2904). 
  • BREF 
    BAT Reference Documents, prepared by a European IPPC Bureau in Seville, in which BATs are defined. See BAT. 
  • Bridge Point 
    An inland location where cargo is received by the ocean carrier and then moved to a coastal port for loading. 
  • Bridge Port 
    A port where cargo is received by the ocean carrier and stuffed into containers but then moved to another coastal port to be waded on a vessel. 
  • Broken Stowage 
    – The loss– The loss of space caused by irregularity in the shape of packages. – Any void or empty space in a vessel or container not occupied by cargo. of space caused by irregularity in the shape of packages. 
  • Broker 
    A person who arranges for transportation of loads for a percentage of the revenue from the load. 
  • Brokerage 
    Freight forwarder/broker compensation as specified by ocean tariff or contract. 
  • Bromine number 
    A measure of the olefins content of a hydrocarbon mixture. In the petroleum intermediates trade, it serves primarily to indicate the presence of cracked stock in a cargo or stream. California air pollution laws also make it an important specification for
  • BS 
    Broken Stowage or Balance Sheet 
  • BT 
    Berth Terms or Bow Thruster 
  • BT 
    Bow Thruster room 
  • BTU 
    British Thermal Unit - 0.252 kcal or Bow Thrust Unit 
  • BUA 
    Beratergrenium für Umweltrelevante Altstoffe (the German Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance) 
  • Bucket Dredger 
    A vessel equipped to obtain material from the sea bed by use of circulating buckets. The material may be carried on board, transferred to other vessels, pumped ashore or deposited elsewhere using a spray 
  • Bucket Dredger Pontoon 
    A non propelled dredger pontoon fitted with an endless chain of buckets lowered to the sea bed 
  • Bulk Barge, propelled 
    A self propelled barge with an arrangement of topside ballast tanks for the carriage of bulk dry cargo of a homogeneous nature 
  • Bulk Cargo 
    Not in packages or containers; shipped loose in the hold of a ship without mark and count.” Grain, coal and sulfur are usually bulk freight. 
  • Bulk Cargo Barge, self discharging, propelled 
    A self propelled bulk barge fitted with a conveyor belt (or similar system) and a boom which can discharge cargo alongside or to shore without the assistance of any external equipment 
  • Bulk Cargo Carrier, self discharging 
    A bulk carrier fitted with self trimming holds, a conveyor belt (or similar system) and a boom which can discharge cargo alongside or to shore without the assistance of any external equipment 
  • Bulk Cargo Carrier, self discharging, Laker 
    A Great Lakes bulk carrier fitted with a conveyor belt (or similar system) and a boom which can discharge cargo alongside or to shore without the assistance of any external equipment 
  • Bulk Carrier 
    A single deck cargo vessel with an arrangement of topside ballast tanks for the carriage of bulk dry cargo of a homogeneous nature 
  • Bulk Carrier (with Vehicle Decks) 
    A bulk carrier with movable decks for the additional carriage of new vehicles 
  • Bulk Carrier, Laker Only 
    A single deck cargo vessel with dimensions suited to the limitations of Great Lakes of North America trade, unsuitable for open sea navigation. Hatches are more numerous than standard bulk carriers, and much wider than they are long 
  • Bulk Cement Barge, propelled 
    A self propelled barge fitted with pumping arrangements for the carriage of cement in bulk. There are no weather deck hatches. May be self discharging 
  • Bulk Cement Carrier, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel designed for the bulk transport of cement cargoes. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • Bulk–Freight Container 
    A container with a discharge hatch in the front wall; allows bulk commodities to be carried. 
  • Bulkhead 
    similar to a seawall, it is a constructed barrier in the water 
  • Bull Rings 
    Cargo–securing devices mounted in the floor of containers; allow lashing and securing of cargo. 
  • Bunker Charge 
    An extra charge sometimes added to steamship freight rates; justified by higher fuel costs. Also known as Fuel Adjustment Factor or FAF. 
  • Bunkering Tanker 
    A tanker equipped to supply other vessels with bunker fuels 
  • Bunkers 
    Fuel, usually residue grades, burned by ships' main engines. The most familiar kind, called bunker C may contain a high concentration of sulfur and have a high specific gravity but must meet a viscosity specification which assures free flow at the tempera
  • Buoy 
    Floating marker, secured to bottom of the sea, which is used as a navigational aid to mariners. 
  • Bureau Veritas 
    A French classification society which certifies seagoing vessels for compliance to standardized rules regarding construction and maintenance. 
  • Burnback 
    The distance a flame will travel from the ignition source back to the aerosol container 
  • Butadiene 
    A four-carbon olefin. More precisely, a di-olefin because the molecule has two double bonds. Synthetic rubber production consumes much of the butadiene supply. Smaller amounts find an outlet in high-strength resins manufacturing. 
  • Butadiene 
    A flammable gaseous olefin used in making synthetic rubbers. Butadiene rubber has now completely displaced natural rubber in the manufacture of automobile tires. 
  • Butane 
    Butanes are colorless, odorless, gaseous hydrocarbons. The compound in which the carbon atoms are linked in a straight chain is called normal butane, or n-butane; the branched-chain form is isobutane. Both occur in natural gas and in crude oil and are for
  • Butter 
    Made by churning cream, often after a refining process. Cream is an emulsion of very small fat droplets in water. Milk proteins and salts are dissolved in the water. During churning, the small fat droplets coalesce until they form a continuous fat phase,
  • Buy/sell 
    A swap in which, for accounting purposes or other reasons, company A sells a parcel to company B while B sells a second parcel to A. Each party buys one and sells another. 
  • BW 
    Brackish water 
  • BWA 
    Brackish water allowance 
  • BWAD 
    Brackish Water Arrival Draft 
  • BWDD 
    Brackish water departure draft 
  • BWSC 
    Baltic and White Sea Conference 
  • BWT 
    Bleeding wing tanks 
  • By and Large 
    Currently means in all cases or in any case. From the nautical: by meaning into the wind and large meaning with the wind: as in, "By and Large the ship handled very well." 
  • C&F or CFR 
    Cost and Freight (named port of destination) Seller must pay the costs and freight to bring the goods to the port of destination. However, risk is transferred to the buyer once the goods are loaded on the vessel (this rule is new!). Maritime transport onl
  • C&F Terms of Sale, or INCOTERMS 
    Obsolete, although heavily used, term of sale meaning “cargo and freight” whereby Seller pays for cost of goods and freight charges up to destination port. In July, 1990 the International Chamber of Commerce replaced C&F with CFR. 
  • C.A.S. Number 
    Chemical Abstracts Service, a service of the American Chemical Society, identifies particular chemicals with a number. 
  • C.I.S 
    Commonwealth Independent States (ex Soviet Republics) 
  • C–TPAT (Customs–Trade Partnership Against Terrorism) 
    A voluntary supply chain security partnership established by U.S. Customs and Border Protection in November 2001. Meeting the C–TPAT standards allows cargo owners faster processing through cus- toms formalities and inspections. 
  • C4 
    C4 derivatives are among the main olefin products coming from the steam cracker, along with ethylene and propylene. Butadiene is the most valuable product from the C4 fraction. 
  • Cable Layer 
    A vessel equipped to lay and repair underwater cables  
  • Cable Repair Ship 
    A vessel equipped for the retrieval and repair of underwater cables 
  • Cabotage 
    Refers to the coastal trades of a particular nation. Cabotage is often governed by statutes requiring that only ships flying the flag of the coastal state concerned may engage in the coastal trades between ports of that state, unless "waivers" are obtaine
  • Cadet 
    A student who is training to be a marine officer. 
  • Calendar Day 
    CALENDAR DAY shall mean a period of twenty-four (24) consecutive hours running from 0000 hours to 2400 hours. Any part of a Calendar Day shall be counted pro-rata. 
  • Call 
    this denotes when a ship is coming to visit a port and berth 
  • CALM Buoy 
    Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring Buoy - Simple system to which a tanker moors and then either loads or discharges its cargo. Buoy is moored by chains anchored to the seabed. 
  • Capesize 
    Capesize vessels are typically above 150,000 long tons deadweight (DWT). Capesize ships are cargo ships originally too large to transit the Suez Canal (i.e., larger than both Panamax and Suezmax vessels). To travel between oceans, such vessels used to hav
  • Capesize Vessel 
    A dry bulk vessel above 80,000dwt or whose beam precludes passage via the Panama Canal and thus forces them to pass around Cape Horn or the Cape of Good Hope. 
  • Captain’s Protest 
    A document prepared by the captain of a vessel on arriving at port; shows conditions encountered during voyage, generally for the purpose of relieving ship owner of any loss to cargo and shifting responsibility for reimbursement to the insurance company. 
  • Car Carrier 
    A vehicles carrier for the carriage of new cars which are loaded via ramps 
  • Carbohydrate 
    Any member of a very abundant and widespread class of natural organic substances, compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, that includes the sugars, starch, and cellulose. 
  • Carbon 
    An element forming a large number of compounds, many of which have important uses. Diamond and graphite are amongst the main forms of carbon. Coals are elemental carbon mixed with varying amounts of carbon compounds; coke and charcoal are nearly pure carb
  • Carbon residue 
    The solid, impure carbon deposits (coke) left behind by burned hydrocarbon fuels. The industry uses two tests, Conradson carbon (Con Carbon) and Ramsbottom carbon to measure oils' tendency to form such solids. 
  • Carcinogen 
    A substance or physical agent that is capable of causing cancer. For the purposes of classification by the GESAMP experts they are subdivided into the following three categories Animal Carcinogen- a substance that has been shown to cause cancer in laborat
  • Carfloat 
    A barge equipped with tracks on which up to approximately 12 railroad cars are moved in harbors or inland waterways. 
  • Cargo NOS 
    Cargo Not Otherwise Specified. Usually the rate entry in a tariff that can apply to commodities not covered under a specific item or sub– item in the applicable tariff. 
  • Cargo Preference 
    Cargo reserved by a Nation’s laws for transportation only on vessels registered in that Nation.Typically the cargo is moving due to a direct or indirect support or activity of the Government. 
  • Cargo Tonnage 
    Most ocean freight is billed on the basis of weight or measurement tons (W/M). Weight tons can be expressed in short tons of 2000 pounds, long tons of 2240 pounds or metric tons of 1000 kilos (2204.62 pounds). Measurement tons are usually expressed as car
  • Caribbean Trading Area 
    is the area bounded by the east coasts of North, Central and South America; and a line from the east coast of the United States in latitude 32 o 30'N to a point 20oN: 60 o W, thence to a point 10oN : 50 oW , and thence south to the coast of South America.
  • Carnet 
    A customs document permitting the holder to temporarily carry or send merchandise into certain for- eign countries (for display, demonstration or similar purposes) without paying duties or posting bonds. Any of various Customs documents required for cross
  • Carotene 
    A natural constituent which gives crude palm oil its bright orange-red colour and which is normally destroyed by the high temperatures in the refining and/or deodorisation processes. It is also partially destroyed by oxidation under adverse conditions of
  • Carrier 
    Any person or entity who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of carriage by rail, road, sea, air, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes. 
  • Cartment 
    Customs form permitting in–bond cargo to be moved from one location to another under Customs control, within the same Customs district. Usually in motor carrier’s possession while draying cargo. 
  • Cash Against Documents (CAD) 
    Method of payment for goods in which documents transferring title are given the buyer upon payment of cash to an intermediary acting for the seller, usually a commission house. 
  • Cash in Advance (CIA) 
    A method of payment for goods in which the buyer pays the seller in advance of the shipment of goods. Usually employed when the goods, such as specialized machinery, are built to order. 
  • Cash With Order (CWO) 
    A method of payment for goods in which cash is paid at the time of order and the transaction becomes binding on both buyer and seller. 
  • Catalyst 
    A catalyst is a substance which, when added to the components of a chemical reaction, speeds up the rate of that reaction but does not itself become involved chemically. An example of such compounds in the edible oil context is nickel used in hydrogenatio
  • Catalytic cracker 
    These refinery units, also widely known as cat crackers and FCC's (for fluid catalytic crackers) or FCCU's, convert heavy distillate, most commonly vacuum gasoil, to lighter fractions. Refiners use them, basically, to break molecules which boil in the hea
  • Cathode 
    Electrode at which the cathodic reaction predominates 
  • Cathodic Protection 
    Electrochemical protection achieved by decreasing the corrosion potential to a level at which the corrosion rate of the metal is significantly reduced 
  • CB & H Cont. 
    (BH) Continent between Bordeaux and Hamburg 
  • CBT 
    Clean Ballast Tanks: Applies only to Pre-MARPOL vessels which adopted COW instead of converting to SBT when MARPOL 73/78 entered into Force. When operating as a "Products" tanker (typically with Fuel Oil), COW is not available so vessel adopts "CBT" mod 
    European Confederation of Wood Industries 
  • Cells 
    The construction system employed in container vessels; permits ship containers to be stowed in a vertical line with each container supporting the one above it 
  • Cement Carrier 
    A single deck cargo vessel fitted with pumping arrangements for the carriage of cement in bulk. There are no weather deck hatches. May be self discharging 
  • Cement Storage Barge, non propelled 
    A barge with pumping facilities for loading & discharging cement. 
  • CENSA 
    Council of European National Shipowners Associations 
  • Center of Gravity 
    The point of equilibrium of the total weight of a containership, truck, train or a piece of cargo. 
  • Centigrade degrees (C) 
    Also known as Celsius degrees. A temperature scale according to which water boils at 100 and freezes at 0. Centigrade, or Celsius, degrees convert to Fahrenheit degrees by the following formula: (C x 1.8) + 32=F. 
  • Centistoke 
    The unit, commonly abbreviated cSt, of kinematic viscosity which reports a liquid's resistance to flow in terms of its measured viscosity divided by its density. 
  • Centrifuging 
    Substances having different densities will separate by gravity. For example, oil is lighter than water and easily forms a separate upper layer. The effect of gravity can be accentuated by increasing the strength of the gravitational force, for example by
  • Certificate of Inspection 
    – A document certifying that merchandise (such as perishable goods) was in good condition immediately prior to its shipment. – The document issued by the U.S. Coast Guard certifying an American – Flag vessel’s compliance with applicable laws and regulatio
  • Certificate of Origin 
    A certified document showing the origin of goods; used in international commerce. 
  • Cetane index (CI) 
    An estimated diesel fuel performance rating which relies on samples' API gravity and mid-point CI=-420.34 + 0.016G2 + 0192G log M + 65.01 (LOG M)2-0.0001809M2 where G= API gravity and M=mid-point in F 
  • CFR 
    Cost and Freight (named port of destination) Seller must pay the costs and freight to bring the goods to the port of destination. However, risk is transferred to the buyer once the goods are loaded on the vessel (this rule is new!). Maritime transport onl
  • CFR (Cost and Freight) (...Named Port of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale where the seller pays the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destina- tion, Terms of Sale but the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as (continued) well as any additional costs due to events occurring a
  • CH & H 
    Continent between Le Havre and Hamburg 
  • Channel 
    a natural or man-made deeper course through a reef, bar, bay, or any shallow body of water, often used by ships. 
  • Charter Party 
    A written contract between the owner of a vessel and the person desiring to employ the vessel (char- terer); sets forth the terms of the arrangement, such as duration of agreement, freight rate and ports involved in the trip. 
  • Charter, Bareboat 
    A charter where the owner provides his ship to the Charterer who then provides his own officers and crew and operates the vessel as if it were a unit of his own fleet. Hire is usually paid on a daily rate, monthly in advance, and the owner retains rights 
  • Charter, Time 
    The chartering of a vessel for a fixed period of time with the vessel delivering and re-delivering at agreed dates and at agreed zones or places though usually with an option to the Charterer to extend the period of charter. It is really a contract for t 
  • Charter, Trip 
    A contract where the vessel has specific beginning and end ports but where the route and time taken may vary. 
  • Charterer 
    A person or firm who enters into a contract with a shipowner for the transportation of cargo or passengers for a stipulated period of time, i.e. a shipowner's customer 
  • Chassis 
    A frame with wheels and container locking devices in order to secure the container for movement. 
  • ChE inhibitor 
    Cholinesterase inhibitor. A substance which produces inhibition of the cholinesterase group of enzymes, that play a vital role in nerve impulse transmission and other biological functions. Also known as anticholinesterase. 
  • Chemical oxygen demand 
    When organic materials are not easily degraded by microorganisms, strong oxidizing agents (e.g., potassium permanganate) are used to enhance oxidation. COD is thus measured instead of BOD (see BOD). COD values will be larger than BOD values. 
  • Chemical reaction 
    A chemical process in which substances are changed into different substances. Chemical reactions are manifested by the disappearance of properties characteristic of the starting materials and the appearance of new properties that distinguish the products.
  • Chemical Tanker 
    A tanker built to comply with either the International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IBC Code) or the Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (BCH Code)
  • Chemical Tanker, Inland Waterways 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of chemical cargoes, lube oils, vegetable/animal oils and other chemicals as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code which is not suitable for trading in open waters. Tanks are coated with suitable materials which ar
  • Chemical/Products Tanker, Inland Waterways 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of chemical cargoes, lube oils, vegetable/animal oils and other chemicals as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code or Petroleum Products which is not suitable for trading in open waters.  
  • Chlorides 
    Chlorine-containing compounds. The oil trade pays most attention to these substances when discussing naphtha. Reformers need a specific amount of chloride on their catalyst to perform properly, any more or any less amounts to poison. Naphtha feedstock con
  • Chlorine 
    Chlorine, an inorganic chemical that can be obtained both naturally and synthetically, has a huge variety of uses, as a disinfectant and purifier, in plastics and polymers, solvents, agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals, as well as an intermediate in manufac
  • Chlorophyll 
    A natural, green colouring agent vital to a plant's photosynthesis process which is removed from vegetable oils through bleaching and refining processes. 
  • Chock 
    A piece of wood or other material placed at the side of cargo to prevent rolling or moving sideways. 
  • Chock-a-Block 
    Meaning something is filled to capacity or over loaded. If two blocks of rigging tackle were so hard together they couldn't be tightened further, it was said they were "Chock-a-Block". 
  • Cholesterol 
    Cholesterol is one of a class of compounds known as sterols. It is an important component in animal tissues and cell membranes but found only in trace amounts in plant tissues. While many vegetable oils are known to contain traces of cholesterol, the amou
  • CHOPT 
    Charterers Option (As opposed to owner's option) 
  • Chromatography 
    Chromatography is a separation process used to analyse mixtures. The mixture, dissolved in a mobile phase, is contacted with a stationary phase, usually a fine powder. The components of the mixture are adsorbed or retained by the stationary phase to varyi
  • Chronic 
    A long time period of action in weeks, months, or years 
  • Chronic Effects of Overexposure 
    The adverse effects that develop slowly over a long period of time or upon repeated prolong exposure to a hazardous material without implying a degree of severity 
  • CIF 
    Cost, Insurance and Freight (named port of destination)  Exactly the same as CFR except that the seller must in addition procure and pay for the insurance. Maritime transport only. The four rules defined by Incoterms 2010 for international trade where tra
  • CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight) (...Named Place of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale where the seller has the same obligations as under the CFR but also has to procure marine insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premi
  • CIF&C 
    Price includes commission as well as CIF. 
  • CIP 
    Carriage and Insurance Paid to (named place of destination) The containerized transport/multimodal equivalent of CIF. Seller pays for carriage and insurance to the named destination point, but risk passes when the goods are handed over to the first carrie
  • CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid To) (...Named Place of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale which means the seller has the same obligations as under CPT, but with the addition that the seller has to procure cargo insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts for insu
  • CIS 
    The term applied to a geometric isomer of an unsaturated fatty acid where the hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon atoms comprising the double bond are on the same side of the carbon chain. 
  • CIS 
    Commonwealth of Independent States 
  • CKD 
    Completely or Cars knocked down 
  • Class 
    Classification society which has inspected and certified the vessel from construction, launch and periodically throughout a vessel''s trading life, including re-classification after any incident of grounding, stranding or collision. 
  • Class 1 [Deck] 
    Master or Captain: Entitles the holder to act as Master on a ship of any size, with unlimited trading range. 
  • Class 1 [Engineer] 
    Chief Engineer: Entitles the holder to act as Chief Engineer on a ship of any power. 
  • Class 2 [Deck] 
    1st Mate, Chief Mate or Chief Officer: Entitles the holder to act as Chief Mate on a ship of any size with unlimited trading or may entitle the holder to act as Master on a ship but with restrictions on size or trading area. 
  • Class 2 [Engineer] 
    2nd Engineer: Entitles the holder to sail as Second Engineer on a ship of any power but may also entitle the holder to act as Chief Engineer on a ship with a restriction on power. 
  • Class 3 [Deck] 
    2nd Mate: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of a navigational watch on a ship of any size with unlimited trading but may also entitle the holder to act as Chief Mate, or possibly Master, on a ship but with restrictions on size or trading are
  • Class 3 [Engineer] 
    3rd Engineer: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of an engineering watch on a ship of any power but may also entitle the holder to act as Second Engineer, or possibly Chief Engineer, on a ship with a restriction on power. 
  • Class 4 [Deck] 
    3rd Mate: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of a navigational watch on any ship. 
  • Class 4 [Engineer] 
    4th Engineer: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of an engineering watch on a ship of any power. 
  • Classification Rating 
    The designation provided in a classification by which a class rate is determined. 
  • Classification Society 
    An organization maintained for the surveying and classing of ships so that insurance underwriters and others may know the quality and condition of the vessels offered for insurance or employment. See also ABS, BV, DNV, LR and NK. 
  • Classification Yard 
    A railroad yard with many tracks used for assembling freight trains. 
  • Clayton Act 
    An anti–trust act of the U.S. Congress making price discrimination unlawful. 
  • Clean 
    Unleaded, when used to describe motor gasoline or blendstock. 
  • Clean Ballast 
    Ballast contained in cargo tanks that have been COW'd and thoroughly water washed. It may be discharged to sea and meets MARPL requirements. 
  • Clean Bill of Health 
    A certificate signed by a port authority attesting that no contagious disease existed in the port of departure and none of crew were infected with a disease at the time of sailing. Shore-side, it means in good shape.. 
  • Clean Bill Of Lading 
    A bill of lading issued by a carrier declaring that the goods have been received in an appropriate condition, without the presence of defects. The product carrier will issue a clean bill after thoroughly inspecting the packages for any damage, missing qua
  • Cleaning in Transit 
    The stopping of articles, such as peanuts, etc., for cleaning at a point between the point of origin and destination. 
  • Clear Point 
    The clear point is the temperature at which a fat sample in a closed capillary tube or a U-tube becomes completely clear on warming. 
  • Clear the Deck 
    One of the things done in preparation for battle. Current usage similar to "Batten down the hatches".. 
  • Clearance Limits 
    The size beyond which cars or loads cannot use bridges, tunnels, etc. 
  • Cleat 
    A strip of wood or metal used to afford additional strength, to prevent warping, or to hold in place. 
  • Climate change 
    The term "climate change" is used to imply a significant change from one climatic condition to another. Sometimes, climate change is used synonymously with the term global warming; scientists however, tend to use the term in the wider sense to also includ
  • Clingage 
    Material which adheres to the surface of tank walls and structures, both horizontal and vertical, within empty and part empty tanks, other than bottom surfaces. 
  • Clip–On 
    Refrigeration equipment attachable to an insulated container that does not have its own refrigeration unit. 
  • Close Quarters 
    In the 17th century the barriers that sailors laid across a ship’s deck in order to provide a safe haven from the enemy were called close-fights. By the mid 18th century that confined defensive space became called ‘close quarters’, i.e. close dwellings. T
  • Closed Operations 
    The procedure to prevent the release of cargo vapours at deck level on vessels during loading, ballasting and discharging. This is essential when handling toxic, volatile or noxious cargoes to prevent injury to personnel and risk of ignition. "Closed Ope 
  • Cloud Point 
    The cloud point is the temperature at which the oil begins to cloud resulting from crystallisation under controlled cooling. The cloud point is related to the unsaturation of the oil. In general, the higher the unsaturation of an oil, the lower will be it
  • Cloud point 
    The temperature where wax crystals begin to appear in a cooled hydrocarbon mixture. This quality consideration, usually applied to gasoil, indicates how cold the air must become to make a stream form solids which block filters halting fuel delivery. Cloud
  • Co-products 
    substances made in one processing unit at the same time. A lot of refining hardware, especially crackers, cannot help making an assortment of hydrocarbons. The industry uses "co product" when it does not want to designate one material a plant's 
  • COA 
    Contract of Affreightment: A cargo transportation arrangement whereby the owner agrees to transportation of a specified quantity of cargo over a set period of time in a vessel or series of vessels for the Charterer. It consists of the base terms of agre 
  • COA 
    Contract of affreightment. An arrangement between a ship owner and a charterer for the carriage of a certain amount of specified grade or grades of cargo on named routes over a period of time. Owners may use any suitable ships at their disposable to meet
  • Coal 
    A black or brownish black solid, combustible carbon-rich substance formed by the partial decomposition of vegetable matter without access to air. Coal is one of the most important of the primary fossil fuels. It is indispensable to life and constitutes hu
  • Coast Guard-AWO Safety Partnership 
    The Coast Guard-AWO Safety Partnership, the first formal industry-Coast Guard partnership of its kind, has launched more than 25 quality action teams that address the most pressing industry safety issues. The Partnership is responsible for improving safet
  • Coastal 
    Smallest tankers and are generally used in coastal waters requiring a shallow draft. (3,001 dwt - 10,000 dwt approx ) 
  • Coastal amenity 
    Beach, mudflat, wharf, boardwalk or any other feature of the coastline considered of public value 
  • Coastal Waters 
    an area designated as such by the Administration and where this is not so designated it means an area not more than 20 miles from a safe refuge. 
  • Coastwise 
    Water transportation along the coast. 
  • COC 
    Certificate of Compliance means a certificate issued by the Coast Guard to a foreign flag vessel after it is examined and found to comply with regulations in this chapter. 
  • Cocoa Butter 
    The seed fat of ""Theobroma Cacao"", a small tree growing in tropical climates. Normally the cocoa beans are fermented and roasted to develop the desirable cocoa flavour. The beans are then milled to produce cocoa mass. Pressing of the cocoa mass gives co
  • Cocoa Butter Equivalent 
    Fats which behave like cocoa butter in all respects and are able to mix with cocoa butter in any proportion without altering the melting, rheological and processing characteristics of cocoa butter in all types of formulation. These fats have the physico-c
  • Cocoa Butter Substitute 
    Fats which have a very limited compatibility with cocoa butter as mixing with cocoa butter adversely affects the rheological, melting and processing characteristics of the product. These fats on their own and also with a limited amount of cocoa butter hav
  • Coconut Oil 
    Coconut oil is the oil obtained from copra - dried coconut meat. An edible oil, coconut oil is distinguished from other edible oils by its high content of short chain saturated acids (predominantly lauric) and its low unsaturated acid content. Susceptible
  • COD 
    Cash on delivery : Financial transaction wherein the payment for goods/services is done at the time of delivery/execution rather than in advance. 
  • Codex Alimentarius 
    A Commission operating under the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations/World Health Organisation (FAO/WHO) auspices, which has the task of preparing model standards and codes of practice for edible products and for food processes. It ope
  • Coiled 
    Tankers fitted with tubes which carry hot water or steam through viscous cargoes, such as heavy fuel oil and certain crudes, to keep them fluid. 
  • Coke 
    solid, almost hydrogen-free carbon made on purpose in fuel oil destruction units called cokers or inescapably in other processing hardware. Coke forms on the catalyst in cat crackers and in the furnaces of ethylene plants. The coke manufactured intentiona
  • Coker 
    A thermal processing unit which cracks heavy refinery streams, such as vacuum still bottoms, into light products while reducing much of that feedstock to solid carbon. The liquids yielded by these units, often called coker naphtha and coker gasoil, usuall
  • Coking 
    A thermal cracking process to break up large molecules into smaller ones with the generation of quantities of petroleum coke. 
  • Cold blender 
    see blender. European producers of motor gasoline who have no distillation or other refining equipment go by this name. They make their product by mixing purchased "cold" components. This term has the advantage over the simple "blender" used in the USA of
  • Cold filter plugging point 
    A measure of diesel fuel's suitability for use in cold weather. Usually called by its initials, CFPP, this specification reports the temperature where clotted wax stops fuel from passing through a test filter. CFFP goes beyond cloud point, which indicates
  • Cold zone 
    Area where the command post and support functions that are necessary to control the incident are located. This is also referred to as the clean zone or support zone in other documents. (NFPA 472) 
  • Collection 
    A draft drawn on the buyer, usually accompanied by documents, with complete instructions concerning processing for payment or acceptance. 
  • collision 
    when two moving vessels strike each other 
  • Colonial grade 
    Light petroleum product which conforms to one of the specifications of Colonial Pipeline Company. 
  • Color 
    A spectrum which extends from absolutely colorless (usually described as water white) to dirty (black and opaque). This property only pertains usefully to light refined products and gas liquids. It makes a handy indicator of contamination or poor distilla
  • Column Chromatography 
    This is a laboratory technique by which two or more substances in a mixture are separated due to their differential affinities for a solid adsorbent. The adsorbent is filled into a column and a solution of the mixture is washed down the column with solven
  • Combination carriers 
    Vessels fitted to transport more than one type of cargo. The petroleum industry uses a good-sized fleet of OBO's, ships which transport dry cargo or oil. 
  • Combination Carriers 
    Ships designed to carry either a liquid cargo or a dry cargo on different voyages. This concept was developed to shorten ballast voyages. 
  • Combination Carriers (O/O) 
    Ore Oil (O/O) carriers have twin longitudinal bulkheads (similar to a conventional tanker) but have been additionally equipped with large deck hatches and strengthened double bottoms in way of the centre cargo tanks. This arrangement allows dry bulk carg 
  • Combination Passenger and Cargo Vessels 
    Ships with a capacity for 13 or more passengers and any form of cargo or freight. 
  • Combination Rate 
    A rate made up of two or more factors, separately published. 
  • Combined Carriers 
    Designed to transport both liquid and dry bulk cargoes. If both are carried simultaneously, they are segregated in separate holds and tanks. Combined carriers require special design and are expensive. They were prevalent in the 1970s, but their numbers ha
  • Combustible liquid 
    Liquids which have a flash point greater than 60.5°C (141°F) and below 93°C (200°F). U.S. regulations permit a flammable liquid flashing between 38°C (100°F) and 60.5°C (141°F) to be reclassed as a combustible liquid. 
  • Commercial Invoice 
    Represents a complete record of the transaction between exporter and importer with regard to the goods sold. Also reports the content of the shipment and serves as the basis for all other documents relating to the shipment. 
  • Commercial Management 
    Service where a hired agent operates a ship and receives a fee in return. 
  • Commercial Transport Vessel 
    Any ship which is used primarily in commerce: (1) For transporting persons or goods to or from any harbor(s) or port(s) or between places within a harbor area; (2) In connection with the construction, change in construction, servicing, mainte- nance, repa
  • Common Carrier 
    A transportation company which provides service to the general public at published rates. 
  • Common Law 
    Law that derives its force and authority from precedent, custom and usage rather than from statutes, particularly with reference to the laws of England and the United States. 
  • Company Security Officer 
    Is the person designated by the company for ensuring that a ship security assessment is carried out and that a ship security plan is developed, submitted for approval and thereafter implemented and maintained for liaison with port facility security office
  • Compatibility 
    The suitable of two or more residues for blending. Some stocks--certain visbroken resides and hydrotreated bottoms, for instance--do not combine well enough to yield stable fuel oils. 
  • Complex Triglyceride 
    A triglyceride where one or two fatty acid structures differ from the third fatty acid. 
  • Component 
    One part of a blend. The word most commonly names streams combined to make motor gasoline. In that usage, it serves as short version of "mogas component". Though not used casually, "gasoil component," “heavy fuel oil component" and similar designations ma
  • Compound 
    A compound (or molecule) is a combination of two or more chemical elements (atoms) held together by chemical bonds. 
  • Compulsory Ship 
    Any ship which is required to be equipped with radiotelecommunication equipment in order to comply with the radio or radio-navigation provisions of a treaty or statute to which the vessel is subject. 
    The Oil Companies' European Organization for Environment, Health and Safety 
  • Concealed Damage 
    Damage that is not evident from viewing the unopened package. 
  • Condensate 
    Natural gas liquids heavier than butane. The term condensates commonly covers two quite different kinds of streams: natural gasolines and heavy condensates. Natural gasolines come from LPG or LNG plants. They have properties similar to naphthas. Heavy con
  • Confectionary Fats 
    Fats used for the manufacture of sugar and/or chocolate based confectionery products. These fats generally have sharp melting behaviour, having a very low solid fat content at body temperature. The physico-chemical properties of these fats and hence, thei
  • Conference 
    An association of ship owners operating in the same trade route who operate under collective condi- tions and agree on tariff rates. 
  • Confirmed Letter of Credit 
    A letter of credit, issued by a foreign bank, whose validity has been confirmed by a domestic bank. An exporter with a confirmed letter of credit is assured of payment even if the foreign buyer or the foreign bank defaults 
  • Connecting Carrier 
    A carrier which has a direct physical connection with, or forms a link between two or more carriers. 
  • Connecting Carrier Agreement 
    A connecting carrier agreement is a contract between the originating carrier and a second party, where the second party agrees to carry goods to a final destination on a through Billof Lading. 
  • Conradson carbon (ConCarbon) 
    A measurement of hydrocarbon mixtures tendency to leave carbon deposits (coke) when burned as fuel or subjected to intense heat in a processing unit such as a catalytic cracker. The ConCarbon test involves destructive distillation -subjection to high temp
  • Consignee 
    A person or company to whom commodities are shipped. 
  • Consignee Mark 
    A symbol placed on packages for identification purposes; generally a triangle, square, circle, etc. with letters and/or numbers and port of discharge. 
  • Consignment 
    (1) A stock of merchandise advanced to a dealer and located at his place of business, but with title remaining in the source of supply. (2) A shipment of goods to a consignee. 
  • Consignor 
    A person or company shown on the bill of lading as the shipper. 
  • Consolidation 
    Cargo containing shipments of two or more shippers or suppliers. Containerload shipments may be consolidated for one or more consignees, often in containerload quantities. 
  • Consolidator 
    A person or firm performing a consolidation service for others. The consolidator takes advantage of lower full carload (FCL) rates, and passes on the savings to shippers. 
  • Construction Differential Subsidy 
    A program whereby the U.S. government attempted to offset the higher shipbuilding cost in the U.S. by paying up to 50% of the difference between cost of U.S. and non–U.S. construction. The differ- ence went to the U.S. shipyard. It is unfunded since 1982.
  • Consul 
    A government official residing in a foreign country who represents the interests of her or his country and its nationals. 
  • Consular Declaration 
    A formal statement describing goods to be shipped; filed with and approved by the consul of the country of destination prior to shipment. 
  • Container 
    A truck trailer body that can be detached from the chassis for loading into a vessel, a rail car or stacked in a container depot. Containers may be ventilated, insulated, refrigerated, flat rack, vehicle rack, open top, bulk liquid or equipped with interi
  • Container Barge, propelled 
    A self propelled cargo vessel with boxed holds fitted with fixed cellular guides for the carriage of containers 
  • Container Booking 
    Arrangements with a steamship line to transport containerized cargo. 
  • Container Load 
    A load sufficient in size to fill a container either by cubic measurement or by weight. 
  • Container Manifest 
    Document showing contents and loading sequence, point of origin, and point of destination for a container. Vessels are required by law to carry such a document for each container carried. 
  • Container Pool 
    An agreement between parties that allows the efficient use and supply of containers. A common supply of containers available to the shipper as required. 
  • Container Security Initiative (CSI) 
    A U.S. cargo security program whereby containerized cargoes destined for the United States may be inspected on a selective basis at many foreign ports before loading on a vessel. As of October 2007, there were 51 approved ports. A multinational program, a
  • Container Ship (Fully Cellular with Ro-Ro Facility) 
    A container ship with the additional capability to be loaded and unloaded by ro-ro access to a limited portion of the cargo space 
  • Container Ship (Fully Cellular) 
    A single deck cargo vessel with boxed holds fitted with fixed cellular guides for the carriage of containers 
  • Container Ship (Fully Cellular), Inland Waterways 
    A vessel designed for the transportation of fully cellular Containers. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • Container Terminal 
    An area designated for the stowage of cargoes in container; usually accessible by truck, railroad and marine transportation. Here containers are picked up, dropped off, maintained and housed. 
  • Container Vessels 
    Ships equipped with permanent container cells that hold containers 
  • Container-on-Barge 
    Using deck barges, shipping by container-on-barge is becoming more prevalent as a means to mitigate truck traffic congestion on the nation's highways. 
  • Containerizable Cargo 
    Cargo that will fit into a container and result in an economical shipment. 
  • Containerization 
    Stowage of general or special cargoes in a container for transport in the various modes. 
  • Contract 
    A legally binding agreement between two or more persons/organizations to carry out reciprocal ob- ligations or value. 
  • Contract Carrier 
    Any person not a common carrier who, under special and individual contracts or agreements, transports passengers or property for compensation. 
  • Control zones 
    Designated areas at dangerous goods incidents, based on safety and the degree of hazard. Many terms are used to describe control zones; however, in this guidebook, these zones are defined as the hot, warm, and cold zones. (NFPA 472) 
  • Controlled Atmosphere 
    Sophisticated, computer–controlled systems that manage the mixtures of gases within a container throughout an intermodal journey reducing decay. 
  • Conventional Day 
    CONVENTIONAL DAY shall mean a period of twenty-four (24) consecutive hours running from any identified time. Any part of a Conventional Day shall be counted pro-rata. 
  • Conventional Tanker 
    Crude tankers used for deep sea transportation of unrefined oil from producing countries to refineries, ranging in size from 55,000 to 500,000 deadweight tonnes. 
  • Conversion 
    Cracking molecules which boil above the threshold temperature into smaller ones which boil below it. Traditionally, the term applied to catalytic crackers. They convert oil which boils above 430 F to hydrocarbons which boil below that point. In other word
  • Conversion 
    In the plastics industry, conversion is the processing of raw materials into usable forms, e.g. the conversion of plastic pellets into films or the conversion of films into food containers. The steps involved include compounding (the mixing together of va
  • Convulsant 
    A material which causes seizures. 
  • Copper-Bottomed 
    Copper-bottomed described ships that were fitted with copper plating on the underside of their hulls. The process was first used on ships of the British Navy in 1761 to defend their wooden planking against attack by Shipworms and to reduce infestations by
  • Copra 
    The fruit of the tree ""Cocos Nucifera"" is the well known coconut. The white meat of the coconut, when removed and dried to between 4% to 7% moisture, is called copra. Drying may be either by sun drying where the moisture is allowed to evaporate naturall
  • Correspondent Bank 
    A bank that, in its own country, handles the business of a foreign bank. 
  • Corrosion 
    Physiochemical interaction between a metal and its environment that results in changes in the properties of the metal and which may lead to significant impairment of the function of the metal, the environment or technical system, of which these form a par
  • COSWP 
    MCA Code of Safe Working Practices 
  • Cottonseed Oil 
    Records show that cotton has been grown for nearly 3,000 years as a source of fibre to be spun and woven into textiles. The seed is a by-product which yields 20-24% of useful food oil. 
  • Couple 
    Ship Stability: A moment created by two equla forces exerted in opposite directions and along parallel lines. In transverse stability a couple is created by the forces of G and B acting parallel to each other in opposite direction 
  • COW 
    Crude Oil Washing: The operation carried out on crude oil ships as a statutory requirement under Marpol 73/78 to reduce the quantity of residual oil left in cargo tanks that will or might contain ballast. The operation is also employed to maximise the o 
  • COW 
    Crude oil wash. A cleaning technique used by some ships. They spray a few tons of crude around their tanks to rinse off the remains of previous cargoes. This method cannot make a dirty vessel clean. But it can do enough good to prevent excessive darkening
  • CPT (Carriage Paid To) (...Named Place of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale which means the seller pays the freight for the carriage of the goods to the named destination. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time the goods have been delivered
  • Cracked 
    Broken by a thermal or catalytic process. This term frequently describes an oil product which contains cracked components made by such a process. 
  • Cracker 
    A processing unit which breaks molecular bonds, usually to produce lighter hydrocarbons with lower boiling points. Commercial crackers (cracking units) include cat crackers, hydrocrackers, thermal crackers, visbreakers, and stream crackers. 
  • Cracking 
    The process of breaking down large molecules of oil into smaller ones. When this process is achieved by the application of heat only, it is known as thermal cracking. If a catalyst is used as well it is known as catalytic cracking. It is known as hydrocra
  • Cracking-Cracker 
    The process of breaking down large molecules of oil into smaller ones. When this process is achieved by the application of heat only, it is known as thermal cracking. If a catalyst is used as well it is known as catalytic cracking. Cracking causes molecul
  • Crane Pontoon 
    A pontoon with a jib crane 
  • Crane Ship 
    A vessel equipped with a large crane for lifting operations 
  • Crane Vessel, Naval Auxiliary 
    A naval auxiliary vessel constructed or adapted for crane operations, with limited cargo capability 
  • Crevice corrosion 
    Localized corrosion associated with, and taking place in, or immediately around, a narrow aperture or clearance formed between the metal surface and another surface (metallic or non-metallic) 
  • Crew 
    The body of people manning a ship, excluding the master, officers and any passengers. 
  • Crew Boat 
    A vessel equipped for the transportation of crew to ships and/or installations 
  • Crew Boat, Naval Auxiliary 
    A naval auxiliary vessel for transporting crew 
  • Crew/Supply Vessel 
    A typically high speed vessel primarily for the transportation of crew to offshore facilities; may also have limited stores carriage capability on an open deck 
  • Cross Member 
    Transverse members fitted to the bottom side rails of a container, which support the floor. 
  • Crude Oil Tanker 
    A tanker built to comply with Annex 1 of Marpol 73/78 for the carriage of oil and conforming to the requirements for the carriage of crude oil. 
  • Crude Vegetable Oil 
    Extracted vegetable oils which have had no further processing or refining except possibly that of being degummed or filtered, settled or both. 
  • Cruise Ship, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel used for leisure cruising on rivers/lakes/canals, not suitable for open sea voyages. 
  • Cruiser 
    A combat vessel of medium tonnage with a long cruising radius and less armor and firepower than a battleship 
  • Crystallization  
    A substance can exist in three states, namely gaseous, liquid and solid states. When a liquid is cooled sufficiently, it solidifies and the process is called crystallisation. Crystallisation is the formation of crystals from a melt or a solution. The proc
  • Cube Out 
    When a container or vessel has reached its volumetric capacity before its permitted weight limit. 
  • Cubic Foot 
    1,728 cubic inches. A volume contained in a space measuring one foot high, one foot wide and one foot long. 
  • Curing 
    The chemical reaction that takes place after the mixing of 2 component paints which results in a chemically resistant film 
  • Customhouse 
    A government office where duties are paid, import documents filed, etc., on foreign shipments. 
  • Customhouse Broker 
    A person or firm, licensed by the treasury department of their country when required, engaged in entering and clearing goods through Customs for a client (importer). 
  • Customs 
    Government agency charged with enforcing the rules passed to protect the country’s import and ex- port revenues. 
  • Customs Bonded Warehouse 
    A warehouse authorized by Customs to receive duty–free merchandise. 
  • Customs Invoice 
    A form requiring all data in a commercial invoice along with a certificate of value and/or a certificate of origin. Required in a few countries (usually former British territories) and usually serves as a seller’s commercial invoice. 
  • Customs of the Port (COP) 
    A phrase often included in charter parties and freight contracts referring to local rules and practices which may impact upon the costs borne by the various parties. 
  • Customs–Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C–TPAT) 
    It is a voluntary supply chain security program, launched in November 2001 and led by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) which focuses on improving the security of private companies’ supply chains with respect to terrorism. In exchange for companies
  • Cut and Run 
    Most often thought to mean the cutting of an anchor line in an effort to make a quick getaway. Hard to imagine that many ship’s masters enjoyed routinely losing an anchor or two, so it is probably more likely referring to the practice of securing the sail
  • Cut of his Jib 
    Warships many times had their foresails or jib sails cut thinly so that they could maintain point and not be blown off course. Upon sighting thin foresails on a distant ship a captain might not like the cut of his jib and would then have an opportunity to
  • Cutaneous Hazards 
    Chemicals which affect the skin. Signs and symptoms are defatting the skin, rashes, irritation 
  • Cutter stock 
    Diluent material used for tank washing, acting as a solvent or viscosity reducer to enable better recovery or ROB. 
  • Cutter Suction Dredger 
    A vessel equipped to obtain material from the sea bed by use of a cutter wheel, which loosens the material, and a suction pipe. The material may be carried on board, transferred to other vessels, pumped ashore or deposited elsewhere using a spray 
  • CWA 
    Clean Water Act 
  • Cwt 
    Hundred weight 
  • NULL
    On the Ship – Owner's instruction the agent in charge of the ship will have to pay, at the expense of the ship, all established duties and dues of the port as well as cover bills for work and services done on the master's demand. On the basis of the bills
  • DAA 
    Discharge always afloat 
  • DAF 
    Previous terms eliminated from Incoterms 2000 DAF – Delivered At Frontier (named place of delivery) This term can be used when the goods are transported by rail and road. The seller pays for transportation to the named place of delivery at the frontier. T
  • DAF (Delivered At Frontier) (...Named Place) 
    A Term of Sale which means the sell- ers fulfill their obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available, cleared for export, at the named point and placed at the frontier, but before the customs Terms of Sale border of the adjoining country. 
  • Damages for Detention 
    Penalty if cargo is not ready when 
  • Day 
    DAY shall mean a period of twenty-four (24) consecutive hours. Any part of a Day shall be counted pro-rata. 
    Despatch (payable) both ends, working time saved 
  • DDP (Delivered Duty paid) (...Named Port of Destination) 
    “Delivered Duty Paid” means that the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been made avail- able at the named place in the country of importation. The seller has to bear the risks and costs, including duties, taxes and other charge
  • DDU (Delivered Duty Unpaid) (...Named Port of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale where the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available at the named place in the country of importation. The seller has to bear the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods thereto (excluding dutie
  • De-Slopping 
    Whereby a vessel discharges a quantity of slops to a dedicated slop receiving vessel within Port Limits or at a safe anchorage. 
  • De-Storing Operations 
    Whereby a vessel lands a quantity of items for the purpose of repair or storage ashore, or crew effects for personnel assigned to the vessel. 
  • Deadhead 
    One leg of a move without a paying cargo load.Usually refers to repositioning an empty piece of equipment 
  • Deadweight Cargo 
    A long ton of cargo that can be stowed in less than 40 cubic feet. 
  • Deadweight tonnage (DWT) 
    The standard measure of ships' carrying capacity. The trade usually abbreviates this term to speak simply of tankers "deadweight." This specification reports total weight, usually in long tons, of fresh water, stores, bunkers, and cargo a vessel can carry
  • Debottlenecking 
    Increasing production capacity of existing facilities through the modification of existing equipment to remove throughput restrictions. Debottlenecking generally increases capacity for a fraction of the cost of building new facilities. 
  • Deck Officer 
    Officer responsible for the safe navigation of a ship, as well as communications and safe loading, carriage and discharging of cargo and ship stability. 
  • Decomposition products 
    Products of a chemical or thermal break-down of a substance. 
  • Deconsolidation Point 
    Place where loose or other non–containerized cargo is ungrouped for delivery. 
  • Decontamination 
    The removal of dangerous goods from personnel and equipment to the extent necessary to prevent potential adverse health effects. Always avoid direct or indirect contact with dangerous goods; however, if contact occurs, personnel should be decontaminated a
  • Deep Draft 
    The "deep draft" of a vessel is measured from the surface of the water to the deepest part of the hull below the surface. 
  • Deficit Weight 
    The weight by which a shipment is less than the minimum weight. 
  • Degummed Oil 
    The product resulting from washing crude vegetable oil with water and/or steam for a specified period of time and then centrifuging the oil-and-water mixture to remove the phosphatides etc. The US Bureau of the Census requires crushers degumming crude soy
  • Dehydrogenation 
    An organic chemical reaction in which a pair of hydrogen atoms are removed from a molecule. 
  • Delayed coker 
    A coking unit (coker) which provides a drum where heated molecules crack and coke forms. 
  • Delayed lung injury 
    A condition in which there is a delay (usually hours or a few days) between acute exposure to a chemical and the subsequent development of lung injury. 
  • Delivery Instructions 
    Order to pick up goods at a named place and deliver them to a pier. Usually issued by exporter to trucker but may apply to a railroad, which completes delivery by land. Use is limited to a few major U.S. ports. Also known as shipping delivery order. 
    Demurrage/Despatch money. (Under vessel chartering terms, the amount to be paid if the ship is loading/discharging slower/faster than foreseen.) 
  • Demurrage 
    The cost of delaying a ship. Busy channels, occupied berths, commercial considerations, lack of shore tankage, pumping limitations, and a host of other eventualities related to how or where a charterer uses a vessel can prevent it from loading or unloadin
  • Density 
    The mass of a substance per unit volume. The density of a substance is usually compared to water, which has a density of 1. Substances which float on water have densities less than 1; substances which sink have densities greater than 1 
  • Density 
    A descripton of oil by some measurement of its volume to weight ratio. The industry usually relies on two expressions of oil's volume-weight relationship-specific gravity and API degrees. The larger a specific gravity number and the smaller an API number,
  • Density (liter weight in air) 
    Density is the mass of a unit volume of a substance. The density of an oil or fat is usually measured by determining its specific gravity. 
  • Density / Specific Gravity 
    Tank cleaning: Is the ratio of the mass of a volume of a product to the mass of an equal volume of freshwater (1.0). For a product with limited or no solubility in water the specific gravity indicates whether the product will float on water or sink. 
  • Deodorization 
    Deodorisation is the removal of those trace components, present in all edible oils, which give rise to odours and flavours. Accomplished by the application of heat, steam and vacuum, deodorisation should be the final stage of treatment before packing or d
  • Depot, Container 
    Container freight station or a designated area where empty containers can be picked up or dropped off. 
  • Depth 
    The depth to which a ship is immersed in water. 
  • DEQ (Delivered Ex Quay, [Duty Paid]) (...Named Port of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale which means the DDU term has been fulfilled when the goods have been available to the buyer on the quay (wharf) at the named port of destination, cleared for importa- tion. The seller has to bear all risks and costs including duties, taxes
  • DES 
    Previous terms eliminated from Incoterms 2000 DES – Delivered Ex Ship (named port of delivery) Where goods are delivered ex ship, the passing of risk does not occur until the ship has arrived at the named port of destination and the goods made available f
  • DES (Delivered Ex Ship) (...Named Port of Destination) 
    A Term of Sale where the seller fulfills his/her obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available to the buyer on board the ship, uncleared for import at the named port of destination. The seller has to bear all the costs and risks involved i
  • Design Draft 
    The design draft of a vessel is the maximum draft a vessel could potentially reach fully loaded whereas the operating draft is the typical draft that is employed since it is rare that vessels will sail at their maximum design draft. 
  • Despatch on all workding time saved or Despatch on all time saved 
    DESPATCH ON ALL WORKING TIME SAVED or ON ALL LAYTIME SAVED shall mean that Despatch Money shall be payable for the time from the completion of loading or discharging until the expiry of the Laytime excluding any periods excepted from the Laytime. 
  • Despatch or Despatch Money 
    DESPATCH MONEY or DESPATCH shall mean an agreed amount payable by the owner if the Vessel completes loading or discharging before the Laytime has expired. 
  • Destination 
    – The place to which a shipment is consigned. – The place where carrier actually turns over cargo to consignee or his agent. 
  • Destroyer 
    A combat vessel, which is small, fast, highly manoeuverable. Armed with guns, torpedoes, depth charges, and guided missiles 
  • Det Norske Veritas 
    A Norwegian classification society which certifies seagoing vessels for compliance to standardized rules regarding construction and maintenance. 
  • Detention 
    A penalty charge against shippers or consignees for delaying carrier’s equipment beyond allowed time. Demurrage applies to cargo; detention applies to equipment. See Per Diem. 
  • Detergent 
    In simple terms a detergent is an aid to separation whether it be the separation of soil from a piece of cloth or the separation of olein from stearin in a fractionation plant. Alternatively classified as surface active agents, they work by lowering surfa
  • Deterioration 
    Chemically, oils and fats are quite stable, neutral substances. However, during storage and transport two types of deterioration can occur - a. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen. This reaction is accelerated by high temperature, strong light and the presenc
  • DF Car 
    Damage–Free Car. Boxcars equipped with special bracing material. 
  • DFDE propulsion 
    DFDE propulsion is a relatively new technology for LNG carriers. Utilising electrical generators to drive the propeller, DFDE vessels are more fuel efficient and have lower carbon emissions compared to the conventional steam propelled vessels. The DFDE pr
    Dispatch Half Demurrage on Working Time Saved Both Ends 
    Demurrage Half Dispatch on Working TIme Saved Both Ends 
  • Dibasic Acids 
    Refers to acids with two carboxyl groups, of which the most common have the general structure HOOC(CH2)nCOOH. They include (value of n in parenthesis): oxalic* (0), malonic* (1), succinic* (2), glutaric* (3), adipic* (4), suberic* (6), azelaic (7), sebaci
  • Diethylene glycol ether acetates 
    Glycol ethers are manufactured from either propylene oxide or ethylene oxide reacted with an alcohol. Glycol ethers and glycol ethers acetates are both hydrophilic (soluble in water) and lipophilic (soluble in oils). They are excellent co-solvents, enabli
  • Diethylene glycol ethers 
    Glycol ethers are manufactured from either propylene oxide or ethylene oxide reacted with an alcohol. Glycol ethers and glycol ethers acetates are both hydrophilic (soluble in water) and lipophilic (soluble in oils). They are excellent co-solvents, enabli
  • Digylceride 
    The ester resulting from the chemical combination of glycerol and two fatty acids. 
  • Dilation/Dilatometry 
    When an oil or fat is heated it expands and the expansion is called dilation. Dilation is the change in volume with varying temperature. The technique of observation is termed dilatometry. From the dilation observed on warming a solidified fat to a define
  • Dipropylene glycol 
    One member of the propylene glycols family, the most important of which is monopropylene glycol. Dipropylene glycol is used primarily as an industrial intermediate, but is also used as a substance in consumer products, and as an ingredient in pesticidal f
  • Dipropylene glycol ether acetate 
    Glycol ethers are manufactured from either propylene oxide or ethylene oxide reacted with an alcohol. Glycol ethers and glycol ethers acetates are both hydrophilic (soluble in water) and lipophilic (soluble in oils). They are excellent co-solvents, enabli
  • Dipropylene glycol ethers 
    Glycol ethers are manufactured from either propylene oxide or ethylene oxide reacted with an alcohol. Glycol ethers and glycol ethers acetates are both hydrophilic (soluble in water) and lipophilic (soluble in oils). They are excellent co-solvents, enabli
  • DirectENC 
    DirectENC or dENC is a chart format which is specific to ECDIS or ECS systems that use the SevenCs EC2007 ECDIS Kernel AND that have been enabled by their manufacturer for SENC data. 
  • Disbursements 
    Expenses incurred in a port against the general expenses of the vessel these include wages , loading and /or discharging bunkers, water, provisions, customs clearance, port and quay dues, pilotage, tugs and other pertinent costs. 
  • Discrepancy Letter of Credit 
    When documents presented do not conform to the requirements of the letter of credit (L/C), it is referred to as a “discrepancy.” Banks will not process L/C’s which have discrepancies. They will refer the situation back to the buyer and/or seller and await
  • Displacement 
    The weight, in tons of 2,240 pounds, of the vessel and its contents. Calculated by dividing the volume of water displaced in cubic feet by 35, the average density of sea water. 
  • Disponent Owner 
    Company that control the commercial operation of a vessel under a bareboat or Time charter party. The person who by reason of a contract or charter party assumes responsibility for a vessel as if he were the owner. 
  • Distillation 
    Process in oil refining where heat is used to separate the various components of crude oil. Because each component has a different boiling point, gradual heating allows them to be separated through evaporation and collection of the vapors. 
  • Distillation curve 
    The boiling temperature distribution of a material's component molecules. Tests report this characteristic as temperature at which various percentages of a sample have boiled or as the percentages which have boiled at various temperatures. 
  • Distillation unit 
    separation equipment that heats a mixture and divides its ingredients according to the temperature where they boil. 
  • Distributors 
    Inland wholesalers. 
  • Diving Support Vessel 
    A vessel primarily equipped with decompression chambers for air dive operation. Does not include vessels which can only operate submersibles 
  • Diving Vessel, Naval Auxiliary 
    A naval auxiliary vessel designed and fitted with equipment to support diver operations. May have cranes for construction/maintenance work. 
  • Division 
    Carriers’ practice of dividing revenue received from rates where joint hauls are involved. This is usually according to agreed formulae. 
  • DLOP 
    Dropping last outward pilot 
  • DLOSP 
    Dropping last outward sea pilot 
  • DNV 
    Det Norske Veritas (Norwegian Class Society) 
  • Dock 
    – For ships, a cargo handling area parallel to the shoreline where a vessel normally ties up. – For land transportation, a loading or unloading platform at an industrial location or carrier terminal. 
  • Dock Receipt 
    A form used to acknowledge receipt of cargo and often serves as basis for preparation of the ocean bill of lading. 
  • Doctor test 
    An indicator to detect the presence of significant amounts of mercaptan sulfur in light hydrocarbon mixture. Materials passing this test carry the designation, "Doctor negative." Doctor negative stocks have sufficiently low mercaptan levels for use in mot
  • Documents Against Payment (D/P) 
    An indication on a draft that the documents attached are to be released to the drawee only on pay- ment. 
  • DOHP 
    Dropping outward harbor pilot 
  • Dolly 
    A set of wheels that support the front of a container; used when the automotive unit is disconnected. 
  • DOLSP 
    Dropping Off Last Sea Pilot (Norway) 
  • Door–to–Door 
    Through transportation of a container and its contents from consignor to consignee. Also known as House to House. Not necessarily a through rate. 
  • DOP 
    Dropping outward pilot 
  • DOSP 
    Dropping outward sea pilot 
  • Double bond 
    The chemical bond between two carbon atoms can involve one, two or three pairs of electrons, producing a single (C-C), double (C=C) or triple (C≡C) bond. While the extra pairs of electrons give the bond more energy they also make it more chemically reacti
  • Downstream 
    A relative term, which indicates greater removal from origins than some point of reference. For example, a petrochemical plant which cracks naphtha lies downstream from a refinery. Money made by marketing products constitutes downstream profits compared t
  • DP 
    Dynamic Positioning - DP allows a vessel to remain in the same location, even in harsh weather, through the combined use of rudders, thrusters, propellers, a position reference system and a computer. 
  • Draft 
    The distance between a ship's keel and waterline. The lowest part of a vessel lies this far below the surface of the water. Every ship's draft changes with the amount of cargo aboard it, its trim and the temperature and salt content of the water in which
  • DRAFT 
    Depth to which a ship is immersed in water. The depth varies according to the design of the ship and will be greater or lesser depending not only on the weight of the ship and everything on board, but also on the density of the water in which the ship is
  • Draft or Draught 
    The draft (or draught) of a vessel is one of the most common pieces of information used in Corps navigation studies and can be defined as the distance between the waterline and the bottom of the ship’s hull (keel) (see Figure A-1). In other words, it is t
    Depth of water from waterline to lowest point of vessel's hull 
  • Draft, Bank 
    An order issued by a seller against a purchaser; directs payment, usually through an intermediary bank. Typical bank drafts are negotiable instruments and are similar in many ways to checks on checking accounts in a bank. 
  • Draft, Clean 
    A draft to which no documents are attached. 
  • Drawback 
    A partial refund of an import fee. Refund usually results because goods are re–exported from the country that collected the fee. 
  • Drawee 
    The individual or firm that issues a draft and thus stands to receive payment. 
  • Dredger (unspecified) 
    A vessel equipped to obtain material from the sea bed by an unspecified means. The material may be carried on board, transferred to other vessels, pumped ashore or deposited elsewhere using a spray 
  • Dredging Pontoon, unknown dredging type 
    A non propelled pontoon with an unknown dredging mechanism 
  • Dredging, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel designed for dredging operations. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • Dressing Down 
    Thin and worn sails were often treated with oil or wax to renew their effectiveness. This was called "dressing down". An officer or sailor who was reprimanded or scolded received a dressing down. 
  • Drop Point 
    The drop point is an analysis related to the melting point of oils and fats. The sample is solidified in a small cup with a hole. As the cup is warmed and as the fat starts to melt a drop is formed. The drop point is the temperature at which the drop fall
  • Dry Cargo Barge 
    Dry cargo barges, or hopper barges, transport solid cargo commodities like grain, coal, sugar, sand, gravel, etc. Depending on the cargo, dry cargo barges may be open or covered. For example, sugar would likely be transported in a covered hopper barge, wh
  • Dry–Bulk Container 
    A container constructed to carry grain, powder and other free–flowing solids in bulk. Used in conjunction with a tilt chassis or platform. 
  • Drydock 
    Dock area that is drained of water so a ship can be repaired or serviced below the waterline. Ships are also built in drydocks. 
  • DSL 
    Direct Shuttle Loading - Use of two submerged turret loading systems for direct loading of oil, eliminating the need for a storage vessel. 
  • Dunnage 
    Protection from damage, for ventilation and, in the case of certain cargoes, to provide space in which the types of a fork lift truck may be inserted. 
  • Dutch Courage 
    Dates to the 1600s Anglo-Dutch wars and was likely British propaganda claiming that the Dutch troops were so cowardly they wouldn’t fight unless fortified with copious amounts of schnapps. The term has come to mean false courage induced by drink, or the d
  • Dutiable Value 
    The amount on which an Ad Valorem or customs duty is calculated. 
  • DWA 
    Dock water allowance 
  • DWAT (or DWT) 
    Deadweight. Weight of cargo, stores and water, i.e. the difference between lightship and loaded displacement 
  • DWAT or DWT 
    DeadWeight All Told or DeadWeight Tonnage of a vessel. Weight of cargo, stores and water, i.e. the difference between lightship and loaded displacement 
  • DWCC 
    Deadweight cargo capacity 
  • DWCT 
    Deadweight cargo tons 
  • DWOC 
    Decline without counter 
  • DWT 
    Deadweight Tonnage-the carrying capacity of a vessel in tons (most references now show metric tons). It is the difference between the light and loaded displacement (weight of the ship itself vs. ship plus cargo, fuel, stores and water). 
  • e.o.h.p. 
    Except otherwise herein provided 
  • EBIS 
    EBIS, the European Barge Inspection Scheme: Started operations on 1st July 1998. The Scheme has been developed by oil and chemical companies as part of their commitment to improving the safety of tanker barging operations within Europe. The main aim of E 
  • EC50 
    Effective concentration 50%: The concentration of a material which produces 50% response in the defined end-point. The EC50 should be cited for a specific exposure period.  
  • ECDIS 
    Electronic Chart Display and Information System - An ECDIS is a ship borne electronic navigational device designed to display digital nautical charts that is tested and type-approved to international standards and may be used, in conjunction with appropri
  • ECMC 
    The U.S. Exporters Competitive Maritime Council. An association primarily of U.S. engineering, procurement and construction companies and their freight forwarders that was formed jointly by the Maritime Administration in 1997 to seek solutions to transpor
  • Edema 
    The accumulation of an excessive amount of watery fluid in cells and tissues. Pulmonary edema is an excessive buildup of water in the lungs, for instance, after inhalation of a gas that is corrosive to lung tissue. 
  • Edible Oil Tanker 
    A cargo ship designed for the bulk transport of Edible Oils in tanks. Tanks will be stainless steel or lined. New vessels will be classified as chemical carriers 
  • Edible Oil Tanker, Inland Waterways 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of edible oils which is not suitable for trading in open waters. New vessels will be classified as chemical tankers as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code 
  • Effluent carrier 
    A vessel equipped for the transportation of effluents. Discharge at sea is now illegal 
  • EG 
    Ethylene Glycol. Generic term for a family of ethylene glycols, the most important of which is monoethylene glycol.  
  • Elastomer 
    A polymer with the properties of rubber. Polymers that can be formulated as elastomers are polyurethane, butyl rubber, silicones and specially treated ethylene-propylene copolymers. 
  • Electrode 
    Electronic conductor in contact with an electrolyte 
  • Electrode potential 
    voltage measured in the external circuit between an electrode and reference electrode in contact with the same electrolyte 
  • Electrode reaction 
    Interfacial reaction which gives rise to a transfer of charge between an electronic conductor and an electrolyte 
  • Electrolyte 
    Medium in which electric current is transported by ions 
  • Elevating 
    – A charge for services performed in connection with floating elevators. – Charges assessed for the handling of grain through grain elevators. 
  • Eminent Domain 
    The sovereign power to take property for a necessary public use, with reasonable compensation. 
  • Emulsifier 
    Agents which markedly lower the interfacial tension between oil and water or other liquid, thus permitting them to mix or form emulsions. Lecithin and mono and diglycerides are emulsifiers derived from fats and oils and are widely used in food products (m
  • Emulsifiers 
    Additives that allow oils to be mixed with water and water to be mixed with oils. They alter the surface properties of materials they contact because of their amphiphilic nature. That is to say, they have chemical affinity to both lipid and aqueous phases
  • Engine Officer 
    Officers responsible for operation and maintenance of complex electric and mechanical plant and associated control systems throughout the vessel including the main engine, boilers, pumps, electrical generators, refrigeration plant and fresh water generato
  • Enhanced Survey 
    A survey carried out on tankers over 5 years of age, under the enhanced programme of inspection required by Marpol Annex 1 Reg. 13G. The Enhanced Programme of Surveys has been introduced to address the structural problems associated with "old" ships. Th 
  • Entrance Channel 
    A navigable channel connecting the ocean or lake to an enclosed water body such as a bay, estuary, river, or mouth of a navigable stream (EM 1110-2-1613). 
  • EO 
    Ethylene Oxide. A chemical intermediate used in the manufacture of glycol ethers, ethoxylates and ethylene glycol. Ethylene oxide derivatives have a wide range of applications, from detergents and cosmetics to antifreeze; they are also used in the manufac
  • EOOW 
    Engineer Officer of the Watch 
  • Epoxidation 
    The reaction by which unsaturated acids are converted to epoxy acids. This is a cis addition of oxygen to the double bond, usually affected by a peroxy acid such as peroxyformic or peroxyacetic. The reaction is carried out on an industrial scale to produc
  • EPS 
    Expanded Polystyrene. Manufactured from styrene, is a thermal plastic material supplied to moulders in the form of a polystyrene bead. The beads, which contain a blowing agent, are processed and moulded into low-density foam articles, such as protective p
  • EPSDG 
    Ethyleneamines Product Stewardship Discussion Group 
  • Equalization 
    A monetary allowance to the customer for picking up or delivering at a point other than the destination shown on the bill of lading. This provision is covered by tariff publication. 
    Equasis aims at collecting and disseminating quality and safety-related information on the world’s merchant ships provided to it by holders of such information. 
  • Equity Lifting 
    The lifting of a quantity of cargo to which the lifter is entitled by reason of its ownership of an interest in the field producing the cargo. 
  • Erosion 
    The progressive loss of material from a solid surface due to mechanical interaction between that surface and a fluid, a multi-component fluid, or solid particles carried with the fluid 
  • Erucic Acid 
    Erucic acid consists of a 22 carbon chain with one double bond on the thirteenth carbon atom. It is a major component of seed oils of the brassica family such as rapeseed or mustard seed. High levels of erucic acid in the diet have been found to have unde
  • Erythema 
    Excess of reddening of a tissue due to increased flow of blood. 
  • Escalation clause 
    A clause allowing for an adjustment 
  • ESD 
    Emergency Shut-down 
  • ESIG 
    European Solvents Industry Group, a group within the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE) gathering manufacturers and users of oxygenated and hydrocarbon solvents. 
  • Essential Oil 
    A volatile oil obtained as an extract from herbs, spices, flower petals etc and used for its perfume or flavour properties. 
  • Ester 
    Any of a class of organic compounds made from the chemical reaction between an alcohol and an organic acid. 
  • Esterification  
    The reaction by which esters are formed from alcohols and acids, usually in the presence of an acidic catalyst, or with the more reactive acid anhydrides or chlorides for which no catalyst is required. Esters can also be changed to other ester by alcoholy
  • ETA, C, D, R, S 
    – Estimated Time of Arrival, Completion, Departure, Readiness, or Sailing – Estimated Time of Availability. That time when a tractor/partner carrier is available for dispatch. 
  • Ethane 
    A gaseous hydrocarbon, the second most important constituent of natural gas, it also occurs dissolved in petroleum oils and as a by-product of oil refinery operations and of the carbonization of coal. Ethane is a major raw material for the huge ethylene p
  • Ethanol 
    Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol is manufactured by synthesis from ethylene. It is an oxygenated hydrocarbon used in a wide variety of high performance solvent applications (toiletries and cosmetics, paints, lacquer thinners, printing inks, dyes, dete
  • Ethanolamine 
    Ethanolamines are prepared by the reaction of ammonia and ethylene oxide. They include monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA) and triethanolamine (TEA). The three are widely used in industry, principally as absorbents for acidic components of natura
  • Ether 
    Ethers, like alcohols and phenols are oxygenated derivatives. An ether has two hydrocarbon groups bonded to the oxygen atom. Diethyl ether (also called simply ether) is the most common variety. It is widely used as a solvent and as a volatile, combustible
  • Ethyl acrylate 
    Ethyl acrylate is a colorless liquid used in the production of polymers, water-based latex paints and adhesives, textile and paper coatings, leather finish resins, and in the production of acrylic fibers 
  • Ethyl hexanol 
    2-Ethyl hexanol (2EH) is an higher aliphatic alcohol.. 2EH is also used as a solvent and has a particular niche use in the formation of lacquers and coatings when slow evaporation is desired 
  • Ethylbenzene 
    Ethylbenzene is formed by combination of ethylene and benzene, and is then dehydrogenated to styrene for use in the production of plastics and synthetic rubber. For more information click website. 
  • Ethylene 
    Also called ethene, ethylene is the simplest member of the olefinic hydrocarbon series and one of the most important raw materials of the organic chemical industry. It occurs in both petroleum and natural gas, but the bulk of the industrial material is pr
  • Ethylene 
    Two-carbon olefin used to make plastic films, fibers, molding compounds, and other products. 
  • Ethyleneamine 
    Ethyleneamines are organic compounds essential in the manufacture of a wide range of products from detergents, paints and fuel oils to pharmaceuticals, soaps, asphalt and paper. Ethyleneamines include ethylenediamine (EDA), diethylenetriamine (DETA) and h
  • ETOPS 
    Emergency Towing-off Pennant System 
  • Evaporation of volatile substances 
    Tank Cleaning: Cargoes consisting of mixtures with different vapor pressures should neither be cleaned by evaporation, nor prewashed hot. The evaporation of the light substances from a mixture could result in non-volatile residues, which are very difficul
  • Evaporation Rate 
    The rate at which a product will vaporize when compared to the rate of vaporization of a known material (usually Butyl Acetate with rate designated as 1.0). Evaporation rate can be useful in evaluating the health and fire hazards of a material. Rates are
  • EWIB 
    Eastern Weighing and Inspection Bureau. 
  • EWPM 
    European Wood Protection Manufacturers 
  • Ex - “From” 
    When used in pricing terms such as “Ex Factory” or “Ex Dock,” it signifies that the price quoted applies only at the point of origin indicated. 
  • Ex-Works 
    An Incoterm of sale meaning the seller delivers to the buyer at seller’s named premises. 
  • Exception 
    Notations made when the cargo is received at the carrier’s terminal or loaded aboard a vessel. They show any irregularities in packaging or actual or suspected damage to the cargo. Exceptions are then noted on the bill of lading. 
  • EXIM Bank 
    Export–Import Bank of the United States: An independent U.S. Government Agen- cy which facilitates exports of U.S. goods by providing loan guarantees and insurance for repayment of bank–provided export credit. 
  • Existing chemicals 
    Chemical substances, which were deemed to be on the European Community market between 1 January 1971 and 18 September 1981. An "existing" chemical substance is in the EU defined as any chemical substance listed in the European Inventory of Existing Commer
  • Expiry Date 
    Issued in connection with documents such as letters of credit, tariffs, etc. to advise that stated provisions will expire at a certain time. 
  • Export Declaration 
    A government document declaring designated goods to be shipped out of the country. To be completed by the exporter and filed with the U.S. Government. 
  • Export License 
    A government document which permits the “Licensee” to engage in the export of designated goods to certain destinations. 
  • Exposed Waters 
    any waters that are more than 20 nautical miles from a harbour or safe refuge, or those waters which are less than 20 nautical miles from a harbour or safe refuge and which are not designated coastal or protected waters. 
  • Exposure assessment 
    The exposure assessment is the determination of the emissions in order to estimate the concentrations/doses of a substance to which human populations or environmental spheres (water, soil and air) are or may be exposed. 
  • Extended Well Test 
    When oil is discovered the well must be tested to determine flow rates, reservoir performance and fluid/gas composition. In some complex reservoirs, it may be necessary to flow the well for a long time to determine whether a full field development can be
  • Extraction (Solvent) 
    The process of obtaining oil from a seed or other source by the use of an organic solvent (usually hexane) is termed extraction. Following several pretreatment steps, culminating in the production of seed flakes, whose oil cell walls have been ruptured un
  • Extraneous rust 
    Rust not originating from the steel under consideration, e.g., rust brought to the site from a rusting iron object by means of a flowing liquid, or formed by rusting of iron particles brought to the steel surface 
  • EXW 
    Ex Works (named place of delivery) The seller makes the goods available at its premises. This term places the maximum obligation on the buyer and minimum obligations on the seller. The Ex Works term is often used when making an initial quotation for the s
  • EXW (Ex Works) (...Named Place) 
    A Term of Sale which means that the seller fulfills the obligation to deliver when he or she has made the goods available at his/her premises (i.e., works, factory, warehouse, etc.) to the buyer. In particular, the seller is not responsible for loading th
  • Fahrenheit; Fresh water load line mark 
  • F or FWD 
  • Factor 
    A factor is an agent who will, at a discount (usually five to 8% of the gross), buy receivables. 
  • Factory Stern Trawler 
    A stern trawler fitted out with a factory for refrigerating, processing and possibly canning 
  • Fahrenheit degrees (F) 
    A temperature scale according to which water boils at 212 and freezes at 32 Fahrenheit degrees convert to Centigrade degrees (C) by the following formula: (F-32)1.8= C. 
  • fall foul of 
    Foul is an often used nautical term generally meaning entangled or impeded. An anchor tangled in line or cable is said to be a foul anchor. A foul berth is caused by another vessel anchoring too close wherein the risk of collision exists. A foul bottom of
  • False Billing 
    Misrepresenting freight or weight on shipping documents. 
  • FAME 
    Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), sometimes referred to as Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters (VOME), are used as transportation biofuels in varying proportions with diesel and as feed for the production of natural fatty alcohols. They are obtained by esterificat
  • FAOP 
    full away on passage 
  • FAS (Free Alongside Ship) (...Named Port of Shipment) 
    A Term of Sale which means the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been placed along- side the vessel on the quay or in lighters at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of
  • Fat 
    A chemical unit resulting from the chemical combination or esterification of one unit of glycerine with three units of fatty acids. The special ester thus formed is a ""triglyceride"". A natural fat is a mixture of different triglycerides and may contain
  • Fat Splitting 
    Fats and oils are triglycerides which are split on hydrolysis to give glycerol and a mixture of fatty acids. The process is usually carried out with steam at high temperature and pressure (e.g. 260°C and 55 bar). Triglyceride + Water ? Glycerol + Fatty Ac
  • Fathom 
    A nautical measure equal to six feet, used to measure the depth of water at sea. The word was also used to describe taking the measure or “to fathom” something. Today when one is trying to figure something out, they are trying to fathom it or get to the b
  • Fats (and Oils) 
    Fats and oils are essentially similar in composition and synonymous. They are substances produced by plant and animal life, mainly as an energy store. However, certain components of fats perform essential metabolic functions. Many seeds are rich in fats,
  • Fatty Acid Derivatives 
    Using fatty acids as starting materials, the oleochemicals industry makes mainly fatty alcohols, esters, amines, amides and soaps as derivatives. These compounds are often reacted further to produce a very wide range of chemicals for consumer or industria
  • Fatty Acid Fractionation 
    Fatty acids which have been "split" from triglycerides or hydrolysed can effectively be separated according to chain length, by distillation under vacuum, as their volatility varies. This is known as fractional distillation. For example, palmitic acid (C1
  • Fatty Alcohol 
    Fatty alcohol is derived from fatty acids. Two main routes are used to obtain fatty alcohols commercially - a. hydrogenolysis of either fats or fatty acids, usually as the methyl ester, and b. reduction of fatty esters with an alcohol and alkali metal (as
  • Fatty Alcohols 
    Medium- and long-chain alcohols related to the fatty acids that occur naturally in lauric oils and wax esters are produced commercially by the catalytic reduction of the acids or their methyl esters. Fatty alcohols (C12 and up) are vital components of sur
  • Fatty Amines 
    Fatty amines are useful fatty acid derivatives for cationic surfactants. All cationics modify surfaces, especially textile surfaces, which makes them useful as fabric softeners, dye fixatives or water repellents. They are also useful in ore flotation, cor
  • Fatty Matter 
    This term is used by the analytical chemist to describe the fatty component of a complex food such as milk, meat, cake or seeds. Fatty matter is usually measured by weight after a suitable extraction procedure. 
  • FBD 
    Freeboard. the freeboard of a ship is the distance above the waterline and represents a margin of safety for vessel loading. 
  • FC/LCL 
    One shipper/more than one receiverFrowa 
  • FCA 
    Free Carrier (named place of delivery) The seller hands over the goods, cleared for export, into the disposal of the first carrier (named by the buyer) at the named place. The seller pays for carriage to the named point of delivery, and risk passes when t
  • FCA 
    First Carrier or Free to Carrier or Fellow Chartered Accountant  
  • FCA (Free Carrier) (... Named Place) 
    A Term of Sale which means the seller fulfills their obligation when he or she has handed over the goods, cleared for export, into the charge of the carrier named by the buyer at the named place or point. If no precise point is indicated by the buyer, the
  • FCR 
    Floating Crane or Forwarder's Certificate of Receipt 
  • Feeder Vessel 
    A short–sea vessel which transfers cargo between a central “hub” port and smaller “spoke” ports. 
  • Feedstock 
    Raw material used in a processing plant. The most important feedstock for the European petrochemical industry is naphtha. 
  • Fertilizer 
    Substance that adds inorganic or organic plant nutrients to soil and improves its ability to grow crops, trees, or other vegetation. 
  • FEU 
    Forty foot equivalent unit. This is an 40 X 8 X 8.5 feet dry cargo intermodal container used as a measurement of container volume. See also TEU, twenty-foot equivalent-unit. One FEU equals two TEU. 
  • FFB 
    Fresh Fruit Bunch. The initials stand for "fresh fruit bunch" and refer to the bunch as harvested from the oil palm. Each bunch weighs 10-20 kg and may contain 1500 or more individual fruits. Calculation of oil yield and losses in the oil mill is often re
  • FICS 
    Fellow of The Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers 
  • FiFi 1 
    FiFi 1 is the lowest category, and the minimum requirements include two monitors, one to two fire pumps and water pumping capacity of 10,569 gpm. Additional firefighting equipment often includes water deluge spraying systems. 
  • FiFi 2 
    FiFi 2 rating requires two to four monitors, up to four fire pumps and total pumping capacity of 31,704 gpm. Additional firefighting equipment often includes water deluge spraying systems and high-expansion foam generators. 
  • FiFi 3 
    FiFi 3 vessels must have three to four monitors and two to four fire pumps capable of supplying a total 42,272 gpm. Additional firefighting equipment often includes water deluge spraying systems, high-expansion foam generators and foam monitors. 
  • Fifth Wheel 
    The semi–circular steel coupling device mounted on a tractor which engages and locks with a chassis semi–trailer. 
  • Figurehead 
    An ornamental figure placed on the front of a ship, under the bowsprit. Originally a religious and/or protective emblem. The custom continued but for purely decorative purposes. Hence the term figurehead – a leader with no real power or function except to
  • Final boiling point 
    The temperature where a natural material or fraction finishes boiling. This temperature also goes by the name, end point. Some folks use the phrase " full boiling point." This expression has fallen into disfavor, though. It implies complete evaporation of
  • Finished gasoline 
    Motor gasoline which meets the merchantability standards of a particular market. These specification fuels differ from blendstocks called gasoline which require the addition of other components to make it fit for retail sale in one country or another. 
  • FIOS 
    Free In and Out Plus Stowed 
    Free In/Out Stowed, Lashed, Secured and Dunnaged. As per FIO, but includes cost of lashing securing and dunnaging cargo to Masters satisfaction 
  • FIOST 
    Free In and Out Plus Stowed and Trimmed 
  • Fire Point 
    The temperature at which an oil sample, when heated under prescribed conditions, will ignite for a period of at least five seconds. 
  • Firm indication 
    A suggestion from a prospective buyer or seller feeling his way toward a possible deal. Firm indications carry more weight than the initial indications casually given in routine conversation. But they do not constitute an offer. They show distinct interes
  • First Rate 
    Implies excellence. From the 16th century on until steam powered ships took over, British naval ships were rated as to the number of heavy cannon they carried. A ship of 100 or more guns was a First Rate line-of-battle ship. Second rates carried 90 to 98
  • Fish Factory Ship 
    A vessel fitted out with a factory for refrigerating, processing and possibly canning. The catch is from other vessels 
  • Fishing Vessel 
    A vessel for catching fish whose method is other than trawling. Includes long liners, purse seiners etc 
  • Fishing, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel used for fishing. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • FISLO 
    Free stowed liner out 
    Free in, stowed, lashed, secured and dunnaged /liner out 
  • Fits the Bill 
    A Bill of Lading was signed by the ship’s master acknowledging receipt of specified goods and the promise to deliver them to their destination in the same condition. Upon delivery, the goods were checked against the bill to see if all was in order. If so,
  • FIW 
    Free in Wagon 
  • Fix 
    When a shipowner and charterer make a deal, they say they have "fixed" a ship. They have settled all of the issues including the price, to employ the vessel. 
  • Fixed Costs 
    Costs that do not vary with the level of activity. Some fixed costs continue even if no cargo is carried. Terminal leases, rent and property taxes are fixed costs. 
  • Fixed price 
    The oil trade speaks of prices quoted in absolute figures, like $157 per ton and 44.875 cents per gallon, as fixed prices these numbers, and the transactions (called fixed-price deals) which use them, do not move with any price business in recent years. 
  • Flag 
    Flag of the country where a ship is registered. 
  • Flaking 
    A process used when extracting oil from seeds. The cooked seeds are usually passed through pairs of rolls which break them down and flatten them to a uniform thickness suitable for efficient solvent extraction. 
  • Flame Extension 
    The distance a flame will travel from the aerosol container when exposed to an ignition source 
  • Flammable liquid 
    A liquid that has a flash point of 60.5°C (141°F) or lower. 
  • Flash point 
    The lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off sufficient vapour to form a flammable mixture near the surface of the liquid. 
  • Flash point 
    The temperature at which a hydrocarbon releases vapors in sufficient quantity to permit combustion. 
  • Flash Point Limit Test 
    ISO 15267 - Method to determine whether a sample of oil or fat at a given temperature will flash when a test flame is applied to the sample under specified conditions. 
  • Flash Point/Flammable Range 
    Tank cleaning: The flashpoint is the lowest temperature at which a product gives off sufficient gas to form a flammable gas mixture that can be ignited. The pre-cleaning temperature must be well below the flashpoint. If this is not possible, avoid any ign
  • Flat Car 
    A rail car without a roof and walls. 
  • Flat Rack/Flat Bed Container 
    A container with no sides and frame members at the front and rear. Container can be loaded from the sides and top. 
  • Flexibility 
    The degree to which a processing unit can make a desired product from various feed stocks. The term applies particularly to steam crackers. Some such plants can produce ethylene from a range of hydrocarbon streams spanning ethane to vacuum gasoil. Other u
  • Floating Dock 
    A submersible unit constructed and fitted out to dry dock ships whilst afloat. 
  • Floating price 
    A price tied to some sensitive reference quotation. The oil business took this approach when market volatility made fixed-price deals too risky. In the late 1980's the majority of crude and products deals which involve any substantial time exposure use ma
  • Flocculant 
    Flocculants are products used in waste treatment to separate unwanted components from water and sludge. 
  • Flotsam and Jetsam 
    These are legal terms in maritime law. Flotsam is any part of the wreckage of a ship or her cargo that is lost by accident and found floating on the surface of the water. Jetsam are goods or equipment deliberately thrown overboard to make the ship more st
  • Fluid coker 
    A coking unit (coker) which makes coke in powdery, free-flowing form. 
  • Flux 
    Rate of material flow. Some refiners use this word when discussing the fluidity or viscosity of petroleum products, particularly heavy ones. 
  • Fluxant 
    Rate of materials flow faster or at lower temperatures. 
  • FLWG 
  • FLWS 
  • Fly-by-Night 
    A large sail used only for sailing downwind and requiring rather little attention. 
  • Flying Colours 
    To come through a battle with flying colours means a ship has come through relatively unscathed and with her colours (flag) flying. 
  • FO 
    Free on Board means that the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have passed over the ship's rail (vessel's flange for tankers) at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss or damage
  • FOB 
    Free on Board (named port of shipment) The seller must load themselves the goods on board the vessel nominated by the buyer. Cost and risk are divided when the goods are actually on board of the vessel (this rule is new!). The seller must clear the goods
  • FOB (Free On Board) (...Named Port of Shipment) 
    An International Term of Sale that means the seller fulfills his or her obligation to deliver when the goods have passed over the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks to loss of or damage to
  • FOBS 
    Free on board and stowed 
  • FOL 
    Free On Lighter or Following 
  • FOM 
    Flag, ownership and management 
  • Footloose 
    The bottom portion of a sail is called the foot. If it is not secured, it is footloose and it dances randomly in the wind. 
  • Foots 
    Visible Foots - The insoluble matter in crude fats and oils, together with occluded oil, which settles at 10-20 degrees C above the melting point of the fat or oil. Sediment - That part of the insoluble matter in a crude fat or oil which can be centrifuga
  • Fore 
    Toward or at forward most area of a ship. 
  • Foreign Sales Corporation 
    Under U.S. tax law, a corporation created to obtain tax exemption on part of the earnings of U.S. products in foreign markets.Must be set–up as a foreign corporation with an office outside the USA. 
  • Foreign Trade Zone 
    A free port in a country divorced from Customs authority but under government control. Merchan- dise, except that which is prohibited, may be stored in the zone without being subject to import duty regulations. 
  • Formaldehyde 
    An organic compound, the lowest in the chain of the aliphatic aldehydes, used in large amounts in a variety of chemical manufacturing processes. It is produced principally by the vapor-phase oxidation of methanol. Large quantities of formaldehyde are used
  • Formul8 
    Polyurethane foam formulation software 
  • Forward Perpendicular 
    Ship Stability: Usually established at the intersection of the design waterline and the vessels stem on the bow. 
  • Forwarder Compensation 
    See Brokerage. 
  • Fossil fuel 
    A general term for buried combustible geologic deposits of organic materials occurring within the Earth's crust, that can be used as a source of energy. They all contain carbon and were formed as a result of geologic processes from decayed plants and anim
  • Foul Bill of Lading 
    A receipt for goods issued by a carrier with an indication that the goods were damaged when received. Compare Clean Bill of Lading. 
  • Four–Way Pallet 
    A pallet designed so that the forks of a fork lift truck can be inserted from all four sides. See Fork lift. 
  • FOW 
    First Open Water or Free on Waggon or Free on Wharf 
  • FPPI 
    Foreign Principal Party of Interest. The party to whom final delivery or end use of the exported goods will be made, usually the buyer. 
  • FPSO, Gas 
    A vessel with the capability to control production rates from an gas field and to store gas produced prior to its transfer to another vessel for transportation. May be self or non propelled 
  • FPSO, Oil 
    A vessel with the capability to control production rates from an oilfield and to store oil produced prior to its transfer to another vessel for transportation. May be self or non propelled 
  • Fractionating tower 
    Distillation column. 
  • Fractionation 
    Division of a hydrocarbon mixture according to the boiling temperature of its component molecules. This general term describes both distillation, which puts heat into mixtures to separate them, and cooling techniques which work by heat removal. 
  • Fractionation 
    Fractionation involves the separation of an oil or fat into two or more fractions. The oil is cooled under controlled conditions and the fractions separated by filtration or centrifugation. Fractionation of a fat is made possible by the solubility differe
  • Fractions 
    Part of a hydrocarbon mixture isolated according to the temperature where it evaporates. Distillation units ordinarily divide a combination of liquid hydrocarbons, such as crude oil or the output stream of a cracker, by sorting its molecules into portions
  • Free Alongside (FAS) 
    The seller must deliver the goods to a pier and place them within reach of the ship’s loading equip- ment. See Terms of Sale. 
  • Free Astray 
    An astray shipment (a lost shipment that is found) sent to its proper destination without additional charge. 
  • Free Carrier (FCA) 
    An Incoterm of sale meaning the seller has delivered when the cargo is given to the carrier nominated by the buyer at the named place. 
    If loading/discharging achieved sooner than agreed, there will be no freight money returned. 
  • Free Ex Ins 
    FREE of any EXtra INSurance (Owners) 
  • Free In/Out and Trimmed 
    Charterer pays for cost of FIOST loading/discharging cargo, including stowage and trimming. 
  • Free of Particular Average (FPA) 
    A marine insurance term meaning that the assurer will not allow payment for partial loss or damage to cargo shipments except in certain circumstances, such as stranding, sinking, collision or fire. 
  • Free on Board (FOB – U.S. Domestic Use) 
    Shipped under a rate that includes costs of delivery to and the loading onto a carrier at a specified point. • FOB Freight Allowed: The same as FOB named inland carrier, except the buyer pays the transportation charge and the seller reduces the invoice by
    Free of discharge costs to owners. Includes sea freight only. 
  • Free Pratique 
    Permission given to a ship to use a port after it has been certified free of disease, in compliance with port state control, local authorities and other regulatory bodies. 
  • Free Sale Certificate 
    The U.S. government does not issue certificates of free sale. However, the Food and Drug Administra- tion, Silver Spring, Maryland, will issue, upon request, a letter of comment to the U.S. manufacturers whose products are subject to the Federal Food, Dru
  • Free Time 
    That amount of time that a carrier’s equipment may be used without incurring additional charges. (See Storage, Demurrage or Per Diem.) 
  • Free to Carrier 
    A modern equivalent of FAS used in FCA intermeddle transport where goods are transferred at a nominated forwarder premises, depot or terminal but not actually put on board vessel. 
  • Free Trade Zone 
    A port designated by the government of a country for duty–free entry of any non–prohibited goods. Merchandise may be stored, displayed, used for manufacturing, etc., within the zone and re–exported without duties. 
  • Freezing point 
    The temperature where aviation kerosene must remain free of wax crystals. These particles can clog jet engine fuel filters and nozzles. This specification, therefore, indicates the suitability of kerosene for propelling aeroplanes into the cold air at hig
  • Freight Forwarder 
    A person whose business is to act as an agent on behalf of the shipper. A freight forwarder frequently makes the booking reservation. In the United States, freight forwarders are now licensed by the FMC as “Ocean Intermediaries.” 
  • Fresh Water Replenishment 
    Whereby a vessel loads a quantity of Fresh Water from a barge or lighter for consumption by the vessel and her assigned personnel. 
  • From Stern to Stern 
    From the front of a ship to the back. Now describes something in its entirety. 
  • FRT FWD 
    Freight forward 
  • FSO, Gas 
    A tanker purpose built or converted to store gas produced from a field prior to its transfer to another vessel for transportation. May be self or non propelled. This type does not include vessels which are temporarily being used for storage of gas 
  • FSO, Oil 
    A tanker purpose built or converted to store oil produced from a field prior to its transfer to another vessel for transportation. May be self or non propelled. This type does not include vessels which are temporarily being used for storage of oil 
  • FTTM 
    First thing tomorrow morning 
  • Fuel 
    A material used to produce heat or power by burning.  
  • Fuel blending 
    Mingling two or more materials, refinery streams ordinarily, to make a mixture that meets a grade of fuel's legal and commercial requirements. Refineries almost always sell finished products made from more than one component. Modern motor gasoline, for al
  • Fuel oxygenate 
    Oxygenates are compounds containing oxygen in a chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Today, oxygenates are blended into gasoline in two forms: alcohols or ethers. Ethanol is the most commonly used alcohol oxygenate; methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether, or MTBE, is
  • Full and Down 
    An expression to describe a loaded vessel carrying cargoes of such a volume and weight that it fills all the vessel’s spaces and also brings her down to her tonnage loadline. A rare but optimum revenue condition for a vessel operator. 
  • Full Containerships 
    Ships equipped with permanent container cells, with little or no space for other types of cargo. 
  • Full Cycle Washing 
    Crude oil washing in which the complete cargo tank is washed. 
  • Full Shipload Lot 
    The amount of cargo a vessel carries or is able to carry. Practically, it is the amount of cargo which induces the specific voyage. While the cargo lot may take up the majority of the vessel’s space or ton- nage capacity, it does not require a vessel’s vo
  • Full-Range Naphtha 
  • Fully Hydrogenated 
    The terms describing a fat or oil which has been hydrogenated to the extent that the resultant product is solid at room temperature. Products containing hydrogenated fats include heavy duty frying fats for restaurant use, solid shortenings and solid marga
  • Fully Refined Oil 
    The term used to describe an oil which has been subjected to extensive processing methods to remove - (1) free fatty acids and other gross impurities (refine); (2) naturally occurring colour bodies such as chlorophyll (bleach), and (3) volatile trace comp
  • Futures 
    A type of contract established to pay today for something that will be delivered at a fixed future date. 
  • FW 
    Fresh water 
  • FW or Fr. wa. 
    Fresh water 
  • FWA 
    Fresh water allowance 
  • FWAD 
    Fresh Water Arrival Draft 
  • FWC 
    Fully loaded weight and capacity 
  • FWDD 
    Fresh Water Departure Draft 
  • FWE 
    Finished With Engine 
  • FWPCA 
    Federal Water Pollution Control Act 
  • gamazymes 
    Bioactive cleaning agents used in galleys, crew quarters and passenger sections on cruise liners 
  • Garbage Disposal Operations 
    Whereby the vessel lands a quantity of garbage for transfer to an approved garbage disposal location or facility ashore. 
  • Garbled 
    Garbling was the prohibited practice of mixing rubbish with the cargo. A distorted, mixed up message was said to be garbled. 
  • Gas Carrier 
    A specialised tanker built to comply with Marpol 73/78 Annex 1 and the appropriate IMO Code for Vessels Carrying Liquefied Gases in bulk. 
  • Gas Free 
    This refers to a steady state ‘gas free’ condition, meaning the atmosphere in the tank is “safe for man-entry”. The most common value taken for ‘gas free’ is that the atmosphere is below the LEL (Lower Explosive Limit) and that sufficient oxygen is presen
  • Gas plant 
    Facilities, which remove liquids from natural gas streams, bear this name. So do processing units in refineries which fractionate the light ends distilled from crude or produced by cracking and other upgrading equipment. In both cases, the plant separates
  • Gasoil 
    A refined petroleum product denser than motor gasoline and kerosene but lighter than residual oil. This hydrocarbon mixture has two common uses: fuel for furnaces and for small diesel engines. It gets several popular names from these applications, includi
  • Gasoline 
    Also called gas or petrol, gasoline is a mixture of volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbons derived from petroleum, with or without small quantities of additives, and used as motor fuel. It is also used as a solvent for oils and fats. 
  • Gateway 
    Industry–related: A point at which freight moving from one territory to another is interchanged be- tween transportation lines. 
  • GE 
    Glycol Ether. Manufactured from either propylene oxide or ethylene oxide reacted with an alcohol. They are mainly used as solvents, plasticizers and brake fluids. 
  • Geared Bulk Carriers 
    Typically in the handysize to handymax size range although there are a small number of geared panamax vessels, like all bulkers they feature a series of holds covered by prominent hatch covers. They have cranes, derricks or conveyors that allow them to lo
  • Gearless Carriers 
    Bulkers without cranes or conveyors. These ships depend on shore-based equipment at their ports of call for loading and discharging. They range across all sizes, the larger bulk carriers (VLOCs) can only dock at the largest ports, some of these are design
  • General Cargo Barge, non propelled 
    A barge without means of independent propulsion which carries break bulk cargoes, may be single or multi decked.  
  • General Cargo Barge, propelled 
    An self propelled barge with a single deck for the carriage of various types of dry cargo 
  • General Cargo Ship 
    A single or multi deck cargo vessel for the carriage of various types of dry cargo. Single deck vessels will typically have box shaped holds. Cargo is loaded and unloaded through weather deck hatches 
  • General Cargo Ship (with Ro-Ro facility) 
    A general cargo ship with the additional capability to be loaded and unloaded by ro-ro access to a limited portion of the cargo space 
  • General Cargo, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel designed for the transportation of Break Bulk Cargoes, May Be Single Or Multi Decked. Not designed for operation in open sea. 
  • General Cargo/Passenger Ship 
    A general cargo ship with accommodation for the carriage of more than 12 passengers 
  • General Cargo/Passenger Ship, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel designed for the transportation of dry cargo and with capacity for carriage of passengers. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • General Cargo/Tanker 
    A general cargo ship fitted with tanks for the additional carriage of liquid cargo 
  • General Cargo/Tanker (Container/oil/bulk - COB ship) 
    A general cargo ship with reversible hatch covers; one side is flush and the other is fitted with baffles for use with liquid cargoes. Containers can be carried on the hatch covers in dry cargo mode 
  • General Purpose Tanker 
    Tanker ranging in size between 10,000-24,999 DWT 
  • Generator Set (Gen Set) 
    A portable generator which can be attached to a refrigerated container to power the refrigeration unit during transit. 
    General Sea Waybill 
  • Ghee 
    A word derived from the Hindi word ""Chi"" meaning clarified and crystallised butter fat from buffalos or cows milk. Ghee made from buffalos milk is white, whereas that made from cows milk is yellow in colour. These products have a rich and pleasant flavo
  • Giving (someone) a Wide Berth 
    To anchor a ship far enough away from another ship so that they did not hit each other when they swung with the wind or tide. 
  • Global Maritime Intelligence Integration (GMII) 
    It is within the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, with the mission to ensure govern- ment–wide access to maritime information and data critical to intelligence production and to serve as the focal point and oversight agent for maritime spe
  • Glycerides (Triacylgycerols) 
    Natural fats and oils are mixtures of triglycerides. The esters of fatty acids combined with glycerol are often referred to as "triglyceride". Typical fatty acid compositions are tabled in Appendix B. In general solid fats contain a relatively high propor
  • Glycol 
    Any of a class of organic compounds belonging to the alcohol family; in the molecule of a glycol, two hydroxyl (OH) groups are attached to different carbon atoms. The term is often applied to the simplest member of the class, ethylene glycol. See ethylene
  • GMT 
    Greenwich mean time 
  • Go–Down 
    In the Far East, a warehouse where goods are stored and delivered. 
  • Gone by the Board 
    Anything seen to have gone overboard or spotted floating past the ship (by the board) was considered lost at sea. 
  • Gossypol 
    A natural constituent of cotton seeds which, if transferred to the crude oil, results in colour instability and an oil which is difficult to process. The cooking procedure of the cotton seeds is critical in determining whether gossypol is bound in the mea
  • Grab Dredger 
    A vessel equipped to obtain material from the sea bed by use of a grab or backhoe. The material may be carried on board, transferred to other vessels, pumped ashore or deposited elsewhere using a spray 
  • Grab Dredger Pontoon 
    A non propelled dredger pontoon fitted with a system of grabs 
  • Grade trade 
    A swap of one kind of oil for another. Such business involves exchanges like sour crude for sweet and gasoil for gasoline. 
  • Granularity 
    Agglomeration of crystals resulting in the formation of granules generally visible to the naked eye. There are a number of fat-based products, such as vanaspati and ghee, where a granular structure is very much appreciated by the consumers and is consider
  • Gravity 
    The density or weight to volume ratio of materials. The oil business usually expresses this quality in API degrees or specific gravity. 
  • Green Passport 
    A certificate which confirms which materials have been used in a vessel’s construction 
  • Greenhouse gases 
    Greenhouse gases are those gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and antropogenic, that absorb and emit radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface, the atmosphere and clouds. 
  • Gripe 
    A sailing vessel gripes when, by poor design or imbalance of sail, it tends to end up with its bow into the wind when sailing close-hauled. The sails flap around, forward progress is halted and she is very hard to steer. On land, the term means to complai
  • Groggy 
    In 1740, British Admiral Vernon (whose nickname was "Old Grogram" for the cloak of grogram which he wore) ordered that the sailors' daily ration of rum be diluted with water. The men called the mixture "grog". A sailor who drank too much grog was"groggy".
  • Gross Registered Tonnage (GRT) 
    Gross Register Tonnage. Internal cubic capacity of the ship expressed in tons on the basis of 100 cubic feet per ton. This differs from DWT because it measures the area versus the weight. NOTE: GRT was replaced by GT back in 1982. 
  • Gross Terms 
    Terms under which the carrier has to arrange and pay for cargo handling 
  • Gross Tonnage 
    (0.2+0.02*log10V)*V, where V is the volume in cubic metres of all enclosed spaces on board 
  • Gross Tonnage (GT, G.T. or gt) 
    Gross tonnage is calculated based on "the moulded volume of all enclosed spaces of the ship" and is used to determine things such as a ship's manning regulations, safety rules, registration fees and port dues, whereas the older gross register tonnage is a
  • Gross Weight 
    Entire weight of goods, packaging and freight car or container, ready for shipment. Generally, 80,000 pounds maximum container, cargo and tractor for highway transport. 
  • Grounding 
    when a vessel strikes the bottom of the sea or channel 
  • Groundswell 
    A sudden rise of water along the shore. It often happens when the weather is fine and the sea behind it appears calm. Said to occur when undulating water from a far away storm reaches the shoreline where friction causes the swell. In common use, the term
    Good safe always afloat always accessible berth 
  • GSBAA 
    Good and safe berth always afloat 
  • GSP 
    Government selling price. The price of crude or products established by a government marketing company. Sometimes written GEP, for government established price. See posted price. 
  • GT, G.T. or G/T 
    Refers to any Gas Turbine tanker, i.e. tanker fitted with a Gas Turbine for propulsion. 
  • Guarantees 
    A seller promises to deliver oil at least as good as the guarantees--guaranteed specifications--he puts on it. When material sells on guarantees, the buyer can refuse to accept it, or demand a price adjustment, if it fails to meet any of them. 
  • Gunwale 
    The upper edge of a ship’s sides 
  • GVW 
    Gross vehicle weight 
  • GZ 
    Ship Stability: Symbol for righting arm; horizontal distance measured between the vertical lines of forces between G and B. GZ is measured horizontally from G to a point of intersection of the upward line of force from B at a point labeled Z. 
  • H.A. OR D. 
    Havre, Antwerp or Dunkirk 
  • H2S 
    Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. It is a colorless, very poisonous, flammable gas with the characteristic foul odor of rotten eggs. 
  • Hand over Fist 
    Hand over hand was a British term for the act of moving quickly up a rope or hoisting a sail, which was a matter of pride and competition among sailors. It is thought that American sailors changed this term to ‘hand over fist’, and the term now means to a
  • Handy 
    Vessel designed for carrying refined petroleum products in bulk tanks (19,001 dwt - 25,000 dwt approx ) 
  • Handy-sized vessel 
    A tankship suited to tie up at a T2 type pier. The mooring capacity of such berths restricts vessel length (LOA) to a maximum of 560-600 feet. In modern ship designs, this LOA allows a deadweight tonnage slightly exceeding 30,000. Such a tanker defines th
  • Handymax 
    Handymax or Supramax is a naval architecture term for a bulk carrier, typically between 35,000 and 60,000 metric tons deadweight (DWT). A handymax ship is typically 150–200 m (492–656 ft) in length, though certain bulk terminal restrictions, such as those
  • Handymax Vessel 
    A dry bulk vessel of 35,000 to 49,000dwt. (Note that a “Handy” drybulk carrier is from 10,000 to 34,000dwt.) A “Handymax Tanker” is a liquid bulk carrier of 10,000 to 60,000dwt. 
  • Handysize 
    Usually refers to a dry bulk vessel with deadweight of about 15,000–35,000 tons. The most common industry-standard specification handysize bulker is now about 32,000 metric tons of deadweight on a summer draft of about 10 metres (33 ft), and features 5 ca
  • Handysize Tanker 
    A product tanker that ranges in size between 27,000 and 39,999 deadweight tonnes. 
  • Harbor 
    A harbor is a sheltered part of a body of water deep enough to provide anchorage for ships or a place of refuge. Key features of all harbors include shelter from both long-and short period open ocean waves, easy safe access to the ocean in all types of we
  • Harbor and Ship Assist Tugs 
    Tugboats are designed to be powerful enough to push and pull objects many times their size. Harbor tugs are essential in every port to help maneuver large ships through narrow harbors and to assist them in docking and undocking from confined spaces. Harbo
  • Hard and Fast 
    A ship that was hard and fast was simply one that was firmly beached on land. Has come to mean ‘rigidly adhered to – without doubt or debate’. 
  • Hard Butter 
    A generic term used primarily in the confectionery industry to describe a class of fats with physical characteristics similar to those of cocoa butter or dairy butter. 
  • Hard Up 
    Hard is another often used nautical term. To put the helm hard over is to put it as far as it will go in that direction. Hard and fast describes a vessel firmly aground and unable to make progress and has come ashore to mean rigid. ‘Hard up in a clinch an
  • Hazard 
    The hazard associated with a chemical is its intrinsic ability to cause an adverse effect. It should be compared to risk, which is the chance that such effects will occur. Whilst a chemical may have hazardous properties, provided it is handled safely unde
  • HBL 
    Hydrostatic Balanced Loading (Marpol 13g): A process that may be adopted by single hull tankers if they wish to trade beyond 25 years of age through to final "phase-out" date at 30 years of age. This method of operation is designed to reduce the environ 
  • HDPE 
    High-density polyethylene. A plastic that is used predominantly in the manufacture of blow-molded bottles for milk and household cleaners and injection-molded pails, bottle caps, appliance housings, and toys. 
  • HDWTS 
    Half Despatch Working Time Saved 
    Half dispatch working time saved both ends 
    Half despatch working time saved both ends 
  • Health Hazard 
    A chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees 
  • Heart cut 
    A distillation fraction restricted to a narrow range to meet specific needs. The navy, for instance, buys a heart cut of ordinary jet kero known as JP-5. 
  • Heat Bleaching 
    The process by which the natural carotene which colours crude palm oil is destroyed in the final stage of refining during deodorisation at temperatures above 240°C. Sometimes called "thermal bleaching". 
  • Heaving 
    Ship Stability: is the linear vertical (up/down) motion 
  • In-line blending 
    The practice of pumping various motor gasoline components from their individual storage tanks into a single pipe and mixing them in the process. Gasoline made in such fashion generally is intended for bulk in shipment. Typically it flows directly aboard a
  • Incentive Rate 
    A lower–than–usual tariff rate assessed because a shipper offers a greater volume than specified in the tariff. The incentive rate is assessed for that portion exceeding the normal volume. 
  • Incinerator 
    A vessel equipped for the (now illegal) incineration of waste material at sea 
    Internaitonal Commercial Terms: A list of standard contract terms which specify the obligations for the delivery of goods in International Contracts particularly traded commodities. It is compiled and published the International Chamber of Commerce. 
    The recognized abbreviation for the International Chamber of Commerce Terms of Sale. These terms were last amended, effective July 1, 1990. 
  • Indemnity Bond 
    An agreement to hold a carrier harmless with regard to a liability. 
  • Independent Action 
    Setting rate within a conference tariff that is different from the rate(s) for the same items established by other conference members. 
  • Independent surveyors 
    The inspection and testing organizations hired by petroleum companies to determine how much and what quality of oil changed hands in performance on a deal. In the interest of impartiality, buyers and sellers usually share the cost of inspections. 
  • Indication 
    A suggestion given by a prospective buyer or seller of what he might do. Indications imply no commitments. At this level of discussions, folks can change their minds without serious consequences. 
  • Infantry Landing Craft 
    A combat vessel with a bow ramp for landing or loading infantry 
  • Infrared Radiation 
    The visible light is only a small fraction of the electromagnetic waves. Waves with wavelength longer than the visible red are generally called infrared radiation. Infrared radiation is that section of the spectrum covering the range from the limit of the
  • Inherent Vice 
    An insurance term referring to any defect or other characteristic of a product that could result in dam- age to the product without external cause (for example, instability in a chemical that could cause it to explode spontaneously). Insurance policies ma
  • Initial boiling point 
    The temperature where a natural material or fraction begins to boil. 
  • Inland Barge Tow 
    Towboats push barges on the nation's inland waterways loaded with materials and products that are the building blocks of America's economy - coal, grain, petroleum products, petrochemicals, fertilizers, sand, gravel, metal scrap, etc. One tow can be compr
  • Inland Barges 
    Self-propelled barges or dumb barges employed in port areas, on inland waterways sheltered or estuarial waters, which are not classified as seagoing vessels, including tankers not covered by international convention. Inland barges may be regulated by loca
  • Inland Bill Of Lading 
    An inland bill of lading allows the transporter to move goods across domestic land, via rail or truck. If the goods are to be shipped overseas, an addition document known as an "ocean bill of lading" is required. The inland bill only allows the materials
  • Inland Carrier 
    A transportation line that hauls export or import traffic between ports and inland points. 
    If New York, not north of George Washington bridge 
  • Inorganic 
    Inorganic is said of any substance in which two or more chemical elements other than carbon are combined. Every chemical is either inorganic or organic. 
  • INST. 
    Clauses oficially accepted by the Institute of clauses London Underwriters 
  • Installment Shipments 
    Successive shipments are permitted under letters of credit. Usually they must take place within a given period of time. 
  • Insulated Container 
    A container insulated on the walls, roof, floor, and doors, to reduce the effect of external temperatures on the cargo. 
  • Insurance with Average–clause 
    This type of clause covers merchandise if the damage amounts to three percent or more of the in- sured value of the package or cargo. If the vessel burns, sinks, or collides, all losses are fully covered. In marine insurance, the word average describes pa
  • Insurance, General–Average 
    In water transportation, the deliberate sacrifice of cargo to make the vessel safe for the remaining cargo.Those sharing in the spared cargo proportionately cover the loss. 
  • Insurance, Particular Average 
    A Marine insurance term which refers to partial loss on an individual shipment from one of the perils insured against, regardless of the balance of the cargo. Particular–average insurance can usually be obtained, but the loss must be in excess of a certai
  • Integrated oil companies 
    Organizations which find, produce, transport, and refine oil, and market oil products. Less complete enterprises concentrate on a part of this sequence. The industry calls its largest integrated companies the majors. 
    International Association of Dry Cargo shipowners 
  • Interchange Point 
    A location where one carrier delivers freight to another carrier. 
  • Interchangeabililty 
    All fats have a common basic chemical structure, being triglycerides. However, because the fatty acids in combination vary, the physical properties of different fats are not identical. In general, liquid character is imparted by unsaturated acids and by s
  • Intercoastal 
    Water service between two coasts; in the U.S., this usually refers to water service between the Atlantic and Pacific or Gulf Coasts. 
  • Interesterication  
    A term given to the production of esters by interaction of two esters in the presence of an alkaline or enzymatic catalyst. 
  • Interior Channel 
    The access channel system inside a water body that connects the entrance channel (inlet or bar) to a port or harbor with appropriate ship facilities. Interior channels are usually located to provide some protection from waves and weather and are located i
  • Interline Freight 
    Freight moving from origin to destination over the Freight lines of two or more transportation car- riers. 
  • Intermediate 
    A partially refined petroleum stream. Such materials require further processing to make finished products. Various intermediates sell as feedstocks. The industry also uses this word as an adjective to designate a medium score on some quality ranking--betw
  • Intermediate crude 
    Petroleum with sulfur content between sweet and sour--often defined as between 0.5 and 1.0 weight percent sulfur. 
  • Intermediate Point 
    A point located en route between two other points. 
    Carriage of a commodity by different modes of transport, i.e. sea, road, rail and air within a single journey. 
    The International Association of Independent Tanker Owners: An international organisation based in London whose aim is to represent the views of its members at International Forums. 
  • Inward Foreign Manifest (IFM) 
    A complete listing of all cargo entering the country of discharge. Required at all world ports and is the primary source of cargo control, against which duty is assessed by the receiving country. 
  • Iodine Value 
    Iodine value is a measure of the total number of unsaturated double bonds present in an oil. Determination of iodine value involves the addition of an excess of halogen to the sample, reaction of the excess halogen with potassium iodide and titration of l
  • IOU 
    I owe you 
  • Iron 
    Iron acts as a catalyst in oxidation processes and thus it is detrimental to the quality of oils and fats. Iron is a trace metal, its presence in vegetable oils is mainly due to contamination such as wear and tear of machinery during extraction and during
  • Irrevocable Letter of Credit 
    Letter of credit in which the specified payment is guaranteed by the bank if all terms and conditions are met by the drawee and which cannot be revoked without joint agreement of both the buyer and the seller. 
  • Irritant 
    A substance that produces an irritating effect when it contacts the skin, eyes, nose or respiratory system. 
  • ISLWG 
    International Shipping Legislation Working Group (UNCTAD) 
  • ISO 14001 
    Provides standards on how to manage a company''s activities in a way that minimizes harm to the environment. 
  • Isobutanol 
    Isobutanol is a colorless, flammable organic compound classified as an alcohol. As such, it is widely used as a solvent in chemical reactions and as a starting material for organic synthesis. 
  • Isobutyl acetate 
    Isobutyl acetate is a common solvent, produced from the esterification of isobutanol with acetic acid. 
  • Isobutylene 
    Isobutylene is used in organic synthesis and in the production of high octane aviation gasoline. Its main use is in the production of butyl rubber where it comprises 98% of the raw material used. 
  • Isomer 
    Compounds containing the same elements in the same proportions which can exist in more than one structural form, e.g. geometric, positional or cyclic. 
  • Isomer 
    One of two or more compounds of the same type and chemical formula but different configurations. For example two C4 paraffins, isobutane and normal butane have the same number of carbon and hydrogen atoms. But the carbons form a T shape in one and a strai
  • Isomer-Isomeric 
    Two or more substances that have identical molecular formulas but different molecular structures or configurations, and hence different properties, are called isomers. Isomers differ only in the arrangement of their component atoms. 
  • Isomerisation 
    The chemical process by which a compound is transformed into any of its isomeric forms, i.e., forms with the same chemical composition but with different structure or configuration and, hence, generally with different physical and chemical properties. An
  • Isomerzation 
    A process which forces one isomer to become another. The most common application in the oil industry involves twisting linear paraffins into branched-chain form. Many refiners turn into isobutane, and a normal pentane hexane stream into an isopentaneisohe
  • Isophorone 
    Isophorone is a clear liquid that can be dissolved in water. It is an industrial chemical used extensively as a solvent in some printing inks, paints, lacquers, adhesives, vinyl resins, copolymers, coatings, finishes, and pesticides, in addition to being
  • Isopropanol 
    Isopropanol is a major component of rubbing alcohols. Isopropanol is a secondary alcohol. It is one of the cheapest alcohols and has replaced ethanol for many uses because of its similar solvent properties. Isopropanol was formerly obtained largely by cat
  • Isopropyl acetate 
    Isopropyl Acetate is a fast evaporating, mild odor solvent that is miscible with most common organic solvents and has properties intermediate between ethyl and butyl acetates. Isopropyl acetate can be used as surfactant in cleaning fluids, coatings, coati
  • Issuing Bank 
    Bank that opens a straight or negotiable letter of credit and assumes the obligation to pay the bank or beneficiary if the documents presented are in accordance with the terms of the letter of credit. 
  • ISWG 
    Intersessional Working Group on Maritime Security 
  • IT 
    Immediate Transport: The document (prepared by the carrier) allows shipment to proceed from the port of entry in the U.S. to Customs clearing at the destination. The shipment clears Customs at its final destination. Also called an “In–Transit” Entry. 
  • ITF 
    International Transport Workers Fedration 
  • ITF 
    International Transportworkers Federation 
  • ITF or ITFW 
    International Transport Worker’s Federation 
  • ITOPF 
    International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation 
  • IWL 
    Institute Warranty Limits 
  • j. & w.o. 
    Jettison and washing overboard 
  • Jacket 
    A wood or fiber cover placed around such containers as cans and bottles. 
  • Jet 
    A nickname for kerosene-range aviation turbine fuel. A somewhat longer expression, jet kero, also enjoys wide popularity as a substitute for the formal designation. 
  • Jetties 
    Structural features that provide obstructions to littoral drift, control entrance currents, prevent or reduce shoaling in the entrance channel, maintain channel alignment, and provide protection from waves for navigation (EM 1110-2-1613). 
  • Jettison 
    Act of throwing cargo or equipment (jetsam) overboard when a ship is in danger. 
  • JIT 
    Just In Time: In this method of inventory control, warehousing is minimal or non–existent; the container is the movable warehouse and must arrive “just in time;” not too early nor too late. 
  • Joint Rate 
    A rate applicable from a point on one transportation line to a point on another line, made by agreement and published in a single tariff by all transportation lines over which the rate applies. 
  • Joint Service 
    Two or more shipping companies jointly operating a service 
  • Joint Survey 
    An Inspection carried out by a surveyor on behalf of two parties with the cost generally being borne by both. Generally, cargo surveys often fall under this category, but surveys are carried out for a myriad of reasons, including but not limited to on and
  • Joint Venture 
    A Joint Venture is a contractual arrangement whereby two or more parties control jointly an economic activity. The economic activity is carried through a separate enterprise (company or partnership, it is handled as a jointly controlled enterprise. Joint
  • JP-4 
    Jet B. A common grade of military jet fuel. The industry habitually calls this product naphtha-type jet because it has a lower boiling range than civil jet kero. 
  • JSA 
    Japanese Shipowners' Association 
  • Junk 
    Old rope no longer able to take a load, it was cut into shorter lengths and used to make mops and mats. 
  • Jury Rig 
    A temporary repair to keep a disabled ship sailing until it could make port, such as a jury sail erected when the mast was lost or a jury rudder as an emergency means of steering when the ship’s rudder was damaged. 
  • K OW 
    Octanol-water partition coefficient. The ratio of a chemical's solubility in n-octanol and water at steady state; also expressed as P. The logarithm of P or K OW (i.e., log P or K OW) is used as an indication of a chemical's propensity of bioconcentration
  • K.D. 
    Knocked down 
  • K.D.F. 
    Knocked down flat 
  • Kamsramax 
    A Kamsarmax type bulk carrier is basically a 82,000 dwt Panamax with an increased LOA = 229 m (for Port Kamsar in Equatorial Guinea). 
  • Karl Fischer 
    The measurement of small amounts of water in oils and fats is most suitably done by the Karl Fischer procedure in which the water is reacted with a special reagent. Unlike methods using oven drying, the Karl Fischer method is specific for water. It is par
  • Keel 
    Longitudinal girder at lowest point of a ship, from which the framework is built up. The keel provides ship with stability and structural integrity. 
  • Kelp Dredger 
    A vessel equipped for harvesting kelp seaweed 
  • Kerosene 
    A petroleum product which boils between naphtha gasoil. This cut's distillation range can vary to accommodate other products. Many refiners want to take naphtha as high as 350 or 375 F. In those cases, the kerosene cut has a rather high initial boiling po
  • Kinematic viscosity 
    A measure of liquid's rate of flow under gravity. The standard test of this property determines the time a sample of material requires to drain through a laboratory vessel. 
  • Knocked Down (KD) 
    Articles which are taken apart to reduce the cubic footage displaced or to make a better shipping unit and are to be re–assembled 
  • Knocking 
    Preignition. If the gasolineair vapor in a motor's cylinders is too compressed, the heat produced will cause it to ignite without the aid of a spark. This uncontrolled combustion probably will not occur at the ideal moment to transfer energy and promote r
  • Knot 
    One nautical mile (6,076 feet or 1852 meters) per hour. In the days of sail, speed was measured by tossing overboard a log which was secured by a line. Knots were tied into the line at intervals of ap- proximately six feet. The number of knots measured wa
  • Known Loss 
    A loss discovered before or at the time of delivery of a shipment. 
  • Kyoto Protocol 
    International agreement, adopted under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions  
  • Lacyhrymator 
    A material which produces an excess production of tear fluid when it comes into contact with the eye.  
  • Lakers 
    Bulkers prominent on the Great Lakes, often identifiable by having a forward house which helps in transiting locks. Operating in fresh water, these ships suffer much less corrosion damage and have a much longer lifespan than saltwater ships. 
  • Landbridge 
    Movement of cargo by water from one country through the port of another country, thence, using rail or truck, to an inland point in that country or to a third country. As example, a through movement of Asian cargo to Europe across North America. 
  • Landing Certificate 
    Certificate issued by consular officials of some importing countries at the point or place of export when the subject goods are exported under bond. 
  • Landing Craft 
    An open deck cargo vessel onto which cargo is loaded and unloaded over a bow door/ramp 
  • Landing Gear 
    A support fixed on the front part of a chassis (which is retractable); used to support the front end of a chassis when the tractor has been removed. 
  • Landing Ship (Dock Type) 
    A combat vessel designed for the transport of troops, using a semi submersible dock to launch landing craft or helicopters, and with ro-ro ramp facilities 
    whereby each unit of space (Linear Meter) is represented by an area of deck 1.0 meter in length x 2.0 meters in width. 
  • Lanemeter 
    Primarily used to indicate the cargo capacity of a roll–on/roll–off car carrier. It is one meter of deck with a width of 2.5 to 3.0 meters. 
  • LAT 
    Latitude or Lowest Astronomical Tide 
  • Latex (pl. latices) 
    A water emulsion of a synthetic rubber or plastic obtained by polymerization and used especially in coatings, paints and adhesives. Latices include a binder dispersed in the water and form films by fusion of the plastic particles as the water evaporates.
  • Lauric Fats and Oils 
    The largest volume lauric fats and oils are coconut and palm kernel, which are vital to the manufacture of surfactants among other applications. Lauric oils typically contain 40-50% lauric acid (C12) in combination with lesser amounts of other relatively
  • Lauric Oils 
    Oils containing 40-50% lauric acids (C12 ) in combination with other relatively low molecular weight fatty acids. Coconut and palm kernel oils are principal examples. 
  • Laycan 
    The period when a spot chartered ship must arrive to load a cargo. The word combines “laydays” and “cancellation” as does the concept. Charter parties specify a range of days when the terminal will receive the ship which corresponds to the laydays of the
  • Laydays 
    The ship-loading window allotted to a parcel of oil. A supplier names a period of time when his customer must lift the oil he has purchased. Cargoes get several days, barges perhaps a single day, consistent with the time required to load the quantity invo
  • Laytime 
    A specific number of hours, named in the pertinent charter party, a tanker must prepare to spend on berth at the shipowner's expense. Details vary from one fixture to another. Usually, though, owner and charterer agree on a total laytime for a voyage whic
  • LBP 
    Length Between Perpendiculars 
  • LC-50 
    Lethal Concentration 50. This concentration of a hazardous material in air is expected to kill 50% of a group of test animals when given as a single respiratory exposure in a specific time period 
  • LCR 
    Lowest current rate 
  • LD 
    Lethal Dose. The dose of a substance being tested which will kill a test+ animal. 
  • LD-LO 
    Lethal Dose Low. The lowest dose, other than inhalation, that caused death in humans or animals. 
  • LDPE 
    Low Density Polyethylene. A plastic used predominantly in film applications due to its toughness, flexibility and relative transparency. LDPE has a low melting point, making it popular for use in applications where heat sealing is necessary. Typically, LD
  • Leeway 
    The weather side of a ship is the side from which the wind is blowing. The Lee side is the side of the ship sheltered from the wind. A lee shore is a shore that is downwind of a ship. If a ship does not have enough “leeway” it is in danger of being driven
  • LEL 
    Lower Explosive Limit 
  • Less Than Truckload 
    Also known as LTL or LCL. 
  • Let the Cat Out of the Bag 
    In the Royal Navy the punishment prescribed for most serious crimes was flogging. This was administered by the Bosun's Mate using a whip called a cat o' nine tails. The "cat" was kept in a leather or baize bag. It was considered bad news indeed when the c
  • Lethal Concentration Low, LC-LO 
    This value indicates the lowest concentration of a substance in the air that caused death in humans or laboratory animals. This value may represent periods of exposure that are less than 24 hours (acute) or greater than 24 hours (subacute and chronic). 
  • Letter of Credit (LC) 
    A document, issued by a bank per instructions by a buyer of goods, authorizing the seller to draw a specified sum of money under specified terms, usually the receipt by the bank of certain documents within a given time. 
  • Letter of Indemnity 
    In order to obtain the clean bill of lading, the shipper signs a letter of indemnity to the carrier on the basis of which may be obtained the clean bill of lading, although the dock or mate’s receipt showed that the shipment was damaged or in bad conditio
  • LF 
    Low frequency 
  • LFL 
    Lower Flammable Limit 
  • LGC or L.G.C. 
    Longitudinal Center of Gravity: That point at which the combined weight of all the items that constitute a ship's weight are considered to be concentrated; usually stated as either aft or forward of the middle perpendicular or the midship frame. 
  • LH 
    Lower hold 
  • LHAR 
    London, Hull, Antwerp, Rotterdam range 
  • Lifter 
    A product purchaser who takes (lifts) crude, fuel, or feedstock physically from a producer's or reseller's facility. Oil frequently has a buyer and a lifter. The buyer, some times a contract holder, sells his stem to someone else who lifts it from the sou
  • Light Crude 
    Crude oil that is easier to pump and process due to a lower viscosity. 
  • Light ends 
    Hydrocarbons lighter than naphtha derived from crude oil and natural gas processing. The industry also describes this collection of volatile materials as “C 4 and lighter.” Butane, propane, ethane and methane, the predominant hydrocarbons in this cut, wou
  • Light naphtha 
    A naphtha cut with a boiling range which commonly extends from pentane through 175 F or perhaps a bit higher. The exact end point varies with the needs and objectives refiner. See NAPHTHA. 
  • Lighter 
    An open or covered barge towed by a tugboat and used mainly in harbors and inland waterways to carry cargo to/from alongside a vessel. 
  • Lightering 
    Unloading of cargo from deep draft vessels into smaller vessels that are able to enter shallower ports. 
  • Lightering 
    ship-to-ship transfer of cargo in deepwater to complete loading of a vessel leaving a shallow load port (or berth) or to partially unload one which draws too much water to reach a shallow point. 
  • Limestone Carrier 
    A single deck cargo vessel for the carriage of limestone in bulk. There are no weather deck hatches. May be self discharging 
  • Line–Haul 
    Transportation from one city to another as differentiated from local switching service. 
  • Linolenic Acid 
    It is widely distributed in nature as a major component of many of the more highly unsaturated vegetable oils (C18:3). It is a major component of linseed oil and its high degree of unsaturation is responsible for the drying properties of the oil. 
  • Lipid 
    Historically a general term for natural organic products that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. The most common lipids are the neutral triglycerides (oils, fats) but the term includes minor components, often of biological importance,
  • Lipoprotein 
    Any of the class of proteins that contain a lipid combined with a simple protein. 
  • Liquefied Natural Gas 
    LNG - Natural gas that has been cooled to - 260°F ( - 163°C), which liquefies it for safer, easier transport. 
  • Listless 
    When a ship was listless, she was sitting still and upright in the water, with no wind to make her lean over (list) and drive ahead. 
  • Live Fish Carrier (Well Boat) 
    A vessel for the carriage of live fish in water tanks 
  • LLDPE 
    Linear Low Density Polyethylene. A plastic that is used predominantly in film applications due to its toughness, flexibility and relative transparency. LLDPE is the preferred resin for injection molding because of its superior toughness and is used in ite
  • Lloyds’ Registry 
    An organization maintained for the surveying and classing of ships so that insurance underwriters and others may know the quality and condition of the vessels offered for insurance or employment. 
  • LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) 
    Natural gas will liquefy at a temperature of approximately -259 F or -160 C at atmospheric pressure. One cubic foot of liquefied gas will expand to approximately 600 cubic feet of gas at atmospheric pressure. 
  • LNG Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of Liquefied Natural Gas (primarily methane) in independent insulated tanks. Liquefaction is achieved at temperatures down to -163 deg C 
  • Lo Ho 
    Lower Hold 
  • LOA 
    Length-over-all. Distance between the fore-most and aft-most points of a ship. 
  • Load Center 
    A high volume container port effectively reducing vessel port calls by concentrating intermodal sea-land transfers at a few large ports rather than spreading them out among a larger number of small ports. 
  • Load Line 
    The waterline corresponding to the maximum draft to which a vessel is permitted to load, either by freeboard regulations, the conditions of classification, or the conditions of service. See also Plimsoll Mark. 
  • Load on Top 
    The procedure where a crude oil cargo is loaded into tanks on top of residues from a previous cargo (these residues are normally held in a "slop tank" and are the result of tank washing and dirty ballast decanting operations on pre-MARPOL ships). 
  • Local Cargo 
    Cargo delivered to/from the carrier where origin/destination of the cargo is in the local area. 
  • Local toxicity 
    Adverse effects seen at the site where the test material comes into initial contact with the organism. 
  • Location swap 
    A deal in which companies trade oil in one place for some somewhere else. 
  • Lock and Dam 
    a device for raising and lowering boats from one water level to another. It is often associated with a dam. 
  • Locks 
    Tows must navigate through locks in order to get around dams on the rivers. Many locks on the nation's waterways are now over 60 years old and are too small to accommodate the size of the modern tows, forcing those tows to be broken up and taken through t
  • Log P OW 
    See Octanol-water partition coefficient 
  • Log Tipping Ship 
    A vessel equipped to transport logs discharge them into the water by tipping itself 
  • Log Towing 
    One disappearing but fascinating function of the towing industry is log towing, where small boats pull logs on rivers to sawmills in log rafts, frames of logs connected with chains within which are hundreds of logs. Today, this operation is only performed
  • Logistics Vessel (Naval Ro-Ro Cargo) 
    A naval auxiliary vessel. With ro-ro capability 
  • Long Shot 
    In old warships, the muzzle-loading cannon were charged with black powder of uncertain potency that would propel the iron shot an equally uncertain distance with doubtful accuracy. A 24-pounder long gun, for instance, was considered to have a maximum effe
  • Longitudinal Axis 
    Ship Stability: an axis drawn through the body of the vehicle from tail to nose in the normal direction of movement, or the direction the pilot faces. Parallel to the waterline. 
  • Loose 
    Without packing. 
  • Loose Cannon 
    A cannon having come loose on the deck of a pitching, rolling, and yawing deck could cause severe injury and damage. Has come to mean an unpredictable or uncontrolled person who is likely to cause unintentional damage. 
  • LOSG 
    Lower Olefins Sector Group, a sector group of the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • Lovibond 
    This refers to a widely used system by which the colour of an oil can be measured. The essential features of this system consist of a light source, a series of calibrated coloured glasses forming the standards of reference and an instrument in which they
  • LOW 
    Last open water 
  • Low pour 
    A description of distillate or residual fuel oils, which flow at relatively low temperatures. Sometimes, the industry uses this term, and its opposite, informally. Frequently, though, it designates oil meeting specific standards of a particular market. 
  • Low-speed diesel 
    Very powerful, heavy-duty diesel engines such as those used to drive ocean-going ships and large electricity generators.These engines burn residual oil. 
  • Low–Boy 
    A trailer or semi–trailer with no sides and with the floor of the unit close to the ground. 
  • Lower olefin 
    See Olefins 
  • LPA 
    Low Pressure 
  • LPG 
    Liquefied Petroleum Gas: A nonrenewable gaseous fossil fuel, which turns to liquid under moderate pressure;by-product of natural gas processing and oil refining 
  • LPG Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of Liquefied Petroleum Gas in insulated tanks, which may be independent or integral. The cargo is pressurised (smaller vessels), refrigerated (larger vessels) or both ('semi-pressurised') to achieve liquefaction.  
  • LR-1 
    AFRA's large-range 1 tankers. These ships' deadweight tonnages fall between 45,000 and 79,999. 
  • LR-2 
    AFRA's large-range 2 tankers. These vessels have deadweight tonnages between 80,000 and 159,999. 
  • LR1 Tanker 
    Long Range 1 (LR1) Tanker - Product tanker ranging in size between 45,000 and 79,999 deadweight tonnes. Main trade routes are Middle East Gulf to the Far East and Europe, or from northwest Europe to the United States. 
  • LR2 Tanker 
    Long Range 2 (LR2) Tanker - Product tanker ranging in size from 80,000 to 159,999 deadweight tonnes. Main trade routes are Middle East Gulf to the Far East and Europe, or from northwest Europe to the United States. The LR2 segment consists of the largest
  • LRF 
    Lloyds Register Fairplay: Publications such as the Register of Ships and the World Shipping Directory, Lloyd's Register - Fairplay also provides bespoke data services and market analyses. 
    Loaded, stowed, lasned, secured, dunnaged and unlashed 
  • Lubricating Oil 
    Is a Clean Petroleum Product (CPP) as defined in this section. It is a product of many specialist grades derived through the blending of components known as Base Oils. 
  • LW 
    Low Water 
  • LWH 
    Length, width, height 
  • LWM 
    Low water mark 
  • LWNA 
    Lumber Winter North Atlantic 
  • LWOST 
    Low Water On Ordinary Spring Tides 
  • LWR 
  • LWT 
    Lightweight tons 
  • Macro-Bridge 
    Also known as "land bridge:. It is the same as mini-bridge, except that it involves substitution of land transportation across the United States in place of water service, for traffic that originates and terminates outside of the United States. 
  • Mainstay 
    A stay that extends from the maintop to the foot of the foremast of a sailing ship. Currently, a thing upon which something is based or depends. 
  • Malpractice 
    A carrier giving a customer illegal preference to attract cargo. This can take the form of a money refund (rebate); using lower figures than actual for the assessment of freight charges (undercubing); misdeclaration of the commodity shipped to allow the a
  • Mandamu 
    A writ issued by a court; requires that specific things be done. 
  • Marine Insurance 
    Broadly, insurance covering loss or damage of goods at sea. Marine insurance typically compensates the owner of merchandise for losses sustained from fire, shipwreck, etc., but excludes losses that can be recovered from the carrier. 
  • Marine Oils 
    The first common source of marine oil was obtained from whales. Today, whale numbers have been reduced to insignificance. Various types of fish are caught for processing into meal and oil, for example, herring, menhaden and anchovy. After refining and par
  • Marine pollutant 
    Substances, articles or materials which, if released into the aquatic environment, may cause serious environmental damage. 
  • Maritime Domain 
    It is all areas and things of, on, under, relating to, adjacent to, or bordering on a sea, ocean, or other navigable waterway, including all maritime related activities, infrastructure, people, cargo, and vessels and other conveyances. 
  • Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) 
    It is the effective understanding of anything associated with the global maritime domain that could impact the security, safety, economy, or environment of the United States. 
  • Maritime lien 
    A right in the propery of a ship, conferred by law for seamens wages, salvage, etc. 
  • Maritime Security and Safety Information System (MSSIS) 
    It shares and displays vessel Automated Identification System (AIS) data real–time with multiple international users through a web–based, password–protected system. 
  • Maritime Waterways 
    Inland waterways linked to the sea, basically used for the traffic of seagoing vessels and designated as such under national law 
  • Mark I 
    WW designation for ro-ro carriers built in 1978-79 
  • Mark II 
    WW designation for ro-ro carriers built in 1984 
  • Mark III 
    WW designation for ro-ro carriers built in 1996 
  • Mark IV 
    WW designation for ro-ro carriers built in 2000-01 
  • Markets 
    Markets for oleochemicals continue to evolve, with niche markets developing continually. Nonetheless, the main end-use markets include building auxiliaries, candles, cleaning agents, cosmetics, detergents, fire extinguishing agents, flotation agents, food
  • Marking 
    Letters, numbers, and other symbols placed on cargo packages to facilitate identification. Also known as marks. 
    The abbreviated term for the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution by Ships (MARine POLlution) The International regulations concerning the construction of vessels and procedures to be followed to prevent pollution of the sea by oil, no
  • Marpol Category 
    The Pollution Category (X, Y, Z) assigned to each product under Annex II of MARPOL 73/78. OS means the product was evaluated, and found to fall outside the categories X, Y, or Z. I indicates that the product is an Annex 1 product. 
  • MarView 
    It is an integrated, data–driven environment providing essential information to support the strategic requirements of the United States Marine Transportation System and its contribution to economic viability of the nation. 
  • Mass explosion 
    Explosion which affects almost the entire load virtually instantaneously. 
  • Master Inbound 
    U.S. Customs’ automated program under AMS. It allows for electronic reporting of inbound (foreign) cargoes in the U.S. 
  • Mate’s Receipt 
    An archaic practice. An acknowledgement of cargo receipt signed by a mate of the vessel. The possessor of the mate’s receipt is entitled to the bill of lading, in exchange for that receipt. 
  • MCR 
    Maximum Continuous Rating - Maximum warranted power an engine can sustain under continuous operation. 
  • MCT 
    Medium-Chain Triglyceride. Triglycerides containing fatty acid chains of 6-10 carbon atoms which are readily absorbed by the body. 
  • MDWT 
    Metric DeadWeight Tons 
  • Measurement Cargo 
    Freight on which transportation charges are calculated on the basis of volume measurement. 
  • Mechanical Lift Dock 
    A lifting dock facility using winches to lower and raise platform 
  • Mechanically Ventilated Container 
    A container fitted with a means of forced air ventilation. 
  • Mechanism of toxicity 
    The way in which a chemical alters basic biological functions and structures in order to exert its toxic effect(s) 
  • Medium-speed diesel 
    Moderately large diesel engines such as those which propel large boats and heavy-duty locomotives. These engines burn a heavy gasoil which sometimes takes their name. 
  • Megaports Initiative 
    It is a National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) initiative, started in 2003. It teams up with other countries to enhance their ability to screen cargo at major international seaports. The Initiative provides radiation detection equipment and train
  • Melting 
    When heated sufficiently, a solid changes state to a liquid. The melting of a fat depends on its previous triglyceride composition. The baking or spreading performance of commercial fats depends greatly on their melting behaviour. Solid fat content measur
  • Mercaptans 
    Mercaptan sulfur. Excessive concentrations of these malodorous organic sulfur molecules make motor gasoline unmerchantable. Blenders, therefore, want to know the mercaptan content of components they could consider buying. The kerosene trade pays careful a
  • merger 
    The joining of two or more (shipowning) companies 
  • Metacenter or transverse metacenter 
    Ship Stability: The highest point to which G may rise and still permit the vessel to have positive stability. Found at the intersection of the line of action of B when the ship is erect with the line of action of B when the ship is given a small inclinati
  • Metals content 
    A specification of concern to buyers of fuel oil and vacuum gasoil.Heavy metals, such as nickel, vanadium, and copper, poison cat-cracking catalysts.Most refiners specify a maximum metals limit for the catfeed and vacuum unit feedstock they would consider
  • Methaemoglobin generator 
    A substance capable of converting the oxygen carrying molecule (haemoglobin) in the red blood cell to an oxidized form (methaemoglobin), which has a reduced capacity to transport oxygen.  
  • MHHW 
    Mean Higher High Water 
  • MHW 
    Mean High Water 
  • MHWN 
    Mean high water neaps: and 
  • MHWS 
    Mean High Water Spring Tides 
  • Microbridge 
    A cargo movement in which the water carrier provides a through service between an inland point and the port of load/discharge. The carrier is responsible for cargo and costs from origin on to destina- tion. Also known as IPI or Through Service. 
  • Mid-point 
    The temperature where 50 percent (weight or volume basis, as specified) of a natural material or refined product has boiled.Sometimes called 50 percent point. 
  • Midship 
    Approximately in the location equally distant from the bow and stern  
  • Mill Scale 
    A thick oxide coating formed on the steel when heated, e.g., in connection with hot working or heat treatment 
  • Minesweeper 
    A naval vessel equipped for detecting, destroying, removing, or neutralizing explosive marine mines 
  • Mini Landbridge 
    An intermodal system for transporting containers by ocean and then by rail or motor to a port previously served as an all–water move (e.g., Hong Kong to New York over Seattle). 
  • Mini-Bridge 
    Substitution of rail or truck service for water transportation between two U.S. port cities for cargo originating or terminating in a port city. 
  • Minimum Bill of Lading 
    A clause in a bill of lading which specifies the least charge that the carrier will make for issuing a lading. The charge may be a definite sum or the current charge per ton for any specified quantity. 
  • Minimum Charge 
    The lowest charge that can be assessed to transport a shipment. 
  • Miscible 
    In this guidebook, means material that mixes readily with water. 
  • Mission Ship 
    A mobile vessel used for missionary work 
  • MLLW 
    Mean low low water 
  • MLW 
    Mean low water 
  • MLWN 
    Mean low water neaps. Average depths of water available at the times of low and of high tides during periods of Neap Tides 
  • MLWS 
    Mean Low Water Spring Tides 
  • MMFB 
    Middlewest Motor Freight Bureau. 
  • MMS 
    APPE Monthly Monitoring of Monomers. APPE is a major group within the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • MO 
    Managing Owner 
  • Modified Atmosphere 
    A blend of gases tailored to replace the normal atmosphere within a container. 
  • Moisture 
    Since water is only very slightly soluble in fats, it is present only in small amounts and is referred to as moisture. Moisture in oils and fats may be determined by drying, distillation, absorption or titrimetry. The presence of water, especially when in
  • Molecule 
    Chemical combination of two or more atoms of the same chemical element (such as O2 - which is Oxygen) or different chemical elements (such as H2O - which is water). 
  • MOLOO 
    More or less in owners' option 
  • Moment 
    Ship Stability: The product of two numbers, for example the force or weight moved multiplied by a distance 
  • MON (Motor Octane Number) 
    A rating of the anti-knock properties of a finished motor gasoline or blendstock. The test determines MON simulates demanding engine operating conditions such as substantial loads and high speeds. The MON method yields lower numbers than the RON (research
  • Monoglyceride (Monoacylglycerol) 
    Monoglyceride is a compound used as an emulsifier in margarine/peanut butter etc, to help the uniform dispersion of oil in water. Monoglycerides do not occur naturally in appreciable quantities except in fats and oils that have undergone partial hydrolysi
  • Monomer 
    A molecule that can combine with others to form a polymer. 
  • Monomer 
    One molecular unit which links with others of its own or a similar kind to form a Styrene monomers, for instance, connect to form the familiar plastic, polystyrene. 
  • Montreal Protocol 
    International agreement which aims to protect the ozone layer. Forms part of the UN Environmental Programme (UNEP)  
  • Mooring Vessel 
    A vessel equipped to assist with the mooring and/or anchoring of larger vessels. Typically it will have a frame to prevent the ropes and chains fouling on the superstructure 
  • Mooring Vessel, Naval Auxiliary 
    A naval auxiliary vessel designed to assist with the mooring and or anchoring of larger vessels 
  • Motor gasoline 
    Petroleum-derived fuel blend intended to power spark-ignited internal combustion automobile engines. This propellant's boiling range can span C4 through 430 F. In practice, it usually has a somewhat lower end point. Mogas must meet various specifications
  • MPG 
    Monopropylene Glycol. Produced by reacting propylene oxide with water. Monopropylene glycol is widely used for its solvent properties in the pharmaceutical, food, flavor and personal care industries. It is more widely used as an anti-freeze/de-icer, grind
  • MR 
    Medium Range (tanker): A vessel designed for carrying refined petroleum products in bulk tanks (25,000 dwt - 44,999 dwt approx). MR tankers primarily transport refined oil products on intra-regional routes between the oil refineries. Only on rare occasion
  • MT, M.T. or M/T 
    Refers to any self-propelled tanker, i.e. tanker fitted with diesel engine for propulsion. 
  • MTBE 
    MTBE is not covered under the chemical code and thus is not subject to the exemptions for carriage of chemicals. MTBE has become a large trade and is often carried in oil vessels as well as chemicals ones. The product is volatile and there is no technic 
  • MTSA 
    The Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002, is designed to protect ports and waterways from terrorists attacks. The law is the U.S. equivalent of the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code(ISPS), and was fully implemented on July 1, 2004
  • Multimodal 
    Synonymous for all practical purposes with “Intermodal.” 
  • Multipurpose ship 
    General cargo ship which can also carry containers 
  • MultiTank Container 
    A container frame fitted to accommodate two or more separate tanks for liquids. 
  • MWC 
    Meter Water Column 
  • n-Butanol 
    N-Butanol is a liquid alcohol, which is an important solvent for resins and lacquers. It is also used as raw materials for glycol ethers and acetate esters. 
  • N.Y.T. 
    New York Standard Time 
  • N/B 
    Newbuilding or Northbound or Nota Bene 
  • N/B or NB 
    New building 
  • N/t 
    New terms (grain trade) 
  • N/W or n.W 
    Not west of 
  • NAA 
    Not always Afloat 
    Not Always Afloat but Safely Aground 
  • Naphtha 
    Naphtha is a petroleum distillate containing principally aliphatic hydrocarbons. It is the primary source from which petrochemicals are derived. 
  • Naphtha 
    A product of crude oil or condensate refining which boils in roughly the same range as motor gasoline. In general, the naphtha distillation range spans from a bit less than 100 F, the boiling point of pentanes, through 300-400 F, depending on the intentio
  • Naphthalene 
    Naphthalene is a crystalline white solid hydrocarbon, with the empirical formula C10H8. It is volatile, forming a flammable vapor. It is predominantly manufactured from coal tar, and can be converted to phthalic anhydride for the manufacture of plastics,
  • Naphthenes 
    Hydrocarbon molecules with a carbon ring structure similar to aromatics. Naphthenes have saturated bonds rather than the unsaturated ones which characterize aromatics. Reformers make aromatics, the high-octane components they intend to produce, most easil
  • Naphthenic 
    High in naphthene-ring content. Lower than ordinary paraffins concentration. In some casual applications this adjective tacitly embraces aromatics as well as naphthenes, as in naphthenic naphtha. 
  • Naphthenic naphtha 
    A naphtha stream with a comparatively high concentration of naphthenes and aromatics. The terms reforming naphtha and N+A naphtha also identify this class of hydrocarbons. In general, American and Japanese companies regard a stream as naphthenic or highly
  • Natural Antioxidant 
    An antioxidant which is naturally present in fat, e.g. tocopherols and tocotrienols. Their presence confers good keeping properties on the fat. Most vegetable oils have a relatively high content of tocopherol and tocotrienols. 
  • Natural gasoline 
    The pentanes-and-heavier fraction produced by processing wet gas in an LNG or LPG plant. Such materials can substitute for paraffinic naphthas in a number of uses including, depending on the qualities of individual streams, gasoline blending and steam cra
  • Naval Cooperation and Guidance for Shipping (NCAGS) 
    It is a naval organization with members who are trained to establish and provide advice for safe pas- sage of merchant ships worldwide, during times of peace, tension, crisis and war. NCAGS personnel act as a liaison between military commanders and the ci
    Navigational Warning Service Receiver 
  • NB / N.B. 
    Nota Bene: "Now, pay attention to this!" 
  • NULL
    A way of steering readers' attention toward something particularly important. 
  • NCS 
    Norwegian Continental Shelf 
  • NDV 
    Net deadweight 
  • NEC 
    Not Elsewhere Classified 
  • Negative Stability 
    Ship Stability: Exists when G is above M. The vessel will list to either side and will not remain upright. A list due to a negative initial stability is known as an angle of loll. 
  • Negotiable Instruments 
    A document of title (such as a draft, promissory note, check, or bill of lading) transferable from one person to another in good faith for a consideration. Non–negotiable bills of lading are known as “straight consignment.” Negotiable bills are known as “
  • NEI 
    Not elsewhere included 
  • NEP 
    Not elsewhere provided 
  • NES 
    Not Elsewhere Shown or Not Elsewhere Specified 
  • Nested 
    Articles packed so that one rests partially or entirely within another, thereby reducing the cubic–foot displacement. 
  • Net Tare Weight 
    The weight of an empty cargo–carrying piece of equipment plus any fixtures permanently attached. 
  • Net Weight 
    Weight of the goods alone without any immediate wrappings, e.g., the weight of the contents of a tin can without the weight of the can. 
  • Neurotoxic 
    Capable of causing injury to the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and/or peripheral nervous system (nerves arising from the brain and spinal cord). Delayed neurotoxicity refers injury to the nervous system following a single exposure, but fo
  • Neutral Body 
    An organization established by the members of an ocean conference acts as a self–policing force with broad authority to investigate tariff violations, including authority to scrutinize all documents kept by the carriers and their personnel. Violations are
  • Neutral Oil 
    When a crude oil has been neutralised with an alkali, the residual material, i.e. crude oil less FFA, phosphatides, moisture and impurities, is then neutral oil. 
  • neutral stability 
    Ship Stability: Exists when G coincides with M. The vessel does not tend to return to an upright position if inclined, nor to continue its inclination if the inclining force is removed. 
  • New Worldscale 
    The Worldscale tanker rate schedule based on revised assumptions which take effect on January 1, 1989. 
  • Newbuilding 
    New ship under construction. 
  • NEWCI 
    Not east of West Coast Italy 
  • NEWCT 
    North East of West Coast Italy 
  • NGL 
    Natural gas liquids. Natural gas processing yields a variety of liquids which can range from ethane to field condensate. The specific liquids included under this designation differ from company to company and from one part of the industry to another. 
  • NHP 
    Nominal horse power 
  • Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (NK) 
    A Japanese classification society which certifies seagoing vessels for compliance to standardized rules regarding construction and maintenance. 
  • NIS 
    Norwegian International Ship Registry 
  • NJ 
    New Jason clause in C/P 
  • NKORL 
    No known or reported loss 
  • NMD 
    Norwegian Maritime Directorate 
  • NNGWB 
    Not north of George Washington Bridge (i.e. New York) 
    Not North Of George Washington Bridge 
  • No Great Shakes 
    When casks became empty they were "shaken" (taken apart) so the pieces, called shakes, could be stored in a small space. Shakes had very little value. 
  • No oil 
    ASTM's grade of oil for commercial applications which benefit from heavy fuel but lack heated storage tanks. Refiners sell heavy distillate or a blend of distillate and residue as No. 4 oil. Medium-speed diesels can burn a version of this product designat
  • No Room to Swing a Cat 
    The entire ship's company was required to witness flogging at close hand. The crew might crowd around so that the Bosun's Mate might not have enough room to swing his cat o' nine tails. 
  • No-heart crude 
    Crude fluid enough at ambient temperature to permit transportation in vessels which cannot heat it. 
  • No. 2 oil 
    ASTM's designation for distillate fuel oil intended for burning in household and light commercial furnaces. A companion grade, No. 2-D, fuels high-speed diesel engines. The USA, which relies more than other countries on ASTM specs to define oil products,
  • No. 6 oil 
    Heavy fuel oil too viscous for burning without preheating. See residue. 
  • No–show 
    Cargo which has been booked but does not arrive in time to be loaded before the vessel sails. See also “Windy Booking.” 
  • NOE 
    Not otherwise enumerated 
  • NOEC 
    No observed effect concentration. The highest concentration of a material in a toxicity test that has no statistically significant adverse effect on the exposed population of test organisms compared with the controls. When derived from the life cycle or p
  • NOHP 
    Not otherwise herein provided 
  • NOI 
    Not Otherwise Indexed 
  • NOIBN 
    Not otherwise indicated by number, not otherwise indexed by name 
  • NOKUS - company 
    Norwegian controlled foreign company in lowtax country 
  • NOLA 
    New Orleans (Louisiana) 
  • Nomenclature of the Customs Cooperation Council 
    The Customs tariff used by most countries worldwide. It was formerly known as the Brussels Tariff Nomenclature and is the basis of the commodity coding system known as the Harmonized System. 
  • Nominated Vessel 
    The specific vessel which has been designated for a particular voyage. 
  • Non-conformity 
    ISM definition of non-conformity: Non-conformity means an observed situation where objective evidence indicates the non-fulfilment of a specified requirement. Major non-conformity means an identifiable deviation that poses a serious threat to the safety  
    then saved days will not be added to discharge time allowed. 
  • Non–Vessel Operating Common Carrier (NVOCC) 
    A cargo consolidator in ocean trades who will buy space from a carrier and sub–sell it to smaller ship- pers. The NVOCC issues bills of lading, publishes tariffs and otherwise conducts itself as an ocean common carrier, except that it will not provide the
  • NOP 
    Net Operating Profit or Not Otherwise Provided 
  • NOP 
    Normal Operating Power (service speed) 
  • NOR 
    Not Otherwise Rated 
  • NOS 
    Not otherwise shown/specified or Numbers 
  • NPL 
    Norwegian policy lomits 
  • NSF 
    Norwegian sales form 
  • NSW 
    New South Wales (Australia) 
    Timber Charter Party 
  • Nuclear Fuel Carrier (with Ro-Ro facility) 
    A nuclear fuel carrier which is loaded and unloaded by way of a ro-ro ramp 
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 
    The phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) occurs when an appropriate radio frequency field is applied to a sample containing dipolar nuclei (e.g. protons in fat) placed in a strong d.c. magnetic field. Low resolution NMR spectrometry is used to m
  • NV 
    Norwegian Veritas 
  • NWE 
    North West Europe 
  • NWOBI 
    not west of but including 
  • NY or NYK 
    New York 
  • NYPE 
    New York Produce Exhange (charter party) 
  • NYSA 
    The New York Shipping Association 
  • O.O. or OO 
    Owner’s option 
  • o/w 
  • OABE 
    Owners agents both ends 
  • OBO 
    Ore Bulk Oil Carrier-ship for transporting bulk cargo such as coal and grain, and high-density cargoes such as iron ore, as well as crude petroleum products 
  • OBO 
    Oil-Bulk-Ore carriers. These versatile ships can transport cargoes as various as crude oil, grain, coal, and metal ore. They feature simply-shaped holds without exposed hull framework to permit easy cleaning between cargoes of different kinds. Certain OBO
  • OCC 
    Oil Co-ordination Committee or Outward Clearance Certificate or On-Carriage Charges or Occupied 
  • Occupational exposure 
    The occupational exposure is a standard term that concerns adult workers in good health, with a possible exposure of 8 hours per day, 5 days a week, 11 months per year. See exposure. 
  • Ocean Bill of Lading (Ocean B/L) 
    A contract for transportation between a shipper and a carrier. It also evidences receipt of the cargo by the carrier. A bill of lading shows ownership of the cargo and, if made negotiable, can be bought, sold or traded while the goods are in–transit. 
  • Ocean Bill Of Lading 
    A non-negotiable ocean bill of lading allows the buyer to receive the goods upon showing identification. If the bill is deemed negotiable, then the buyer will be required to pay the shipper for the products and meet any of the seller's other conditions. A
  • OCIMF 
    Oil Companies International Marine Forum: An oil company consultative organisation, with a secretariat based in London, funded by the oil company members to represent the Oil Industry on marine safety, marine standards and international legislation. OCIM 
  • Octane 
    For a gasoline engine to work efficiently, gasoline must burn smoothly without premature detonation, or knocking. Severe knocking can dissipate power output and even cause damage to the engine. When gasoline engines became more powerful in the 1920s, it w
  • Octane 
    A measure of a motor gasoline's or blendstock's resistance to preignition (knocking). The industry commonly uses two different indexes of this quality RON (research octane number), and MON (motor octane number). The USA employs an average of the two: (R+M
  • ODS 
    Operating Differential Subsidy: An amount of money the U.S. government paid U.S. shipping companies that qualify for this subsidy.The intent was to help offset the higher subsidy. The intent was to help ofset the higher cost of operating a U.S.–flag vesse
  • Oedema 
    Swelling of a tissue due to excess accumulation of tissue fluid 
  • Oestromimetic 
    A substance which is capable of simulating the biological effects of naturally occurring oestrogenic hormones 
  • Off-hire 
    A chartering term indicating the time a chartered vessel is no longer attracting a daily fixture rate. It arises i.e. upon break down of machinery, equipment or when owing to poor performance such as slower speed than prescribed in the voyage charter, the
  • Offshore 
    Segment of industry that deals with exploration and extraction of oil from undersea deposits. 
  • Offshore Tug/Supply Ship 
    A vessel for the transportation of stores and goods to offshore platforms on an open stern deck and equipped with a towing facility 
  • Oil Tanker, Inland Waterways 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of refined petroleum products, either clean or dirty, which is not suitable for trading in open waters 
  • Oils (and Fats) 
    Oils and fats are synonymous. However, the difference between them is that the former are liquid at ambient temperatures, while the latter are solid in appearance. Since ambient temperatures vary so much, a rigorous definition is not possible but, convent
  • Oilseed Meals 
    The product obtained by grinding the cake, chips or flakes which remain after removal of most of the oil from oilseeds. Oilseed meals are mainly a feedstuff for livestock and poultry. Some meals are also used as a raw material for producing edible vegetab
  • Olean (Olestra) 
    A sucrose fatty acid polyester used as a substitute for dietary fat which is not digested or absorbed by the body. 
  • Olefin 
    Olefins are aliphatic hydrocarbons with one or more double bonds along the chain. The lower olefins have short chains with only two, three or four carbons, and the simplest one is ethylene. The higher olefins have chains of up to 20 or more carbon atoms,
  • Olefin 
    A straight or branched-chain hydrocarbon with at least one unsaturated carbon-carbon bond. The petrochemical industry's highest volume product, ethylene, belongs to this family of molecules. Cracking processes produce such molecules in considerable quanti
  • Olefins 
    Olefins are petrochemical derivatives produced by cracking feedstocks from raw materials such as natural gas and crude oil. Lower olefins have short chains with only two, three or four carbon atoms, and the simplest one is ethylene. The higher olefins hav
  • Oleic Acid 
    This monounsaturated acid is the most widely distributed of all fatty acids, found in practically every vegetable oil and animal fat. Rich sources are olive and peanut oils and palm olein. Oleic acid contains 18 carbon atoms and one double bond in the cis
  • Olein/Palm Olein 
    This is the liquid, more unsaturated fraction separated from palm oil after crystallisation at a controlled temperature. The olein contains the lower melting point, more liquid triglycerides allowing it to be used for some applications for which the paren
  • Oleochemicals 
    Oleochemicals are chemicals derived from biological fats or oils and are analogous to petrochemicals, which are chemicals derived from biological fats or oils and are analogous to petrochemicals, which are chemicals derived from petroleum. The hydrolysis
  • On Deck 
    A notation on a bill of lading that the cargo has been stowed on the open deck of the ship. 
  • ONW 
  • OO 
    Owner's option 
  • OOW 
    Officer of the Watch 
  • OPA 
    Oil Pollution Act; Owners Protecting Agent 
  • OPA 90 
    The United States Oil Pollution Act 1990: The U.S. Federal Regulations concerning Oil Pollution Protection in US waters and off-shore economic exclusion areas. Requirements of the Act are contained in 33 CFR and 46 CFR . 
  • OPEC 
    Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Includes Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Venezuela. 
  • Open Account 
    A trade arrangement in which goods are shipped to a foreign buyer without guarantee of payment. 
  • Open Hatch Cargo Ship 
    A large single deck cargo vessel with full width hatches and boxed holds for the carriage of unitised dry cargo such as forest products and containers. Many are fitted with a gantry crane 
  • Open Sea 
    The water area of the open coast seaward of the ordinary low-water mark, or seaward of inland wa- ters. 
  • Open spec 
    A description of the substance sold in certain petroleum products transactions. Buyer and seller agree to price, delivery range and other particulars, but only to general specifications for the material. The seller covers the deal with any availability fa
  • Open Top Container 
    A container fitted with a solid removable roof, or with a tarpaulin roof so the container can be loaded or unloaded from the top. 
  • Operating Ratio 
    A comparison of a carrier’s operating expense with its net sales. The most general measure of operating efficiency. 
  • OPIC 
    Overseas Private Investment Corporation, an agency of the U.S. government which helps U.S. busi- nesses invest overseas. 
  • Optimum Cube 
    The highest level of cube utilization that can be achieved when loading cargo into a container. 
  • OR 
    Owner's risk 
  • ORB 
    Owner's risk of breakage 
  • ORC 
    Owner's risk of chafing 
  • ORD 
    Owner's risk of damage 
  • Order–Notify (O/N) 
    A bill of lading term to provide surrender of the original bill of lading before freight is released; usually associated with a shipment covered under a letter of credit. 
  • ORDET 
    Owner's risk of detoriation 
  • Ore Carrier 
    A single deck cargo ship fitted with two longitudinal bulkheads. Ore is carried in the centreline holds only 
  • Ore/oil carrier 
    Ship with separate cargo holds for ore cargoes. When the ship is carrying oil, the ore holds may also be filled with oil, in order to utilize the deadweight capacity to the fullest 
  • ORF 
    Owner's risk of fire/freezing 
  • Organic chemicals 
    Organic chemicals are based on carbon compounds and form the backbone of the petrochemicals industry, while inorganic chemicals are non-carbon chemicals, such as chlorine, alkalis or hydrogen peroxide. Every chemical is either organic or inorganic. 
  • Organoleptic Test 
    Refers to the careful tasting and odour assessment procedures carried out by experienced personnel. An important test on all fully refined oils which should be bland in odour and taste. Both the senses are involved in organoleptic testing when freshly pro
  • Origin 
    Location where shipment begins its movement. 
  • Original Bill of Lading (OBL) 
    A document which requires proper signatures for consummating carriage of contract. Must be marked as “original” by the issuing carrier. 
  • ORL 
    Owner's risk of leakage 
  • ORS 
    Owner's risk of shifting 
  • ORW 
    Owner's risk of becoming wet 
  • OT 
    Overtime or On truck or railway or Open top (container) 
  • Other Activities, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel used for an undefined activity. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • Out Gate 
    Transaction or interchange that occurs at the time a container leaves a rail or water terminal. 
  • Outturn 
    As measured at vessel discharge. The industry uses this term as a description of the oil unloaded at a buyer's terminal. It indicates that measurements taken at the delivery of a parcel will determine the quality or quantity, or both, of a parcel changing
  • Over the Barrel 
    The most common method of punishment aboard ship was flogging. The unfortunate sailor was tied to a grating, a mast or over the barrel of a deck cannon. 
  • Overbearing 
    To sail downwind directly at another ship thus "stealing" or diverting the wind from his sails. 
  • Overhaul 
    To prevent the buntline ropes from chaffing the sails, crew were sent aloft to haul them over the sails. This was called overhauling. 
  • Overhead stream 
    The fraction which leaves through the top of a distillation column as a gas. 
  • Overheight Cargo 
    Cargo more than eight feet high which thus cannot fit into a standard container. 
  • Overland Common Point (OCP) 
    A term stated on the bills of lading offering lower shipping rates to importers east of the Rockies, provided merchandise from the Far East comes in through the West Coast ports. OCP rates were es- tablished by U.S. West Coast steamship companies in conju
  • Overwhelm 
    Old English for capsize or founder. 
  • OW or OWS or OWNS 
  • OWISE 
  • Owner Code (SCAC) 
    Standard Carrier Abbreviation Code identifying an individual common carrier. A three letter carrier code followed by a suffix identifies the carrier’s equipment. A suffix of “U” is a container and “C” is a chassis. 
  • OWS 
    Oily Water Separator 
  • OWS 
  • Oxidation 
    Process in which the unsaturated fatty acids of oils and fats react with oxygen, resulting in rancidity. Oils and fats in contact with oxygen present in the atmosphere will cause chemical changes in the product which will downgrade the quality. Oxidation
  • Oxidation stability 
    Resistance to change when exposed to air. Motor gasoline should have this property. Otherwise it will form gum when stored. 
  • Oxidized Oil 
    Deteriorated oil due to attack by atmospheric oxygen which has occurred either during processing or during subsequent storage and transport. The chemical change is gradual and progressive but the effect on quality can be very great. Commonly assayed by pe
  • Oxidizer 
    A chemical which supplies its own oxygen and which helps other combustible material burn more readily. 
  • Oxygenation Vessel 
    A vessel designed for re-oxygenating waterways where waters have low levels of oxygen through pollution 
  • P/C or PCGO 
    Part cargo, parcel cargo. Goods which do not represent the entire cargo for a particular ship but whose quantity is sufficient to be carried on charter terms. 
  • Packing List 
    Itemized list of commodities with marks/numbers but no cost values indicated. 
  • PADAG 
    Please Authorize Delivery Against Guarantee: A request from the consignee to the shipper to allow the carrier or agent to release cargo against a guarantee, either bank or personal. Made when the consignee is unable to produce original bills of lading. 
  • PAH 
    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon. PAH's occur mainly, and to high levels, in coconut oil because of the practice of smoke drying the copra. However, PAH's have also been detected in other oils, although at a much lower level. Removal of PAH's is by proper
  • Paired Ports 
    A U.S. Customs program wherein at least two designated Customs ports will enter cargo that arrives at either port without the necessity of an in–bound document. 
  • Pallet 
    A platform with or without sides, on which a number of packages or pieces may be loaded to facilitate handling by a lift truck. 
  • Palletised Cargo Ship 
    A single or multi deck cargo ship loaded and unloaded by way of pallets lift(s). There are no weather deck hatches 
  • Palm Mid Fraction 
    Palm mid fraction (PMF) is obtained by a two stage fractionation. Usually, in the first stage, the highest melting solid components are removed and, in the second stage, the most liquid. The solid residue of the second stage has sharp melting properties t
  • Palm Oil 
    The oil obtained from the fruit flesh of the oil palm (Elaeis Guineensis). World production in 1995/96 was estimated by the USDA at 15.69 million tonnes, Malaysia and Indonesia being the major producing countries. Most of the plantings today are of the ""
  • Palm Olein 
    Palm oil is separated into palm stearin (30-35% of the original oil ) and palm olein (65-70%). The latter finds a ready market as a high-quality, highly stable frying oil. With improved filtration procedures the yield of olein has been raised to 71-78%. 
  • Palm Stearin 
    As mentioned above, palm oil is separated into palm stearin and palm olein. The olein is the more valuable product, but the stearin can be used as a hard fat in margarine stock or as an alternative to tallow in the oleochemical industry where it serves as
  • Palmitic Acid 
    Palmitic acid, having a 16 carbon atom chain, is the most widely distributed saturated fatty acid. It occurs in practically all animal, vegetable and marine animal fats and is a major component of lard, tallow, palm oil and cocoa butter. 
  • Panamax 
    Medium Range Tanker, maximum size possible to pass through the locks of the Panama Canal- designed for carrying bulk crude oil in tanks. (60,000 dwt - 80,000 dwt approx with 32.2m beam limitation) 
  • Panamax Tanker 
    A liquid cargo vessel of 50,000 to 70,000dwt. 
  • Panamax tankers 
    Oil carriers which meet the 32.2 meter beam and 259 meter LOA limitations of the Panama Canal. Modern ship design translates those dimensions into a vessel with a maximum deadweight tonnage around 70,000. 
  • Panamax Vessel 
    Ships built to maximize capacity within the Panama Canal lock size limits of 950 feet long, 106 feet wide. Design draft is usually no greater than 40 feet and sails no greater than the 39.5 feet canal limit, with deadweights up to 80,000 tons. 
  • PANDI or P&I 
    Protection and Indemnity's (Club). A mutual Association formed by shipowners to provide protection from large financial loss by one member by contribution towards that loss by all members. The P & I Clubs cover liabilities not insurable by the shipowner. 
  • Paper barrels 
    Also known as dry barrels or electric barrels, these units trade in the futures or other non-physical markets. These terms designate the opposite of the wet barrels traded in physical deals. Since short sales in the wet market involve product the seller d
  • Paraffins 
    straight- or branched-chain hydrocarbons containing no unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds. A high paraffins content gives a naphtha a low octane rating, a diesel oil a high octane number, and a vacuum gasoil or straight run fuel oil a good susceptibility to
  • Paraxylene 
    One of the forms of xylene, paraxylene is used to make polyesters, which have applications in clothing, packaging and plastic bottles. The most widely-used polyester is polyethylene terephthalate (PET), used in lightweight, recyclable soft drinks bottles,
  • Parcel Receipt 
    An arrangement whereby a steamship company, under rules and regulations established in the freight tariff of a given trade, accepts small packages at rates below the minimum bill of lading, and issues a parcel receipt instead of a bill of lading. 
  • Parcel tanker 
    A ship fitted to segregate a large number of products. Some of these vessels, called chemical carriers, can handle more than a dozen materials simultaneously. Most of these ships have tanks made of stainless steel or lined with inert, easily cleaned coati
  • Parcels Tanker 
    A chemical tanker with many segregated cargo tanks to carry multiple grades of chemicals as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code. Typically these can have between 10 and 60 different tanks 
  • Parraffinic naphtha 
    A naphtha composed primarily of paraffinic molecules. In general, the feedstock trade considers 65 percent paraffins content the minimum for a paraffinic naphtha. Paraffins have a low octane rating. They crack readily, however. This combination of propert
  • Partial Containerships 
    Multipurpose containerships where one or more but not all compartments are fitted with permanent container cells. Remaining compartments are used for other types of cargo. 
  • Partial Shipments 
    Under letters of credit, one or more shipments are allowed by the phrase “partial shipments permit- ted.” 
  • Partially Hydrogenated 
    The term used to describe an oil which has been lightly to moderately hydrogenated to shift the melting point to a higher temperature range and increase the stability of the oil. Partially hydrogenated oils remain liquid and are used in a wide variety of
  • Passenger Ship 
    A vessel certificated to carry more than 12 passengers, some of whom may be accommodated in cabins 
  • Passenger Ship, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel used for carriage of passengers with purpose of a to b transport on rivers/lakes/canals, not suitable for open sea voyages. 
  • Passenger/Container Ship 
    A container ship with accommodation for the carriage of more than 12 passengers 
  • Passenger/Cruise 
    A vessel certificated to carry more than 12 passengers, all of whom may be accommodated in cabins 
  • Passenger/Ro-Ro Ship (Vehicles) 
    A ro-ro cargo ship with accommodation for more than 12 passengers 
  • Passenger/Ro-Ro Ship (Vehicles), Inland Waterways 
    A vessel designed for the transportation of Vehicles. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • Passenger/Ro-Ro Ship (Vehicles/Rail) 
    A ro-ro cargo ship for the additional carriage of rail-vehicles and with accommodation for more than 12 passengers 
  • Passenger/Ro-Ro Ship (Vehicles/Train), Inland Waterways 
    A vessel designed for the transportation of Vehicles or Rail vehicles. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • Passivation 
    A nitric acid wash of high chromium stainless steel ship's tanks to form a very thin oxide film on the metal surface which serves as a protective barrier. 
  • Passivation potential 
    Corrosion potential, at which the corrosion current has a peak value, and above which there is a range of potentials, where the metal is in a passive state 
  • Payee 
    A party named in an instrument as the beneficiary of the funds. Under letters of credit, the payee is either the drawer of the draft or a bank. 
  • Payer 
    A party responsible for the payment as evidenced by the given instrument. Under letters of credit, the payer is the party on whom the draft is drawn, usually the drawee bank. 
  • PEL 
    Permussible Exposure Limit. This is one of the most important OSHA limits used. It is defined as the allowable limit for air containment in which works may be exposed day after day without adverse health effects.  
  • Per Working Hatch Per Day or Per Workable Hatch Per Day 
    PER HATCH PER DAY shall mean that the Laytime is to be calculated by dividing the quantity of cargo by the result of multiplying the agreed daily rate per hatch by the number of the Vessel’s hatches. Thus: Laytime = Quantity of cargo / (Daily rate x Numbe
  • Perils of the Sea 
    Those causes of loss for which the carrier is not legally liable. The elemental risks of ocean trans- port. 
  • Period business 
    Deals which involve transfer of merchandise or delivery of service (transportation, for instance) from seller to buyer over a stretch of time. See term deal and time charter. 
  • Permanent Shore Facility 
    Any vessel which has been decommissioned as a non floating permanent facility 
  • PET 
    Polyethylene terephthalate. PET is derived from xylene and is one of the most widely used industrial polyesters. It is used in lightweight, recyclable soft drink bottles, as fibers in clothing, as a filling for anoraks and duvets, in car tyre cords and co
  • PG 
    Persian Gulf (now AG) 
  • PGO 
    This acronym designates two different intermediates. See process gasoil and pyrolysis gasoil. 
  • Phenanthrene 
    Phenanthrene is a crystalline polycyclic hydrocarbon isomeric to Anthracene. It is distilled from coal tar and is found in some coal tar oils which are used for example as wood preservatives and as carbon black feedstocks.  
  • Phenol 
    Phenol is an aromatic alcohol mainly used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. It essentially serves as a raw material for the production of bisphenol A, phenolic resins, alkylphenols and caprolactam. 
  • Phenolic resin 
    Phenolic resins are manufactured from phenol. They are used in wood products and molding powders applications, and also have a wide range of applications on the electrical, mechanical and decorative markets, in the automotive industry, in building and con
  • Phosphatides 
    These are lipids which contain combined phosphoric acid in their chemical composition. Phosphatides (or phospholipids) are important structural and functional constituents of the membranes of biological tissue and are also the major constituent of the gum
  • Phosphorus 
    Phosphorus is a chemical element which has an important functional role in the phospholipid molecule. During the refining of oils and fats, it is important to remove the phosphorus before high temperature treatment in the deodoriser. Therefore, analysis o
  • Photosensitizer 
    A substance which is converted in the skin circulation by light into a derivative capable of causing skin sensitization 
  • Phototoxic 
    A substance which is converted in the skin circulation by light into a derivative capable of causing local irritation 
  • Phthalate 
    Phthalates, or phthalate esters, are manufactured by the reaction of phthalic anhydride with one of a variety of alcohols ranging from methanol to tridecanol. They are predominantly used as plasticizers to soften the popular plastic PVC and to a lesser ex
  • Physical Hazard 
    A physical hazard is one in which harm could be caused to humans or wildlife as a consequence of the physical properties of chemical, e.g., stickiness or viscosity 
  • Physical Refining 
    In simple terms, physical refining may be defined as free fatty acid removal by the action of high temperature, high vacuum and with live steam applied directly to the oil. Physical refining, also frequently referred to as ""steam refining"", may more acc
  • PIAT 
    Petrochemical Industry Association of Taiwan 
  • Pier 
    The structure perpendicular to the shoreline to which a vessel is secured for the purpose of loading and unloading cargo. 
  • Piggyback 
    A transportation arrangement in which truck trailers with their loads are moved by train to a destination. Also known as Rail Pigs. 
  • PIH 
    Poison Inhalation Hazard. Term used to describe gases and volatile liquids that are toxic when inhaled. 
  • Pilot Vessel 
    A vessel from which pilots operate 
  • Pipe Carrier 
    A platform supply ship equipped with increased scantlings & longer deck space for the transportation of pipes 
  • Pipe Down 
    Means stop talking and be quiet. The Pipe Down was the last signal from the Bosun's pipe each day which meant "lights out" and "silence". 
  • Pipe Layer Crane Vessel 
    A pipe layer also equipped with a large crane or derrick 
  • Pipeline 
    Line of pipe equipped with pumps and valves and other control devices for moving liquids and gases. It is one of the main modes of transport for many chemicals, including olefins, the main building blocks of the petrochemical industry. 
  • Pit 
    A corroded hollow in a metal surface, caused by localized corrosion (pitting) 
  • Pitching 
    Ship Stability: is when the vessel rotates about the transverse (side-to-side) axis 
  • Pitting initiation potential 
    Lowest value of a corrosion potential at which pit initiation is possible in a passive surface in a given corrosive environment 
  • PKD 
    Partially knocked down 
  • Place of Delivery 
    Place where cargo leaves the care and custody of carrier. 
  • Place of Receipt 
    Location where cargo enters the care and custody of carrier. 
  • Plastic 
    Any of numerous synthetic materials that consist of giant molecules called polymers, with extremely long chains of repeating units derived from short molecules. Plastics can be formed into products by molding or otherwise shaping. The two major divisions
  • Plasticizer 
    A plasticizer is a substance which when added to a material, usually a plastic, makes it flexible, resilient and easier to handle. Modern plasticizers are manmade organic chemicals; the majority of which are esters, such as adipates and phthalates. They a
  • Platform Supply Ship 
    A vessel for the transportation of stores and goods to offshore platforms on an open deck, typically at the stern. May also be fitted with specialist under deck tanks for water, cement and/or drilling mud 
  • Plimsoll 
    A Plimsoll line or mark shows the safe 'freeboard' (distance from water to weather deck). There are 6 load lines as follows:Tropical Fresh, Fresh, Tropical, Summer, Winter, Winter North Atlantic. 
  • Plimsoll Mark 
    A series of horizontal lines, corresponding to the seasons of the year and fresh or saltwater, painted on the outside of a ship marking the level which must remain above the surface of the water for the vessel’s stability. 
  • PMMA 
    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is made from methyl methacrylate and is mainly used in the construction industry, lighting applications, signs, automotive and related areas, electronics and consumer-ware. 
  • PMRC 
    APPE Petrochemicals Market Research Committee. APPE is a major group within the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
  • Point of Origin 
    The place at which a shipment is received by a carrier from the shipper. 
  • Polycarbonates 
    Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastics.They are easily worked, molded, and thermoformed; as such, these plastics are very widely used in modern manufacturing. Polycarbonate is becoming more common in housewares as well as laboratories and
  • Polyester 
    Any of a group of polymers that consist basically of repeated units of an ester and are used especially in making fibers or plastics. Polyesters can be made into woven and knitted fabrics, either alone or blended with other fibers; they also have industri
  • Polyethylene 
    A polymer of ethylene, especially any of various lightweight thermoplastics that are resistant to chemicals and moisture, have good insulating properties, and are used especially in packaging and insulation. 
  • Polyisobutylene 
    Polyisobutylene is a synthetic rubber, or elastomer. It is special because it is that only rubber that is gas impermeable, that is, it is the only rubber which can hold air for long periods of time. Polyisobutylene, sometimes called butyl rubber is a viny
  • Polymer 
    Polymer is derived from the Greek word poly meaning many while the term monomer is derived from mono meaning one. When identical simple molecules (monomers) come together and link up in a chain-like fashion they form a polymer. Polymers can be short chain
  • Polymerisation 
    Tank cleaning: The initial wash of products that tend to polymerise should be carried out with cold (ambient) water. Washing with hot water may result in polimeric residues being left in tanks and lines, which are very difficult to remove. 
  • Polyol 
    This is an organic molecule with three or more alcohol groups attached. The correct chemical term for an alcohol group is a hydroxy group with the combination of one oxygen attached to one hydrogen (OH). 
  • Polyolefin 
    The collective name given to those polymers that are made from the lower olefins: ethylene, propylene, butylene and isoprene. The polyolefins are thermoplastic polymers. 
  • Polypropylene 
    Any of various thermoplastic plastics or fibers that are polymers of propylene. Polypropylene can be made into fibers, where it is a major constituent in fabrics for home furnishings such as upholstery and carpets. Numerous industrial end uses include rop
  • Polystyrene 
    A solid plastic made from polymerized styrene and used in a wide variety of everyday applications, from coffee cups through to CD jewel boxes.. 
  • Pomerene Act 
    U.S. federal law enacting conditions by which a B/L may be issued. Penalties for issuing B/L’s containing false data include monetary fines and/or imprisonment. Also known as (U.S.) Federal Bill of Lading Act of 1916. 
  • PONA 
    A breakdown of the kind of molecules which compose a hydrocarbon mixture. The trade uses PONA most frequently to describe naphthas. See paraffins, olefins, naphthenes, and aromatics. All hydrocarbons fall into one of these four categories. The feedstock t
  • Pontoon (Function Unknown) 
    A non propelled pontoon whose function is unknown 
  • Pool Agreement 
    An agreement between a number of persons who have the right (because they are bareboat or time charterers, so disponent owners) to exploit the earning capacity of similar ships to co-operate in the Commercial Management and Commercial Operation of (typica
  • Pooped 
    The poop is the stern section of a ship. To be pooped is to be swamped by a high, following sea 
  • Port 
    Left side of a ship as perceived when facing toward the front (bow). Also refers to a shore facility where ships dock to be loaded and unloaded. 
  • Port 
    PORT shall mean any area where vessels load or discharge cargo and shall include, but not be limited to, berths, wharves, anchorages, buoys and offshore facilities as well as places outside the legal, fiscal or administrative area where vessels are ordere
  • Port Facility Security Officer 
    Is the person designated as responsible for the development, implementation, revision and mainte- nance of the port facility security plan and for liaison with the ship security officers and company security officers. 
  • Port Facility Security Plan 
    Is a plan developed to ensure the application of measures designed to protect persons on board, cargo, cargo transport units and ship’s stores within the port facility from the risks of a security incident. 
  • Port of Call 
    Port where a ship discharges or receives traffic. 
  • Port of Entry 
    Port where cargo is unloaded and enters a country. 
  • Port of Exit 
    Place where cargo is loaded and leaves a country. 
  • Port Security 
    It is the defense, law and treaty enforcement, and counterterrorism activities that fall within the port and maritime domain. It includes the protection of the seaports themselves, the protection and in- spection of the cargo moving through the ports, and
  • Port State Inspection 
    An inspection of a vessel carried out by the national marine authority of the Country in which the vessel is visiting. 
  • POSH - Port out, Starboard home 
    A popular theory holds that the term Posh is derived from the initials of “Port Out, Starboard Home,” the cooler, and thus more expensive, side of ships traveling between England and India in the mid-19th century. The acronym POSH was supposedly stamped o
  • Post-Panamax Vessel 
    a fully cellular containership that can carry more than 4,000 TEUs; a vessel that is larger than the original Panama Canal dimensions, but will fit under the Panama Canal expansion 
  • POT (able) 
    POTable water 
  • Pour point 
    The temperature where a hydrocarbon mixture becomes too thick to flow. The industry uses this property to assure that gasoil will fuel furnaces and diesel engines properly during cold weather. In particularly harsh climates, pour point indicates how warm
  • Pour point 
    The lowest temperature at which commodity will continue to flow when it is cooled under specified standard conditions. 
  • Powder Carrier 
    A single deck cargo vessel for the carriage of fine powders such as fly ash. There are no weather deck hatches 
  • PPB 
    Parts per billion. A thousand times less than a ppm. An expression for tiny concentrations of one ingredient (usually a contaminent) in a mixture. One milligram per kilogram equals one weight ppm. 
  • ppb 
    Parts by weight per billion parts 
  • PPM 
    Parts per million. A convenient expression for very small concentrations of one ingredient (usually a contaminent) in a mixture. One milligram per kilogram equals one weight ppm. So does 1 gram in a metric ton. The industry does not regularly use volume p
  • PR 
    Polski Rajestr Statkow (polish register) 
  • Pre–cooling 
    A process employed in the shipment of citrus fruits and other perishable commodities. The fruit is packed and placed in a cold room from which the heat is gradually extracted. The boxes of fruit are packed in containers that have been thoroughly cooled an
  • Preparation 
    A preparation is a mixture or a solution composed of two or more substances. This term is used in the European legislation. 
  • Press into Service 
    The British navy filled their ships' crew quotas by kidnapping men off the streets and forcing them into service. This was called Impressment and was done by Press Gangs. 
  • Pressuring agent 
    Butanes used to control the vapor pressure of finished gasoline. Usually butane's price, relative to other components' and finished gasolines. gives refiners incentive to put as much butane as possible in their blends. During the winter months, when RVP s
  • Pro Forma Invoice 
    An invoice provided by a supplier prior to the shipment of merchandise, informing the buyer of the kinds and quantities of goods to be sent, their value, and specifications (weight, size, etc.). 
  • Producers 
    Companies, often state organizations, which own oil wells and the crude which flows from them. This category includes a large number of private enterprises. Integrated oil companies and specialists called independent producers develop much of the world's
  • Product Stewardship 
    Product Stewardship is the responsible and ethical management of the health, safety and environmental aspects of a product throughout its total life cycle. Product Stewardship is Responsible Care applied to products. More… 
  • Product Tanker 
    A tanker built to comply with Annex 1 of Marpol 73/78 for the carriage of oil and engaged in the trade of carrying oil other than crude oil. This includes both clean and black products. 
  • Production 
    Stage in the industry where oil and gas are extracted and prepared for transport. 
  • Production Testing Vessel 
    A vessel primarily equipped for testing the quality and amount of oil produced by a well 
  • Products (Oil) 
    Oil which has been produced as the direct result of a refining process. The resultant product may be Clean Petroleum Products - CPP (Naptha, Gasoline, Gas Oil, Base Oils etc. Or Dirty Petroleum Products - DPP (Fuel Oils etc.) 
  • Products with a high melting Point 
    Tank cleaning: These products should be washed at a temperature of 15-20 C above the melting point. During washing there should be no ballast water or cold cargoes adjacent to the tank to be cleaned. During cleaning special attention must be given to liqu
  • Products with a high viscosity 
    Tank cleaning: These products should be washed at higher temperatures. In general the viscosity is closely related to the temperature and will decrease at higher temperatures. During washing there should be no ballast water or cold cargoes adjacent to the
  • Propane 
    A colorless, gaseous hydrocarbon. It is separated in large quantities from natural gas, light crude oil, and oil-refinery gases and is commercially available as liquefied propane or as a major constituent of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). As with ethane,
  • Propylene glycol 
    Generic term for a family of propylene glycols, the most important of which is monopropylene glycol.  
  • Propylene glycol ethers 
    Propylene glycol ethers are formed from the base catalyzed reaction of propylene oxide with alcohols like methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol or phenol. For further information please see 
  • Propylene glycol ethers acetates 
    Glycol ether acetates are clear liquids that often have a pleasant, fruity odor. For further information please see 
  • Protected Waters 
    an area of sheltered waters presenting no special hazards such as most rivers, harbours and lakes, designated by the Administration for the operation of small vessels and where not so designated means an area not more than 3 miles from a safe haven. 
  • PSC 
    Port state control. Is the system whereby the authorities of a State responsible for marine safety are empowered to inspect vessels entering its ports, even if they do not fly the flag of that State, in order to identify ships not complying with applicabl
  • PUFA 
    Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acids. Fatty acids having two or more double bonds in their carbon chain. The most common poly-unsaturated fatty acid is linoleic acid. CH3 (CH2)4 CH = CH CH2 CH = CH(CH2)7 COOH Corn oil, sunflowerseed and soyabean oil are rich in p
  • Pulp Temperature 
    Procedure where carrier tests the temperature of the internal flesh of refrigerated commodities to assure that the temperature at time of shipment conforms to prescribed temperature ranges. 
  • Pup 
    A short semi–trailer used jointly with a dolly and another semi–trailer to create a twin trailer. 
  • Purplefinder 
    Tracks, monitors and reports on remote assets. PurpleFinder® uses satellite GPS in conjunction with satellite or land-based communication services to provide global, two-way, real-time, web-access to standard and exception-based asset position reporting, 
  • Pusher Tug 
    A vessel equipped to push cargo carrying barges and pontoons. May be articulated to work with specifically designed barge(s) 
  • PVC 
    Polyvinyl Chloride. A polymer of vinyl chloride used to make a diverse range of cost-effective products with various levels of technical performance suited to a wide range of applications. Many of these PVC products are used everyday and include everythin
  • PW 
    Packed weight or Piece weight 
  • PWH 
    Per Workable Hatch 
  • PWHD 
    Per Workable Hatch Day 
  • PWWD 
    Per Weather Working day 
  • Pyrolisis gasoline 
    Pyrolysis Gasoline, or Pygas, is a naphtha-range product with a high aromatic content, used either for gasoline blending or as a feedstock for a BTX extraction unit. Pygas is produced in an ethylene plant that processes butane, naphtha or gasoil. 
  • Pyrolysis 
    Application of heat to change molecular structure. The oil industry ordinarily reserves this term for processes which break hydrocarbons without the assistance of a catalyst, such as steam cracking and cooking. 
  • Pyrolysis gasoline 
    The aromatics-rich naphtha-range stream produced in sizeable quantities by an ethylene plant when it cracks butane, naphtha, or gasoil. Pygas resembles reformate. It can serve as a high-octane blendstock for motor gasoline or as a feedstock for an aromati
  • Pyrophoric 
    A substance which ignites spontaneously upon exposure to air (or oxygen). 
  • Q88 
    Questionnaire 88; is a web based questionnaire generator that allows you to create questionnaires for vessels.  
  • QTE 
    Quote. The act of a charterer to make known that a ship is sought for a particular cargo or, as a shipowner, to advertise the availability of his ship for charter. Most often this activity is carried out using the services of shipbrokers. 
  • Quality Assessment 
    Often termed ""Quality Control"" or ""QC"", it is the measurement of chemical or physical properties to establish whether a sample conforms to specification. In manufacturing, such laboratory analyses are carried out periodically and the results are used
  • Quay 
    A structure attached to land to which a vessel is moored.See also Pier and Dock. 
  • Quoin 
    A wedge–shaped piece of timber used to secure barrels against movement. 
  • Quota 
    The quantity of goods that may be imported without restriction during a set period of time. 
  • QWCT 
    Quay weight crane tonnage dues 
  • QWT 
    Quay weight; Quay weight and Tonnage Dues 
  • Rack blending 
    The practice of adding one or more components to a gasoline blend at an inland distribution terminal. Frequently, due to logistics, this type of blending occurs at the end of the distribution line. For instance, a supplier will add ethanol to finished gas
  • Rack price 
    The truckload price charged by a supplier to customers which buy motor gasoline on an FOB terminal basis. 
  • Raffinate 
    What remains of a reformate or pyrolysis gasoline stream after aromatics extraction. These paraffinic, naphtha-range mixtures usually have too low an octane rating for use in motor gasoline, but good properties for steam cracking. Butylene streams produce
  • Rag Top 
    A slang term for an open–top trailer or container with a tarpaulin cover. 
  • Rail Grounding 
    The time that the container was discharged (grounded) from the train. 
  • Rail Vehicles Carrier 
    A single or multi deck cargo ship with rails for the carriage of rail vehicles which are loaded via ramps 
  • Ramp 
    Railroad terminal where containers are received or delivered and trains loaded or discharged. Original- ly, trailers moved onto the rearmost flatcar via a ramp and driven into position in a technique known as “circus loading.” Most modern rail facilities
  • Ramp–to–Door 
    A movement where the load initiates at an origin rail ramp and terminates at a consignee’s door. 
  • Ramsbottom carbon 
    A measurement of hydrocarbon mixtures' tendency to leave carbon deposits (coke) when burned as fuel or subjected to intense heat in a processing unit such as a catalytic cracker. See CONRADSON CARBON. 
  • Rapeseed Oil 
    The oil obtained from the seeds of ""Brassica Napus"" and ""Brassica Campestris"". In common with other brassica oils such as mustard oils, rapeseed has a high content of erucic acid. Since this was found to have some adverse nutritional effects in animal
  • Rate Basis 
    A formula of the specific factors or elements that control the making of a rate. A rate can be based on any number of factors (i.e., weight, measure, equipment type, package, box, etc.). 
  • Raw Materials 
    The primary raw materials of the oleochemicals industry are tall oil, tallow, coconut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil and canola oil. 
  • RBD 
    Refined, Bleached and Deodorised Oil. The initial letters of the words Refined, Bleached and Deodorised are used as a quality description of a fully processed oil. In Malaysia, RBD is used for a physically refined oil. After transport, RBD oils have to be
  • RDC 
    Running down clause 
  • RE. 
    Relating (to) or with Reference (to) 
  • Reachable on arrival 
    REACHABLE ON ARRIVAL shall mean that the charterer undertakes that an available loading or discharging Berth be provided to the Vessel on arrival at the Port which the Vessel can reach safely without delay. 
  • Reaction with Oxygen 
    Tank Cleaning: Drying and semi-drying vegetable and animal oils react with oxygen to form a varnish-like polymeric film. This is very difficult to remove from the bulkheads etc. Since heat increases the reaction speed the initial washing of these products
  • Reaction with water 
    Tank Cleaning: Isocyanates must never come into contact with water, not even the residues, because the reaction product and insoluble urethane (plus CO2) are very difficult to remove. Such products must be washed with a suitable solvent, that does not con
  • Reaction with water hardness compounds  
    Tank Cleaning: Water hardness is formed by the calcium and magnesium content of the water. Sea water has a very high water hardness. Some products like fatty acids and vegetable oils with a high free fatty acid content will form white sticky residues, if
  • Reactivity 
    A description of the tendency of a substance to undergo chemical reaction with the release of energy. Undesirable effects such as pressure build-up, temperature increase, formation of noxious, toxic, or corrosive byproducts may occur because of the reacti
  • Realization 
    Evaluation based on theoretical (often negotiated) estimates of how much money a refiner or petrochemicals producer can make by processing a feedstock. Many netback deals price oil according to a formula which considers the quantity and spot value of prod
  • Reasonableness 
    Under ICC and common law, the requirement that a rate not be higher than is necessary to reimburse the carrier for the actual cost of transporting the traffic and allow a fair profit. 
  • Rebate 
    An illegal form of discounting or refunding that has the net effect of lowering the tariff price. See also Malpractice. 
  • Reconsignment 
    Changing the consignee or destination on a bill of lading while shipment is still in transit. Diversion has substantially the same meaning. 
  • Redox Potential 
    A measure of the oxidizing ability of a solution. A solution with a high redox potential has a high oxidizing ability 
  • Redwood viscosity 
    A method of measuring and reporting viscosity which lost popularity in recent years. Tables available from various sources convert Redwood figures to the more widely used Kinematic and Saybolt scales. 
  • Reefer Vessel 
    Vessel with refrigerated cargo hold(s) 
  • Refining 
    Processing and manufacturing of petroleum products out of crude oil and other hydrocarbons. Refining begins with simple distillation, and then additional processes are done to minimize the production of heavier/lower value products, such as residual fuel
  • Reformer 
    A catalytic processing unit which produces a highly aromatic stream (reformate) used primarily as high-octane blendstock. 
  • Refractive Index 
    The velocity of light changes as it travels from one medium to another and the light is then said to have undergone refraction. In effect, the rays of light are bent at the interface between the two media. The refractive index of a substance is the ratio
  • Reg (EC) 2037/2000 
    EU regulation covering ozone-depleting substances which seeks to protect the ozone layer 
  • Regasification 
    Process that occurs after LNG has been shipped and transferred to a storage tank. It is then warmed to convert it back into natural gas for distribution via pressurized pipeline to residential, commercial and industrial users. 
  • Regional Bulk Sizes 
    Kamsarmax, with a maximum length of 229 meters, the maximum length that can load in the port of Kamsar in the Republic of Guinea. Other terms such as Seawaymax, Setouchmax, Dunkirkmax, and Newcastlemax also appear in regional trade. 
  • REL 
    Recommended Exposure Limit. The highest allowable air concentration that will not injure a person. 
  • Related Points 
    A group of points to which rates are made the same as or in relation to rates to other points in group. 
  • Relay 
    To transfer containers from one ship to another when both vessels are controlled by the same network (carrier) manager. 
  • Repair Vessel, Naval Auxiliary 
    A naval auxiliary vessel for general work and repair operations 
  • Replenishment Tanker 
    A naval auxiliary vessel. Designed for fuel, lubricants & general stores for transfer to warships at sea. 
  • Reproductive toxicity 
    Capable of causing injury to the male or female reproductive system, causing an interference with propagation of the species 
  • Research, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel designed for research. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • Revenue Ton (RT) 
    A ton on which the shipment is freighted. If cargo is rated as weight or measure (W/M), whichever produces the highest revenue will be considered the revenue ton.Weights are based on metric tons and measures are based on cubic meters.RT=1 MT or 1 CBM. 
  • Reverse IPI 
    An inland point provided by an all–water carrier’s through bill of lading in the U.S. by first discharging the container in an East Coast port. 
  • Reversible Laytime 
    REVERSIBLE LAYTIME shall mean an option given to the charterer to add together the time allowed for loading and discharging. Where the option is exercised the effect is the same as a total time being specified to cover both operations. 
  • Ricinoleic Acid 
    Ricinoleic acid, whose systematic name is 12-hydroxyleic acid, is found in high degree in castor oil. The oil, ricinoleic acid, or its derivatives, are important to the cosmetics and lubricants industries. 
  • Righting Moment 
    Ship Stability: The product of the weight of the vessel(displacement) and the righting arm(GZ) 
  • Risk 
    Risk should be clearly distinguished from hazard. Risk is the chance that a given hazardous effect will occur. The use of fire by humans is an example of optimizing the balance between hazard and risk, as fire, being extremely hazardous, must be used unde
  • Risk Assessment 
    Substances on European priority lists must undergo an in-depth risk assessment covering the risks posed by the priority chemical to man (covering workers, consumers and man exposed via the environment) and the environment (covering the terrestrial, aquati
  • Ro-Ro Cargo Ship 
    A single or multi deck cargo ship for the carriage of laden vehicles which are loaded via ramps 
  • Ro-Ro Cargo Ship, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel designed for the transportation of Ro-Ro Cargo. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • Ro/Ro 
    A shortening of the term, “Roll On/Roll Off.” A method of ocean cargo service using a vessel with ramps which allows wheeled vehicles to be loaded and discharged without cranes. Also refers to any specialized vessel designed to carry Ro/Ro cargo. 
  • ROB 
    Remaining on board. The volume of cargo, usually expressed in barrels or cubic meters, left on board a tankship at a particular point of a voyage. Final ROB volumes after the completion of discharge, if too high (& deemed pumpable IAW C/P terms), can resu
  • Roll-on/Roll-off vessels 
    Ships specially designed to carry wheeled containers or trailers using interior ramps. Includes all forms of car and truck carriers. 
  • Roll–on/Roll–off vessels 
    Ships specially designed to carry wheeled containers or trail- ers using interior ramps. 
  • Rolling 
    Ship Stability: is when the vessel rotates about the longitudinal (front/back) axis 
  • Rolling 
    The side–to–side (athwartship) motion of a vessel. 
  • RoRo Barge 
    The Roll On/Roll Off, or RO/RO barge is a deck barge with multiple decks that can accommodate enormous numbers of containers, trailers, or rail cars, allowing them to be wheeled directly onto or off the barge. 
  • Route 
    The manner in which a shipment moves; i.e., the carriers handling it and the points at which the carriers interchange. 
  • RT43 
    Measure for capacity by a car which is 4.125 m long, 1.550 m wide and 1.420 m high 
  • Rummage Sale 
    From the French "arrimage" meaning ship's cargo. Damaged cargo was sold at a rummage sale. 
  • Running Days or Consecutive Days 
    RUNNING DAYS or CONSECUTIVE DAYS shall mean Days which follow one immediately after the other. 
  • Running Hours or Consecutive Hours 
    RUNNING HOURS or CONSECUTIVE HOURS shall mean hours which follow one immediately after the other. 
  • RVNX 
    Released Value Not Exceeding: Usually used to limit the value of goods transported. The limitation refers to carrier liability when paying a claim for lost or damaged goods. 
  • S/FA 
    Shipping and Forwarding Agent 
  • S/O 
    Ship owner 
  • SAFE Port Act 
    Is the Security and Accountability For Every Port Act of 2006 which is an Act of Congress in the United States that covers port security. 
  • Safety Case 
    Some countries such as Canada, Australia, Norway and the UK require a Safety Case to be developed before permission is given to develop and operate an oil field. Various safety studies are conducted and reviewed. If approved, the oil company is allowed to
  • Sailing Draft 
    the vertical depth below the water surface in which the vessel moves in 
  • SAL 
    Single Anchor Loading - Consists of a single or double mooring line attached to a suction anchor or pile on the seabed. A swivel stands on top of anchor. The oil flow is carried through a flexible hose up to the ship, which "weathervanes" freely around th
  • Salvage Vessel, Naval Auxiliary 
    A naval auxiliary vessel fitted with salvage equipment. 
  • SAN 
    Styrene-acrylonitrile. SAN is a transparent, rigid styrenic plastic offering high chemical resistance, used mainly in the automotive, electrical and electronics industry, as well as in household applications and building products.. 
  • SAP 
    Single Anchor Production - Involves placing a multi-path production swivel on a seabed anchor. Can be used in most water depths and is expected to have a large potential in combination with subsea production equipment. 
  • saturates 
    Hydrocarbons with no multiple bonds. Paraffins and naphthenes. 
  • SATV 
    Safe Access to Vessels Working Group 
  • SBR 
    Styrene-Butadiene Rubber. SBR is a rubber manufactured from styrene. Because of its excellent abrasion resistance, it is widely used in automobile and truck tires, as well as for carpet backing and paper coating. Other applications are in belting, floorin
  • SBT 
    Segregated Ballast Tanks: These are tanks that are completely segregated from the cargo oil and fuel oil systems and which are permanently allocated to the carriage of ballast. Requirements for meeting the SBT criteria are detailed in MARPOL 13. 
  • SCAC Code 
    See Owner Code. 
  • Scaling Temperature 
    The temperature, above which steel oxidizes at a high rate 
  • Scantling Draft 
    the maximum draft at which a vessel complies with the governing strength requirements of classification societies. 
  • SCOS 
    Submerged Crude Oil Storage - This Teekay-designed system stores crude oil underwater in an inflatable balloon-type structure made of a flexible polyester fabric, with a coating impervious to seawater and oil. 
  • screen 
    Oil trading jargon for the electronic network quotes of futures market prices. Other nicknames include "the TV" and "the print." The industry discusses physical market activity and does business at levels which sound like "screen plus 25" and "85 points u
  • SCUBA 
    Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus 
  • Scuttlebutt 
    A butt was a barrel. Scuttle meant to chop a hole in something. The scuttlebutt was a water barrel with a hole cut into it so that sailors could reach in and dip out drinking water. The scuttlebutt was the place where the ship's gossip was exchanged. 
  • SDR 
    Special Drawing Rights (IMF) 
  • SDWT 
    Summer deadweight 
  • Sea Waybill 
    Document indicating the goods were loaded onboard when a document of title (b/L) is not needed. Typically used when a company is shipping goods to itself. 
  • Sea–Bee Vessels 
    Ocean vessels constructed with heavy–duty submersible hydraulic lift or elevator system at the stern of the vessel. The Sea–Bee system facilitates forward transfer and positioning of barges. Sea–Bee barges are larger than LASH barges. The Sea–Bee system i
  • Seagoing (voyage) 
    The part of a voyage that is not wholly within inland waterways or harbour walls / port limits. 
  • Seagoing Barges 
    Self-propelled barges or towed/pushed dumb barges which are classed for sea-going trade, or which may be classified for estuarial or restricted seagoing voyages between nominated ports. Seagoing barges may be mandated by international conventions, and ma
  • SIRE 
    Ship Inspection Report Exchange: The OCIMF managed database system that will hold the Inspection Reports carried out by participating members. The aim is to reduce the duplication of the number of inspections carried out on vessels. 
  • Skyscraper 
    A small triangular sail set above the skysail in order to maximize effect in a light wind. 
  • SL/W 
    Shippers load and count.All three clauses are used as needed on the bill of lading to exclude the carrier from liability when the cargo is loaded by the shipper. 
  • Sleepers 
    Loaded containers moving within the railroad system that are not clearly identified on any internally generated reports. 
  • Sling 
    A wire or rope contrivance placed around cargo and used to load or discharge it to/from a vessel. 
  • Slip 
    A vessel’s berth between two piers. 
  • Slip Point 
    Fats consist of a complex mixture of glycerides and therefore do not have sharp melting points, unlike pure chemical substances. The slip point of a fat is the temperature at which a column of fat in an open capillary tube moves up the tube when it is sub
  • Slop Tank Charging Operations 
    Whereby a dedicated slop handling vessel supplies a quantity of oil to a vessel for tank washing and/or line flushing purposes. 
  • Slop tanks 
    A tank utilized to store the COW medium and receipt of tank washings. 
  • Slot Charter 
    A time or voyage charter under which the slot charterer has the right to use only a specified amount of the ship's container carrying capacity. In container liner trades, such charters may be reciprocal ("cross slot charters") between operators / carriers
  • SLS&C 
    Shipper's load, stow and count 
  • SLSD 
    Stowed, lashed, secured, dunnaged 
  • Sludge 
    That element of the material in a ship's cargo tank which is essentially not free flowing. It consists or hydrocarbon waxes and may contain water/oil emulsions and sediments. 
  • Slush Fund 
    A slushy slurry of fat was obtained by boiling or scraping the empty salted meat storage barrels. This stuff called "slush" was often sold ashore by the ship's cook for the benefit of himself or the crew. The money so derived became known as a slush fund.
  • Small 
    Tankers often used in coastal waters -Size: 10,001 dwt - 19,000 dwt 
  • Smoke Point 
    The temperature at which smoke is visibly evolved from an oil as it is being heated. The smoke point is highly dependent on the content of free fatty acids in the oil. A high smoke point is desirable, particularly when using an oil for frying. 
  • smoke point 
    An indication of how cleanly kerosene burns. The test reports how high a flame can extend above a wick-fed lamp without making soot. 
  • Soap 
    Soap is commonly used to describe the chemical compound formed by the reaction of an alkali or a metal with fat or fatty acids. Sodium soaps are the most usual products used for toilet and laundry washing. Calcium, potassium and ammonium salts have some s
  • Soap Stock 
    The aqueous by-product from the chemical refining operation that is comprised of soap, hydrated gums, water, oil and other impurities. 
  • Soapstock 
    In the chemical refining of crude oils, free fatty acids are removed by neutralisation with alkali and settle to the bottom as alkali soaps, known as soapstock. 
  • SOC 
    Shipper Owned Container 
  • SOF or S/F 
    Statement of facts. At the end of the stay of the ship in the port the agent will make up the history with all data which are important for the Ship Owner and for the Charterer and that are related to the loading and the discharging of the ship. This hist
  • SOL 
    Shipowner's liability or Shipper owned/leased 
  • SOLAS 
    International Convention for Safety Of Life At Sea (1974/78): The International regulations which relates to the safe construction and safety equipment to be carried on all sea going self propelled vessels. 
  • Solid Fat Content 
    Fats such as butter, margarine, bakery shortening, beef tallow and cocoa butter appear to be solid but are, in fact, a mixture of solid and liquid components. The proportion of solid present at various temperatures of use is often of interest in relation
  • Solubility 
    The extent to which a substance mixes with a liquid to produce a solution 
  • Solvent 
    A solvent is a liquid that has the ability to dissolve, suspend or extract other materials, without chemical change to the material or solvent. Solvents make it possible to process, apply, clean or separate materials. Water is an inorganic solvent. Organi
  • Solvent Extraction 
    A process which usually uses hexane as a solvent to extract oil from oil-bearing materials. The residual oil left in extracted soyabean flakes or meal can be reduced to one percent or less. In the United States, nearly all soyabeans are processed by solve
  • SOM 
    Swedish Official Measure 
  • Son of a Gun 
    When in port, and with the crew restricted to the ship for any extended period of time, wives and ladies of easy virtue often were allowed to live aboard along with the crew. Infrequently, but not uncommonly, children were born aboard, and a convenient pl
  • sour 
    High in sulfur content. Sour vacuum gasoils, for example, contain more than about 0.5 sulfur, the common limit for sweet vacuum gasoils. Application of this term to natural gasolines tends to focus on mercaptan sulfur concentration. Sour natural gasolines
  • sour crude 
    Petroleum with high sulfur content. In this case, high commonly means more than 1.0 weight percent. 
  • Sour Crude 
    Crude oil with a high sulphur content. 
  • Space Charter 
    A voyage charterparty under which the space charterer has the right to use only part of the vessel's capacity. 
  • SPASS 
    Skaw - Passero range 
  • Specific Gravity 
    The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of the mass of a given volume of the substance to the mass of an equal volume of water at a specific temperature. In the AOCS Methods Cc 10a-25 for oils and liquid fats (Cc 10b-25 for solid fats), the ratio
  • specific gravity 
    An expression of materials' density in terms of their relationship to a reference substance. Water at 4 C serves as the reference for hydrocarbons, both liquid and solid. Water has specific gravity of 1.0, as 1 cc of its weighs 1 gram. The specific gravit
  • Spine Car 
    An articulated five–platform railcar. Used where height and weight restrictions limit the use of stack cars. It holds five 40–foot containers or combinations of 40– and 20–foot containers. 
  • Spot Charter 
    A type of arrangement when a charterer fixes a vessel for a single laden voyage from one or more load ports to one or more discharge ports. The owner receives freight either on a dollar per ton basis or on a lump sum basis. 
  • spot Charter 
    Arrangement for a ship to carry a certain cargo on a particular route. Such deals, sometimes called voyage charters, usually cover a single trip. Commitments for two or more consecutive voyages do happen, though, occasionally. In a spot charter, the shipo
  • spot Deal 
    An isolated sale. In transactions of this kind, a specific quantity of oil, usually a convenient unit like a cargo, a bargeload, or a pipeline batch, changes from seller's hands to buyer's. The notion once assumed promptness. That element has vanished now
  • Spotting 
    Placing a container where required to be loaded or unloaded. 
  • Squat 
    the tendency of a ship to draw more water astern than when stationary, this amounts to less available underkeel clearance 
  • SS 
    Shipside or Self-Sustained or Screw Steamer or Stainless Steel 
  • SS, S.S. or S/S 
    A steamboat or steamship, sometimes called a steamer, is a ship in which the primary method of propulsion is steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels. The term steamboat is usually used to refer to smaller steam-powered boats working on l
  • sSF 
    saybolt seconds, Furol. The unit of Saybolt Furol viscosity, a method of determining liquids resistance to flow. An alternate acronym, SFS, for Saybolt Furol seconds, remains in use. 
  • sSU 
    saybolt seconds, Universal. The units of an empirical flow resistance measurement (Saybolt Universal viscosity). The acronym sometimes appears as SUS, Saybolt Universal seconds. 
  • SSW 
    Summer salt water 
  • stability 
    Crude and products which will not change spontaneously or readily have this attribute. Jet fuels, for instance, need thermal stability. They must resist decomposition when heated. 
  • Stability 
    Ship Stability: The tendency of a vessel to return to an erect position after being inclined by an exterior force.Also known as positive stability. 
    It is paramount that a vessel is stable in all respects at all times. When cargo is loaded / discharged, the stability is monitored by a computer, which takes into account the weight and position of cargo within the vessel 
  • stabilized Crude 
    Crude and condensates come from the ground mixed with gas and light gas liquids. Removal of these volatile materials leaves a stabilized stream--one with a vapor pressure ordinary storage and transportation vessels can safely handle. 
  • Stabilizer 
    A stabilizer is a substance added to another substance to prevent an alteration of its physical state. Stabilizers are added to plastics so as to allow them to have a long and useful life in any application, by keeping their properties stable. 
  • stable 
    The notion of constancy and steadiness has several applications in the oil industry. Frequently it describes crude freed of volatile light ends--stabilized crude. Other times, it refers to blends of compatible components, mixtures which will not spontaneo
  • Stack Car 
    An articulated five–platform rail car that allows containers to be double stacked. A typical stack car holds ten 40–foot equivalent units (FEU’s). 
  • Stacktrain 
    A rail service whereby rail cars carry containers stacked two high on specially operated unit trains. Each train includes up to 35 articulated multi–platform cars. Each car is comprised of 5 well–type platforms upon which containers can be stacked. No cha
  • standard Export Quality 
    A common description of crude oils sold on the world market. The normal run of a crude grade as available at a loading point. 
  • Standby Safety Vessel 
    A vessel primarily equipped to perform safety standby duties. Will be fitted with accommodation and facilities for the rescue, reception and initial care of survivors from offshore installations accidents 
  • Starboard 
    Right side of a ship when facing the front or forward end 
  • Start Over with a Clean Slate 
    A slate tablet was kept near the helm on which the watch keeper would record the speeds, distances, headings and tacks during the watch. If there were no problems during the watch, the slate would be wiped clean so that the new watch could start over with
  • Statute Of Limitation 
    A law limiting the time in which claims or suits may be instituted. 
  • STCW 
    Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping 
  • STCW 95 
    Standards of Training Certification and Watchkeeping Convention (IMO) 
  • STCW V Para 1 
    Completed basic tanker training that applies to junior officers who have cargo-handling responsibilities 
  • STCW V Para 2 
    Completed specialized training that is required for officers who have operational responsibility for cargo transfer 
  • steam Cracker 
    A petrochemical plant unit which produces olefins, particularly ethylene, and in some cases aromatics, by pyrolysis. The trade often calls these plants ethylene crackers, after their primary product. Some units, called light liquids crackers, crack ethane
  • Steam cracking-Steam cracker 
    Steam cracking, a further application of thermal cracking, is a petrochemical process used to produce olefinic raw materials (e.g. propylene, ethylene) from various feedstocks for petrochemicals manufacture. The feedstocks range from ethane to vacuum gas
  • Steamship Guarantee 
    An indemnity issued to the carrier by a bank; protects the carrier against any possible losses or dam- ages arising from release of the merchandise to the receiving party. This instrument is usually issued when the bill of lading is lost or is not availab
  • Stearic Acid 
    Chemically, an 18 carbon chain saturated acid. Commercially, the term is used for mixed solid acids of various compositions. Stearic acid is used for industrial purposes such as in the rubber and oleochemical industries. Beef tallow is the principal sourc
  • Stearin  
    The term refers to the solid fraction of an oil obtained by filtration or centrifugation after the oil has been crystallised at a controlled temperature. Stearins are characterised by being more saturated than the oils from which they are derived. Fractio
  • STEM 
    Referring to the readiness of cargo which is often a prerequisite to the fixing of a vessel 
  • Sterilization  
    Sterilisation is the first process carried out at the oil mill. Fresh fruit bunches are loaded into cages as soon as possible after arrival at the mill, and the cages, which run on rails, are loaded into a horizontal cylindrical pressure vessel. The load
  • STERN 
    At or towards the rear of a ship 
  • Stern Trawler 
    A vessel for catching fish by trawling with nets handled over the stern 
  • Stevedore 
    Individual or firm that employs longshoremen and who contracts to load or unload the ship. 
    International convention on standards of training certification and watch-keeping for seafarers 
    International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification, and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978 
    Seafarers training certification and watch-keeping 
  • Stone Carrier 
    A vessel for the carriage of large stones for the construction of breakwaters and the like; stones are discharged sideways from a flat deck 
  • Storing Operations 
    Whereby a vessel loads a quantity of spares, stores, victualling goods or crew effects for the consumption and/or utilisation by the vessel and her assigned personnel. 
  • Stowage 
    A marine term referring to loading freight into ships’ holds. 
  • Straddle Carrier 
    Mobile truck equipment with the capacity for lifting a container within its own framework. 
  • Straight (solid) stream 
    Method used to apply or distribute water from the end of a hose. The water is delivered under pressure for penetration. In an efficient straight (solid) stream, approximately 90% of the water passes through an imaginary circle 38 cm (15 inches) in diamete
  • Straight Bill of Lading 
    A non–negotiable bill of lading which states a specific identity to whom the goods should be delivered. See Bill of Lading. 
  • Stray current corrosion 
    Impressed current corrosion caused by current flowing through paths other than the intended circuits 
  • stream 
    Any hydrocarbon flow. Some uses of this general term include the product emerging from a processing unit (e.g., the naphtha stream from a crude still), the supply of a raw material or product (e.g., the natural gasoline stream from West 
  • Stripping 
    Stripping is the process of removing free fatty acids by steam distillation during physical refining. This is usually carried out in the deodoriser. This is the second operation of the palm oil mill. After sterilisation each cage is tipped into a hopper w
  • STW 
    Said To Weigh or Stowage 
  • STW 
    Standards of Training and Watchkeeping 
  • STWG 
    Stowing (cbm/feet) 
  • STWGE 
  • Styrene 
    Styrene is a clear, colorless liquid that is derived from petroleum and natural gas by-products, but which also occurs naturally. Styrene is used to create plastic materials used in a wide range of strong, flexible, and lightweight products. It is used in
  • Styrenic plastics 
    Plastics based on resins made by the polymerization of styrene or co-polymerization of styrene with other unsaturated compounds the styrene being in greatest amount by weight. Styrene plastics are easy to process and offer excellent price/performance rati
  • Sub Stem 
    Subject Stem. Relating to the availability of cargo on the date or dates on which a ship is offering to load. 
  • Sub-Panamax Vessel 
    a fully cellular containership that is less than the maximum dimensions to transit the Panama Canal and can carry between 2,000 and 3,000 TEUs 
  • Subchronic (aquatic) toxicity 
    Adverse effects on aquatic organisms that occur largely from continuous long-term exposure to a chemical or other potentially toxic material or agent, along or in combination, but where the exposure time covers only a portion of the life cycle (lifespan)
  • Subject 
    A qualification on the approval to use a vessel that requires the owner or Charterer (or both) to obtain a positive response from the owner or Charterer (or both) that the vessel subject (qualification) is lifted before the vessel can be fixed (chartered)
  • subjects 
    Unresolved items which prevent confirmation of a deal. Tanker chartering and oil trading both involve negotiations which conclude "subject to" removal of some exception. A charterer might fix a ship subject to stem confirmation or subject manage
  • Submarine 
    A combat vessel designed to operate underwater 
  • Subrogate 
    To put in place of another; i.e., when an insurance company pays a claim it is placed in the same posi- tion as the payee with regard to any rights against others. 
  • Substance 
    The word "substance" is used to mean chemical elements and their compounds in the natural state or obtained by any production process, including any additive necessary to preserve the stability of the product. In the European legislation, only the word "s
  • Substantial Corrosion 
    Substantial corrosion exists if the diminution of the structural element under consideration is in excess of 75% of the maximum allowable diminution, as defined by the vessel's Classification Society for each structural element.  
  • Suction Dredger 
    A vessel equipped to obtain material from the sea bed by use of a suction pipe. The material may be carried on board, transferred to other vessels, pumped ashore or deposited elsewhere using a spray 
  • Suction Dredger Pontoon 
    A non propelled dredger pontoon fitted with suction equipment 
  • Suezmax 
    Vessel designed for carrying bulk crude oil in tanks.(120,000 dwt - 200,000 dwt) 
  • Suezmax Tanker 
    A tanker of 120,000 to 199,000dwt. 
  • Sufferance Wharf 
    A wharf licensed and attended by Customs authorities. 
  • sulfur 
    An element which contaminates crude and refined products. Its presence in troublesome or objectionable quantity makes a stream sour. Oil which contains much sulfur can corrode processing hardware, smell bad, fetch less money than sweet grades, and require
  • Summer Draft 
    Summer draft is the vertical distance between the summer load line and the bottom of the hull. 
  • Sunflower Oil 
    Sunflower oil is obtained from the decorticated seeds of the sunflower (""Helianthus Annuus""). A high quality unrefined edible oil may be obtained by cold pressing of the seeds but the bulk of the commercial product is obtained by hot pressing and solven
  • Superabsorbents 
    Polymers of acrylic acid, superabsorbent material is widely-used in personal care products to absorb fluids. It comes in the form of large particles, about the size of table salt, that are enclosed in the interior of the product, and helps to keep skin he
  • Supercargo 
    Person employed by a ship owner, shipping company, charterer of a ship or shipper of goods to supervise cargo handling operations. Often called a port captain 
  • Supply Chain 
    A logistical management system which integrates the sequence of activities from delivery of raw ma- terials to the manufacturer through to delivery of the finished product to the customer into measur- able components. “Just in Time” is a typical value–add
  • Surface Transportation Board (STB) 
    The U.S. federal body charged with enforcing acts of the U.S. Congress that affect common carriers in interstate commerce. STB replaced the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) in 1997. 
  • Surfactant 
    This is short for surface-active agent and is used to describe a chemical that will reduce the surface tension of water when it is added to it. This enables the water to mix with materials it would otherwise not dissolve, such as grease. Surfactants can b
  • Surfactants 
    Surfactants, or surface active agents, are substances that, when dissolved in water, give a product the ability to remove dirt from surfaces such as the human skin, textiles, and other solids. Each surfactant molecule has a hydrophilic (water-loving) head
  • Surge 
    The longitudinal oscillatory linear motion about the center of gravity (origin of body axis) in the ship travel direction, usually due to wave effects; motion backward and forward (fore and aft direction) (EM 1110-2-1613). 
  • survey 
    An assessment of oil quantity and or quality prepared by an inspection company. A loading survey, for instance, involves determination of how much crude or product a supplier pimped aboard a vessel. it may also entail taking samples of the 
  • SW 
    Salt water; Shipper’s weight 
  • SWAD 
    Salt Water Arrival Draft 
  • Swaying 
    Ship Stability: is the linear lateral (side-to-side) motion 
  • SWD 
    Salt water draft 
  • SWDD 
    Salt water departure draft 
  • sweet 
    Low in sulfur content. See SOUR. 
  • sweet Crude 
    Petroleum with a low sulfur content. The industry generally puts a maximum of 0.5 weight percent sulfur on sweet crude. 
  • Sweet Crude 
    Crude oil that has a low sulphur content. Typically refined into gasoline and is in high demand. 
  • sweetening 
    Processing to remove sulfur. Hydrodesulfurization, for instance, can produce sweet catfeed. Caustic washing can sweeten sour natural gasolines to make them suitable for motor gasoline blending. 
  • SWL 
    Safe Working Load or Statutory Water Level 
  • SWSD 
    Salt Water Sailing Draft 
  • SWW 
    Single Swinging Winches 
  • Syngas 
    This is an abbreviation of synthesis gas and is applied to several kinds of mixtures that are produced by reacting steam, or steam and oxygen, with a heated carbon-containing material such as natural gas, heavy petroleum oil, coal or coke. Syngas consists
  • Synonym 
    This is another name that a particular chemical or composition may be known as. A chemical can have a number of different names or synonyms. For example, METHYL ALCOHOL is the Product Name; however this cargo is also known as methanol, wood alcohol etc –
  • Synthetic rubbers 
    Synthetic rubbers are made of raw material derived from petroleum, coal, oil, natural gas, and acetylene. Many of them are copolymers, i.e., polymers consisting of more than one monomer. 
  • Systemic toxicity 
    Adverse effects produced by a substance ( or conversion products) after absorption into, and circulation by, the blood stream. Systemic effects occur in tissues remote from the site where the material comes into contact with the body, and from where it is
  • Tail 
    A protraction at the end of a feedstock or product's distillation curve. A wide spread between the 95 percent point and final boiling point of a stream. A heavy contaminant in a product. Less than ideal distillation can produce tails. 
  • Tainting 
    Refers to a substance which is known to be taken up by marine organisms with the result that it is tainted and rendered unpalatable as seafood. Examples are chlorophenols. A taint is defined as "a foreign flavor or odor in the organisms induced by conditi
  • Taken Aback 
    A dangerous situation where the wind is on the wrong side of the sails pressing them back against the mast and forcing the ship astern. Most often this was caused by an inattentive helmsman who had allowed the ship to head up into the wind. 
  • Taking turns 
    Changing watches with the turn of the hour glass. 
  • Taking wind out of his sails 
    Sailing in a manner so as to steal or divert wind from another ship's sails. 
  • Tall Oil 
    A by-product of the sulphite digestion of wood pulp for kraft paper manufacture. Tall oil is not a true fat or oil but consists of a natural mixture of 45 percent each of rosin acids and fatty acids and 10 percent unsaponifiable matter. The fatty acids ar
  • Tallow 
    The rendered fat obtained mainly from beef carcass trimmings from the slaughter house. Some sheep fat may be included in commercial tallow, particularly in Australia and New Zealand. Tallow may be of edible or inedible quality. The latter is derived from
  • Tallyman 
    Controls the cargo going into and out of the vessel. Checks that volume and number tallies with the manifests 
  • Tank Barge 
    Tank barges transport liquid cargoes like petroleum, petrochemicals and liquid fertilizers. Tank barges contain one or many tank compartments below deck with regulated temperature and pressure, depending on the cargo. Tank barges have special safety and s
  • Tank Landing Craft 
    A combat vessel with strengthened bow ro-ro ramp for loading and discharge of tanks and other military vehicles 
  • Tank Vessel (Tanker) 
    Ships which carry liquid products, such as crude petroleum, petroleum product, chemicals, liquid natural gas and molasses. 
  • Tanker 
    A popular name for the tankships which carry bulk oil, oil products, chemicals, and other liquids in some cases. 
  • Tanker 
    A seagoing vessel capable of carrying oil, gas or chemicals in bulk, whether it be a barge or ship. 
  • Tanker (unspecified) 
    A tanker whose cargo is unspecified 
  • Tankers 
    Ships fitted with tanks to carry liquid bulk cargo such as: crude petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, Liquefied gasses (LNG and LPG), wine, molasses, and similar product tankers. 
  • Tare Weight 
    In railcar or container shipments, the weight of the empty railcar or empty container. 
  • Taste 
    A subjective quality characteristic. It is not defined unambiguously and is evaluated differently by different people. It is mostly defined as the sense by which certain properties are perceived through the stimulation of the taste buds (the gustatory sen
  • TBN 
    To Be Named or To Be Narrowed or To Be Nominated 
  • TBN or TOBENA 
    To be Named; To be narrowed; To be Nominated 
  • TBOOK 
    To the Best Of Owners Knowledge 
  • TC 
    Time charter. Owners agree to hire a particular ship for a set length of time and provide technical management, crewing etc. 
  • TC-LO 
    Toxic Concentration Low. This is the lowest concentration of an airborne substance to which humans or animals have been exposed that resulted in any toxic effects in humans or produced any tumors or adverse reproductive effects in animals or humans  
  • TCP 
    Time Charter Party. The document containing the terms and conditions of a contract between a charterer and a shipowner for the hire of a ship for a fixed time frame, usually more than one voyage. 
  • TD-LO 
    Toxic Dose Low. The lowest dose of a hazardous substance introduced by means other than inhalation over a given time period that has been reported to produce toxic effects in humans or produced any tumors or adverse reproductive effects in animals or huma
  • TDK or TWD 
    Tween Decker 
  • TDW 
    Tons deadweight 
  • Technical Management 
    Service where a hired agent operates a ship and receives a fee in return. 
  • Technical Operator 
    Technical Operator means an entity dealing with the responsibility for operation of the ship and which, on assuming such responsibility, has agreed to take over all the duties and responsibilities imposed by the ISM code and, where applicable, holds the
  • TFW 
    Tropical fresh water loadline 
  • The Bitter End 
    The end of an anchor cable is fastened to the bitts at the ship's bow. If all of the anchor cable has been payed out you have come to the bitter end. 
  • The Devil to Pay 
    To pay the deck seams meant to seal them with tar. The devil seam was the most difficult to pay because it was curved and intersected with the straight deck planking. Some sources define the "devil" as the below-the-waterline-seam between the keel and the
  • Thermal Cracker 
    Originally, the name of the refining industry's first molecule breaker. These units used heat and pressure to turn heavy fuel oil into gasoline and distillate. Today, the term applies to a category of bottoms crackers, including visbreakers and cokers, wh
  • Thermal cracking 
    Thermal cracking is a petroleum refining process used to break up heavy oil molecules into lighter, more valuable fractions (e.g. gasoline, kerosene) by the use of high temperature without the aid of catalysts. It is used to convert gas oils into naphtha.
  • Thermal Stability 
    Reluctance to change, especially to deteriorate, when heated. A property particularly associated with aviation turbine fuels. 
  • Thermoforming 
    The process of heating a thermoplastic sheet to a working temperature and then forming it into a finished shape by means of heat or pressure. (Modern Plastics Encyclopedia 1995) 
  • Thermoplastic 
    A plastic which is solid when cold, but which may flow and be re-formed multiple times with the application of heat. Some plastics are dissolved in solvents such as water (a latex) to aid their application. 
  • Thermoset 
    A polymer that solidifies when heated, in other words it sets and cannot thereafter be changed, is called a thermoset. Some polymers behave like this because the heating process causes the chains of the polymer to bind to each other, via cross-links, and
  • Third Party Logistics (3PL) 
    A company that provides logistics services to other companies for some or all of their logistics needs. It typically includes warehousing and transportation services. Most 3PL’s also have freight forwarding licenses. 
  • THP 
    Thrust horse-power 
  • Three Sheets to the Wind 
    A sheet is a rope line which controls the tension on the downwind side of a square sail. If, on a three masted fully rigged ship, the sheets of the three lower course sails are loose, the sails will flap and flutter and are said to be "in the wind". A shi
  • Thwartships 
    At right angles to the centre-line of the ship  
  • Tide 
    The periodic rise and fall of water level in the oceans 
  • Tide Over 
    At first glance, this would seem to be an obviously nautical term. Today it means to make a small bit of something, usually money, last until a supply comes in, as in borrowing some money to tide you over till payday. However, the meaning has changed over
  • Time Bar 
    The expiration of the time period within which a lawsuit can be brought or arbitration commenced against a carrier for any claim under a contract of carriage. This time period is usually stipulated in the contract of carriage and can be extended or abridg
  • Time lost waiting for berth to count as loading or discharging time or as laytime 
    TIME LOST WAITING FOR BERTH TO COUNT AS LOADING OR DISCHARGING TIME or AS LAYTIME shall mean that if no loading or discharging Berth is available and the Vessel is unable to tender Notice of Readiness at the waiting-place then any time lost to the Vessel
  • Time Swap 
    An exchange which involves today's barrels for tomorrow's or next week's for next month's. 
  • Time-Charter 
    Lease of a ship to a charterer for a period of time rather than for the performance of a specific voyage. An elemental version of this arrangement, called a bare boat charter, works like renting an unfurnished apartment. The charterer must provide his own
  • TIP 
    Taking inward pilot 
  • TIR 
    Transport International par la Route. Road transport operating agreement among European governments and the United States for the international movement of cargo by road. Display of the TIR carnet allows sealed containerloads to cross national frontiers w
  • Titration  
    The strength of a chemical solution is often determined by reacting the chemical with another in measured amounts. Knowing the chemical reaction involved and the amount of the second reactant, the amount of the first reactant can be calculated. The proces
  • Titre Test 
    The titre is the highest temperature reached during the crystallisation of fatty acids under controlled cooling conditions. It is an important characteristic of inedible fats used for soap making or as a raw material for acid manufacture and it is also an
  • TIW 
    Total insured value 
  • TMSA 
    Tanker Management Self Assessment: The Tanker Management and Self Assessment (TMSA) programme provides ship operators with a means to improve and measure their own management systems. The programme encourages ship operators to assess their safety managem 
  • To Know the Ropes 
    There was miles and miles of cordage in the rigging of a square rigged ship. The only way of keeping track of and knowing the function of all of these lines was to know where they were located. It took an experienced seaman to know the ropes. 
  • Tocopherol 
    A natural antioxidant found in vegetable oils and fats. There are four naturally occurring tocopherol homologs, i.e. a-, ß-, y- and d- tocopherols. In addition, there are four analogous tocotrienols with the same chemical structures, but having three doub
  • Toe the Line 
    When called to line up at attention, the ship's crew would form up with their toes touching a seam in the deck planking. 
  • TOFA 
    Tall Oil Fatty Acids. An important industrial feedstock that is a by-product of the wood pulp industry. The term ""tall oil"" is derived from the Swedish word for ""pine oil"", or tallolja. Production occurs mainly in North America and Scandinavia. TOFA a
  • TOFC 
    Trailer on Flat Car: The movement of a highway trailer on a railroad flatcar. Also known as Piggyback. 
  • Toll Processing 
    Refining or petrochemicals production done on a fee basis. A plant owner puts another party's feedstock through his equipment and charges for the service. A portion of the product retained by the processor may constitute payment. This form of compensation
  • Toluene 
    Gasoline blenders and petrochemicals makers continually compete for possession of this aromatic. Its high octane and low vapor pressure make it an excellent blendstock. The chance to turn it into benzene appeals to the chemical industry. Refineries and st
  • TOM 
  • Tons Per Inch 
    Ship Stability: TPI=Area of WP/420 
  • TOP 
    Taking Outward Pilot 
  • Top–Air Delivery 
    A type of air circulation in a container. In top air units, air is drawn from the bottom of the container, filtered through the evaporator for cooling and then forced through the ducted passages along the top of the container. This type of airflow require
  • Topping Plant 
    A simple refinery, one which lacks cracking and other upgrading equipment. The name comes from what such basic installations can do. They boil the straight-run light products, the top, off crude oil. The most rudimentary topping plants have no complex har
  • Topping Yields 
    The product slate obtained by processing a grade of crude in a simple refinery. In everyday industry usage, the term usually means the yield from atmospheric distillation followed by naphtha reforming and finished product blending. 
  • Topside 
    The sides of a ship between the waterline and the deck; sometimes referring to onto or above the deck  
  • Totox Value 
    Index of the degree of oxidation in which the peroxide value and anisidine value are combined - Totox = 2PV + AV 
    Tanker Owners Voluntary Agreement to Limit Oil Pollution 
  • Towage 
    Act of towing a ship. 
  • Towboat 
    A towboat is a powerful boat with a flat front that pushes barges on rivers. Towboats typically have flat hulls to accommodate the shallower depths of the nation's inland waterways. 
  • Towing/Pushing, Inland Waterways 
    A vessel designed for tug, towing or pushing operations. Not designed for operation in open sea 
  • Towline 
    Towlines or hawsers are constructed of extremely strong synthetic materials or steel wire. When the towline connection with the barge forms a "Y" shape to reduce chafing, it is known as abridle. 
  • Toxic 
    Poison which can affect personnel through inhalation, absorption or ingestion. For the purposes of this policy the term toxic is taken to include all products which give off vapours containing substances for which exposure limits are recommended as they  
  • TPC Immersion 
    the amount of tons that it takes to lower a ship's draft one centimeter 
  • TPI 
    Tons per inch. Measure of vessel capacity equal to the weight of displaced water if vessel draft were to change by one inch.  
  • TPRG 
    Terminal Policy Review Group 
  • Trace Metals 
    Refers to metals which are present in very small amounts. Copper and iron are trace metals found in vegetable oils. The level decreases in refining and increases if there is contamination. 
  • Tractor 
    Unit of highway motive power used to pull one or more trailers/containers. 
  • Trade Acceptance 
    A time or a date draft that has been accepted by the buyer (the drawee) for payment at maturity. 
  • Trading Limits 
    Geographical limits specified in a time charter party outside which the charterer is not allowed to operate the ship. 
  • Traffic Diversion 
    Any commodity flow which ceases to use the project under some project alternative or scenario. 
  • Trailer 
    The truck unit into which freight is loaded as in tractor trailer combination. See Container. 
  • Tramp Line 
    An ocean carrier company operating vessels not on regular runs or schedules.They call at any port where cargo may be available. 
  • Tramp Shipping 
    The employment of ships in trades where there are no published schedules, in contrast to liner shipping. 
  • Trans 
    A geometric isomer of an unsaturated fatty acid where hydrocarbons attached to the carbons comprising the double bond are on opposite sides of the carbon chain. 
  • Transhipment 
    Applies to lightening operations and "ship to ship" (STS) transfers both at anchor and underway, or where vessels are "double banked" alongside a berth. 
  • Transportation & Exit (T&E) 
    Allows foreign merchandise arriving at one port to be transported in bond through the U.S. to be exported from another port, without paying duty. 
  • Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC) 
    Established by Congress through the Maritime Transportation Security Act (MTSA) and is adminis- tered by the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) and U.S. Coast Guard. TWICs are tamper– resistant biometric credentials that will be issued to all cr
  • Transshipment Port 
    Place where cargo is transferred to another carrier. 
  • Trawler 
    A vessel for catching fish by trawling with nets handled over the side 
  • Trim 
    The difference between the fore and aft draught of the vessel. When the aft draught is greater that the forward draught, the vessel is said to be trimmed 'by the stern'. When the aft draught is greater than the forward draught, the vessel is said to be tr
  • Trim 
    The angle at which a ship floats when viewed from the side. It can rest stern high, bow high, or on an even keel. Masters must load their ships with safe trim in mind. 
  • True Colors 
    The current meaning, ‘to reveal yourself as you really are’, actually came about because of the opposite phrase “false colors” – from the 17th century referring to a vessel which sailed under a flag not her own. This tactic was used by almost everyone as
  • True Draft 
    Ship Stability: Where the waterline intersects the forward and after perpendiculars. 
  • Trust Receipt 
    Release of merchandise by a bank to a buyer while the bank retains title to the merchandise. The goods are usually obtained for manufacturing or sales purposes. The buyer is obligated to maintain the goods (or the proceeds from their sales) distinct from
  • Try a Different Tack 
    The direction in which a ship moves as determined by the position of its sails and regarded in terms of the direction of the wind (starboard tack). If one tack didn’t bring the ship up properly, one could always attempt another. 
  • TSS 
    Twin screw ship 
  • Tug 
    A powerful small boat designed to pull, push or manuever vessels. 
  • Tugboat / Ocean Towing 
    Tugboats are used to pull ortow barges on the ocean or on wider inland rivers that have rough waters. Ocean towing involves long towlines between the tugboat and tow, to provide the necessary slack to accommodate rough water and varied weather conditions.
  • Turn a Blind Eye 
    From Admiral Lord Nelson’s awesome display of badassery at the Battle of Copenhagen. When the signal was given to stop fighting, Nelson held his spyglass to his blind eye and insisted he didn’t see the signal. He then proceeded to kick butt, of course. 
  • Turnaround 
    In water transportation, the time it takes between the arrival of a vessel and its departure. 
  • Turning Basin 
    An area that provides for the turning of a ship (bow to stern). Turning basins are usually located at or near the upper end of the interior channel and possibly at one or more intermediate points along long channels (EM 1110-2-1613). 
  • Turret 
    An attachment for a Floating Storage and Offtake vessel or Floating Production, Storage and Offloading vessel that allows vessel to rotate around its mooring according to direction of wind and current. 
  • TVP 
    True Vapor Pressure. The absolute pressure exerted by the gas produced by evaporation from a liquid, when the gas and liquid are in equilibrium at the prevailing temperature. 
  • TW 
    Tween Deck (OCIMF acronym) 
  • TW 
    Twin Decker 
  • TWA 
    Time Weighted Average. Time-weighted average concentration for an 8-hour workday and a 40-hour-work week in which a worker may be repeatedly exposed without adverse health effects 
  • TWD 
    Tween Decker 
  • TWHD 
    Tons per working or Workable hatch per day 
  • Twist Locks 
    A set of four twistable bayonet type shear keys used as part of a spreader to pick up a container or as part of a chassis to secure the containers. 
  • Two–Way Pallet 
    A pallet so designed that the forks of a fork lift truck can be inserted from two sides only. 
  • U.K.H.A.D. 
    United Kingdom and Le Havre-Antwerp-Dunkirk range 
  • UBA 
    Umweltbundesambt (German Federal Environment Bureau) 
  • ULCC 
    Ultra large crude carrier. The largest tankers. AFRA defines them as 320,000 DWT and larger. Most folks use the term a little less precisely. They might use it for ships as small as 300,000 or even 280,000 tons. 
  • Ullage 
    The difference between the total volume of a tank and the volume of the material it is presently holding. 
  • Ultraviolet Radiation 
    The visible light is only a small fraction of the spectrum of electromagnetic waves. Waves with wavelength shorter than the visible violet are generally called ""ultraviolet radiation"". Ultraviolet radiation is the electromagnetic wave in the range betwe
    United Nations’ Commission on International Trade Law 
  • Unclaimed Freight 
    Freight that has not been called for or picked up by the consignee or owner. 
  • Under the Weather 
    If a crewman is standing watch on the weather side of the bow, he will be subject to the constant beating of the sea and the ocean spray. He will be under the weather. 
  • Underkeel Clearance 
    the distance between the bottom of the ship and the sea or channel floor directly under the vessel 
  • Underwater System 
    An underwater system 
  • Underway 
    A vessel is underway when it is not at anchor, made fast to the shore, or aground. 
    United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 
  • Unicool 
    Barwil Unitor’s maritime refrigerants 
  • Uniform corrosion 
    Corrosion proceeding at almost the same rate over the whole surface of the metal exposed to the corrosive environment 
  • Uniform Customs and Practices for Documentary Credits (UCP) 
    Rules for letters of credit drawn up by the Commission on Banking Technique and Practices of the International Chamber of Commerce in consultation with the banking associations of many coun- tries. See Terms of Payment. 
  • Unit 
    A major piece of refining equipment. Any collection of machinery worthy of this title includes the complete set of hardware necessary to perform a process step. A crude distillation unit, for instance, incorporates a furnace, a fractionation tower, and al
  • Unit Load 
    Packages loaded on a pallet, in a crate or any other way that enables them to be handled at one time as a unit. 
  • Unit Train 
    A train of a specified number of railcars, perhaps 100, which remain as a unit for a designated destination or until a change in routing is made. 
  • Unless sooner commenced, in which case actual time used to count 
    UNLESS SOONER COMMENCED, IN WHICH CASE ACTUAL TIME USED TO COUNT shall mean that actual time used during turn-time shall count as Laytime. 
  • Unsaponifiable Matter 
    The term refers to material present in oils and fats which, after saponification of the oil or fat by alkali, is extractable by solvent and remains nonvolatile on drying. Unsaponifiable matter generally constitutes less than 1% in most oils and fats. It c
  • Unsaturated Gases 
    Light ends produced by refinery cracking units, particularly catalytic crackers and cokers. “Unsaturated” indicates the high olefins content of these gases. They ordinarily go to their own separation unit, plainly labeled an unsaturate gas plant, to avoid
  • Unsaturates 
    Hydrocarbons containing double or triple bonds. Olefins and aromatics which feature carbon-carbon double bonds have particular importance in the oil industry. 
  • Unseaworthiness 
    Unfitness of a ship for a particular voyage with a particular cargo. This can be a function of many variables, including but not limited to insufficient crew stores or fuel, machinery or equipment failure, or unfitness (unclean tanks) to receive or carry
  • UPR 
    Unsaturated Polyester Resins. Durable, resinous polymers. They are used over a broad spread of industries, mainly the construction, boat building, automotive and electrical industries. In most applications they are reinforced with small glass fibers - hen
  • Upstream 
    A relative term which locates one point closer to origins than another. Crude distillation lies upstream of conversion processing, for example. The opposite of downstream. 
  • USFWS 
    United States Fish and Wildlife Service 
  • USWC or USWE 
    United States West Coast 
  • UTC 
    Coordinated Universal Time (Greenwich Mean Time)  
    Unless Used/If used (in which Case) Actual Time Used To Count 
    Unless Used (Which Case) Actual Time Used To Count 
    Unless Used In Which Case Time Actually Used To Count 
  • UW 
    Underwriter(s). The party(s) who agrees to compensate another firm, usually a cargo owner or shipowner, for loss from an insured peril in consideration of payment of a premium. 
  • V/L Ratio 
    VaporLiquid ratio. A measure of volatility which observes volume of vapor a given volume of liquid forms at various temperatures. Gasoline blenders, who make more use of this property than anyone else, report it as the temperature where a sample reaches,
  • Vacuum Bottoms 
    The 1050 or 1100 F+ pitch which remains after a vacuum flasher removes vacuum gasoil from atmospheric bottoms. This thick residue has no direct use unless it meets asphalt specifications. Many refineries need to blend it into heavy fuel oil. The more fort
  • Vacuum Distillation 
    A technique for recovering heavy distillates from residue. The process lowers pressure under the level of the atmosphere, thereby reducing the temperature where hydrocarbons boil. This approach gives refiners access to molecules which would crack before t
  • Vacuum Flasher 
    A distillation unit which operates below atmospheric pressure. Refiners use such equipment--also called a vacuum still, vacuum unit, and other names--to recover vacuum gasoil from atmospheric residue. 
  • Vacuum Gasoil 
    A product of vacuum distillation with a typical boiling range of 550-700 F to 1050-1150 F. Cat crackers process vacuum gasoil (catfeed). So do a few heavy liquids steam crackers. 
  • Vacuum Unit 
    A distillation column run at a pressure below the level of the atmosphere in order to separate atmospheric residue into vacuum gasoil and vacuum bottoms. See VACUUM FLASHER. 
  • Validated Export License 
    A document issued by the U.S. government; authorizes the export of commodities for which written authorization is required by law. 
  • Validation 
    Authentication of B/L and when B/L becomes effective 
  • Vanning 
    A term for stowing cargo in a container. 
  • Vapor density 
    Weight of a volume of pure vapor or gas (with no air present) compared to the weight of an equal volume of dry air at the same temperature and pressure. A vapor density less than 1 (one) indicates that the vapor is lighter than air and will tend to rise.
  • Vapor pressure 
    Pressure at which a liquid and its vapor are in equilibrium at a given temperature. Liquids with high vapor pressures evaporate rapidly. 
  • Vapor Pressure/Boiling Point 
    Tank cleaning: Products with a high vapor pressure (higher than some 50 mbar at 20 C) can be removed from the tank by evaporation. As always during ventilation, special care must be taken to prevent the risk of explosion (flammable products) and emission
  • Vapour Destruction Unit (VDU) 
    An installation, normally located at a terminal, which receives gasoline vapours from cargo tanks and destroys them by thermal oxidation or other means. 
  • Vapour Recovery System 
    The practice where vapours in the ullage space of a vessel are returned to the shore via dedicated piping, during the loading or ballasting operation. (VRS = Vapour Recovery System, VECS = Vapour Emission Control System) 
  • Vapour Recovery Unit (VRU) 
    An installation, normally located at a terminal, which receives gasoline vapours from cargo tanks and recovers them for subsequent use. 
  • Variable Cost 
    Costs that vary directly with the level of activity within a short time. Examples include costs of mov- ing cargo inland on trains or trucks, stevedoring in some ports, and short–term equipment leases. For business analysis, all costs are either defined a
  • VEEP 
    Voluntary Energy Efficiency Programme. A voluntary commitment by the European chemical industry to reduce its specific energy consumption. The Programme was launched in 1992 and aimed to reduce the energy consumption of the industry by 15% between 1990 an
  • Vegetable Oil Tanker 
    A cargo ship designed for the bulk transport of Vegetable oils in tanks. Tanks will be stainless steel or lined. New vessels will be classified as chemical carriers 
  • Vegetable Oil Tanker, Inland Waterways 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of vegetable oils which is not suitable for trading in open waters. New vessels will be classified as chemical tankers as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code 
  • Vehicles Carrier 
    A multi deck cargo ship for the carriage of new cars and trucks which are loaded via ramps 
  • Ventilated Container 
    A container designed with openings in the side and/or end walls to permit the ingress of outside air when the doors are closed. 
  • Vertical axis or yaw axis 
    Ship Stability: an axis drawn from top to bottom, and perpendicular to the other two axes. A yaw motion is a movement of the nose of the aircraft from side to side. 
  • Vessel 
    All ships, tankers and barges used or capable of being used for the transportation of bulk hydrocarbons (including liquefied gases), bulk chemicals and bulk dry cargoes, and all craft involved in marine related operational activity associated with the hig
  • Vessel being in free pratique 
    VESSEL BEING IN FREE PRATIQUE shall mean that the Vessel complies with port health requirements. 
  • Vessel Manifest 
    The international carrier is obligated to make declarations of the ship’s crew and contents at both the port of departure and arrival. The vessel manifest lists various details about each shipment by B/L number. Obviously, the B/L serves as the core sourc
  • Vessel Supplies for Immediate Exportation (VSIE) 
    Allows equipment and supplies arriving at one port to be loaded on a vessel, aircraft, etc., for its exclusive use and to be exported from the same port. 
  • Vetting 
    Process whereby a ship is assessed for acceptance or accreditation by a customer or other interested parties to ensure that the ship meets their safety, quality and environmental requirements. 
  • VHF 
    Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. Frequencies immediately below VHF are denoted High frequency (HF), and the next higher frequencies are known as Ultra high frequency (UHF). 
  • Virgin 
    A description applied to streams which have not undergone a critical processing step. Most frequently, the term designates straight-run distillation cuts free of conversion refining products, such as virgin naphtha. 
  • VISA 
    Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement. Provides the U.S. defense community with “assured access” to commercial intermodal capacity to move sustainment cargoes during time of war or national emer- gency. In return, during peacetime, the carriers receive p
  • Visbreaker 
    A mild thermal cracker that treats crude unit or vacuum distiller bottoms to make them more fluid. Such units break some of the molecules, which flow poorly in these mixtures. The residue gives up some small molecules cracked off long hydrocarbon chains.
  • Viscosity 
    A measure of liquids' resistance to flow. The oil industry uses several measurements, including Saybolt, Redwood, Engler, and Kinematic, to report how fast crude or product moves, or should move, at specified temperatures. Since heavier hydrocarbon mixtur
  • Viscosity 
    Measure of a liquid's internal resistance to flow. This property is important because it indicates how fast a substance will leak out through holes in containers or tanks. 
  • VLCC 
    Very large crude carrier. A tanker between 160,000 and 319,999 deadweight tons, according to AFRA. In common usage, the industry tends to apply the term loosely. A round 150,000 to 300,000 DWT fits casual expectations. 
  • Volatile 
    A liquid from which gas evaporates rapidly. For the purpose of this policy the term volatile is taken to include any naturally volatile product with a "flash point" of less than 60 degrees C or any product being carried at a temperature that is higher tha
  • Volatile Matter 
    Volatile matter is the material in oils and fats which volatises upon drying of the oil or fat at 105°C. It includes moisture, solvent and any low molecular weight compounds present. Volatile matter is determined by drying a weighed quantity of the oil or
  • Volatility 
    The tendency of crude or products to yield vapor. Volatile materials give off gas at everyday temperatures. Hydrocarbon mixtures, such as motor gasoline, may qualify as volatile because they contain components which evaporate readily. The industry usually
  • Voluntary Ship 
    Any ship which is not required by treaty or statute to be equipped with radiotelecommunication equipment. 
  • Voyage Charter 
    A contract of carriage in which the charterer engages a shipowner for the use of a ship's cargo space for one voyage. 
  • VRS 
    Vapour Recovery System, see below. 
  • (Working Day) Weather Permitting 
  • Weight (per 1000 kilos) or Winter (loadline) 
  • W or WS 
    World Scale 
  • W&F 
    Water and feed 
  • W&I 
    Weighing and Inspection 
  • W&M 
    War and Marine 
  • W&R 
    Water and rail 
  • W/A or WAF 
    West Africa 
  • W/I 
  • W/M 
    Weight Measurement 
  • WA 
    Water or With Average 
  • WAF 
    West Africa 
  • WAG 
    West Asia gulf 
  • War Risk 
    Insurance coverage for loss of goods resulting from any act of war. 
  • Warehouse 
    A place for the reception, delivery, consolidation, distribution, and storage of goods/cargo. 
  • Warehouse Entry 
    Document that identifies goods imported when placed in a bonded warehouse. The duty is not im- posed on the products while in the warehouse but will be collected when they are withdrawn for delivery or consumption. 
  • Warehouse Withdrawal for Transportation (WDT) 
    Allows merchandise that has been withdrawn from a bonded warehouse at one port to be transported in bond to another port, where a superseding entry will be filed. 
  • Warehouse Withdrawal for Transportation Exportation (WDT&E) 
    Allows merchandise that has been withdrawn from a bonded warehouse at one port to be transported in bond through the U.S. to be exported from another port, without paying duty. 
  • Warehouse Withdrawal for Transportation Immediate Exportation (WDEX) 
    Allows merchandise that has been withdrawn from a bonded warehouse at one U.S. port to be exported from the same port exported without paying duty. 
  • Warehousing 
    The storing of goods/cargo. 
  • Warm zone 
    Area where personnel and equipment decontamination and hot zone support take place. It includes control points for the access corridor and thus assists in reducing the spread of contamination. Also referred to as the decontamination, contamination reducti
  • Warning Shot Across the Bow 
    From the literal practice of firing a warning shot across another ship’s bow to encourage the captain to strike without engaging. 
  • Warranty 
    The declaration given by an owner that action has or will be taken to ensure that his vessel complies with International, statutory, or company requirements. (It requires a degree of trust in its use - an owner found to have broken a warranty might gain  
  • WASP 
    Weather Analysis Service Provider 
  • Waste Disposal Vessel 
    A vessel equipped for the transportation, treatment and/or (now illegal) discharge at sea of waste material 
  • Water Jet Dredger 
    A vessel equipped to inject water into settled sediment which then moves under the influence of gravity and/or density gradients 
  • Water Jet Dredging Pontoon 
    A non propelled dredger pontoon equipped to inject water into settled sediment which then moves under the influence of gravity and/or density gradients 
  • Water Miscibility 
    The ability of a liquid to mix fully with water and not separate 
  • Water plane Coefficient 
    Ship Stability: p=Area of WP/(L*B) 
  • Water Reaction 
    A hydrocarbon mixture's tendency to hold water and other impurities in suspension. Aviation turbine fuel has specifications, including a water separation index, to avoid putting kerosene with this problem aboard aero planes. 
  • Water Reactive 
    A chemical that reacts with water to release a gas that is either flammable or presents a health hazard.  
  • Water Separation 
  • Water spray (fog) 
    Method or way to apply or distribute water. The water is finely divided to provide for high heat absorption. Water spray patterns can range from about 10 to 90 degrees. Water spray streams can be used to extinguish or control the burning of a fire or to p
  • Water Tank Barge, non propelled 
    A non propelled tank barge for the carriage of water 
  • Water Tanker 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of water 
  • Water Tanker Barge, propelled 
    A self propelled tanker barge for the bulk carriage of water 
  • Water Tanker, Inland Waterways 
    A tanker for the bulk carriage of water which is not suitable for trading in open waters 
  • Water Tanker, Naval Auxiliary 
    A naval auxiliary vessel. Designed for the carriage of bulk water in tanks expressly for naval support 
  • Water White Standard 
    Tank cleaning: Water White Standard means visually clean, dry and odour-free. Wall wash not required.  
  • Water-sensitive 
    Substances which may produce flammable and/or toxic decomposition products upon contact with water. 
  • Water-Soluble or Water-Miscible products 
    Tank Cleaning: Water-Soluble substances and water-miscible substances are easy to clean with water, and the solubility of the substances might increase at higher temperatures. The use of a cleaning agent is only advisable for reduction of the cleaning tim
  • Waterline 
    A line painted on a hull which shows the point to which a ship sinks when it is properly trimmed 
  • Wax 
    A mixture of long chain hydrocarbons that crystallize at different temperatures as the overall fluid temperature falls. 
  • Wax Content 
    A synonym for paraffins content most frequently applied to catalytic cracker feedstocks. A high wax, or paraffins, content makes a residue of gasoil more susceptible to cracking. 
  • Waxes 
    Waxes are esters of fatty acids combined with long-chain alcohols. The fatty acids are usually straightchain, saturated or monunsaturated compounds containing up to thirty carbon atoms. The alcohols are usually saturated, long-chain primary alcohols. Wax
  • Waxy 
  • Waxy paraffinic crude oil 
    A crude oil which, by function of its total wax content, requires heating to prevent sludge deposition during transportation and discharge. 
  • Way 
    Movement of a ship through water such as headway, sternway or leeway 
  • WB 
    Water Ballast or Waybill or Westbound 
  • WBT 
    Water Ballast Tank 
  • WC 
    West coast 
  • WCA 
    West Coast Africa 
    Whether (in) customs cleared (clearance) or not 
  • WCCON 
    Whether Customs Cleared Or Not 
  • WCD 
    Worst Case Discharge 
  • WCDC 
    Wind and Current Drag Coefficient Task Group 
  • WCI 
    West Coast India 
  • WCMEX 
    West Coast Mexico 
  • WCNA 
    West Coast of North America 
  • WCSA 
    West Coast South America 
  • WCUK 
    West Coast United Kingdom 
  • WCUS 
    West Coast United States 
  • WCYO 
    What Can You Offer 
  • WCYP 
    What Can You Propose 
  • WD 
    Working days 
  • WE/EI 
    West Britain/East Ireland 
  • Weapons Trials Vessel 
    A naval auxiliary vessel for testing and conducting trails on any weapon systems 
  • Weather Permitting 
    The term used in voyage charter language to signify that laytime does not count when weather conditions do not allow cargo operations to be carried out. 
  • Weather Working Day 
    WEATHER WORKING DAY shall mean a Working Day or part of a Working Day during which it is or, if the Vessel is still waiting for her turn, it would be possible to load/discharge the cargo without interruption due to the weather. If such interruption occurs
  • Weather Working Day of 24 consecutive hours 
    WEATHER WORKING DAY OF 24 CONSECUTIVE HOURS shall mean a Working Day or part of a Working Day of 24 consecutive hours during which it is or, if the vessel is still waiting for her turn, it would be possible to load/discharge the cargo without interruption
  • Weather Working Day of 24 Hours 
    WEATHER WORKING DAY OF 24 HOURS shall mean a period of 24 hours made up of one or more Working Days during which it is or, if the Vessel is still waiting for her turn, it would be possible to load/discharge the cargo without interruption due to the weathe
    Whether entered customs clearance or not 
    Whether entered customs house or not 
  • WECON 
    Whether entered (in) Customs of not 
  • Weight Cargo 
    A cargo on which the transportation charge is assessed on the basis of weight. 
    Coal charter party 
  • Well Car 
    Also known as stack car. A drop–frame rail flat car. 
  • Well Stimulation Vessel 
    A vessel primarily equipped to maximize oil production from a well 
  • WEST 
    Western Europe 
  • Wet Barrel 
    Physical product. The trade distinguishes material promptly available, wet barrels, from future or paper availabilities. 
  • WFA 
    With following alterations 
  • WG 
    Weight guaranteed 
  • WGT 
  • Whale Catcher 
    A vessel equipped for catching whales 
  • Wharf 
    A waterside structure, usually parallel to the waterway bank, at which a vessel may be berthed alongside from which cargo or passengers can be loaded or discharged. A pier or dock built on the shore of a harbor, river, or canal. 
  • WHD 
    Working Hatch per Day 
  • WHF 
  • Whfge 
    Wharfage: Charge assessed by a pier or dock owner against freight handled over the pier or dock or against a steamship company using the pier or dock. 
  • WHO 
    World Health Organization 
  • Whole Naphtha 
    A distillation cut which spans the entire boiling range commonly designated as naphtha. This full-range product contains the fractions separable into light naphtha and heavy naphtha. Its initial boiling point can commonly fall between 90 and 100 F and its
  • WHSE 
  • WHT 
  • WHTC 
    Wordscale hours, terms and conditions 
  • WIBON 
    Whether In Berth Or Not. Shall mean that if the designated loading or discharging Berth is not available on arrival, the Vessel on reaching any usual waiting place at the Port, shall be entitled to tender Notice of Readiness from it and Laytime shall comm
    Whether in cargo clearance or not 
    Whether In Free Practique or Not 
  • Wind Turbine Installation Vessel 
    A vessel equipped for the installation of wind turbines in shallow waters 
  • Wind Turbine Installation Vessel (semi sub) 
    A semi submersible vessel equipped for the installation of wind turbines in shallow waters 
  • Wind Turbine Vessel 
    A vessel fitted with wind turbines to generate electricity 
  • Windfall 
    A sudden unexpected rush of wind from a mountainous shore which allowed a ship more leeway. 
  • Windward 
    Toward the direction from which the wind is coming 
  • Windy Booking 
    A freight booking made by a shipper or freight forwarder to reserve space but not actually having a specific cargo at the time the booking is made. Carriers often overbook a vessel by 10 to 20 percent in recognition that “windy booking” cargo will not act
  • Wine Tanker 
    A cargo ship designed for the bulk transport of Wine in tanks. Tanks will be stainless steel or lined. New vessels will be classified as chemical carriers 
  • Wing In Ground Effect Vessel 
    A vessel designed to run at high speed using foils to create an air cushion raising the vessel just off the waters surface 
  • Wingwall 
    usually acts as a retaining wall or as a support for an abutment. 
  • Winterization 
    Some crude edible oils, especially those obtained by solvent extraction, contain among their non-oil components traces of wax from the seed coat which tend to give the oil a cloudy appearance. In addition, some liquid oils have a small content of high mel
  • WIPON 
    Whether in Port Or Not. Shall mean that if the designated loading or discharging Berth and the usual waiting place at the Port are not available on arrival, the Vessel shall be entitled to tender Notice of Readiness from any recognised waiting place off t
  • WITA 
    WIng TAnk 
  • WITA or WT 
    Wing Tank 
  • Without Recourse 
    A phrase preceding the signature of a drawer or endorser of a negotiable instrument; signifies that the instrument is passed onto subsequent holders without any liability to the endorser in the event of nonpayment or nondelivery. 
  • WIWL 
    within institute warrant limit 
  • WL 
  • WLTHC 
    Waterline to top of hatch coaming 
  • WLTM 
    Water level to manifold 
    Water Line-To-Hatch Coaming 
  • WM or W/M 
    Weight or Measurement: The basis for assessing freight charges. Also known as “worm.” The rate charged under W/M will be whichever produces the highest revenue between the weight of the shipment and the measure of the shipment. The comparison is based on
  • WMED 
    West Mediterranean 
  • WMO 
    World Meterological Organisation 
  • WNA 
    Winter North Atlantic (loadline) 
  • WO 
    Written off 
  • WOB 
    Washed overboard 
  • WOG 
    Without Guarantee or With Other Goods 
  • Wood Chips Carrier, self unloading 
    A single deck cargo vessel with high freeboard for the carriage of wood chips. May be self discharging 
  • Work/Maintenance Pontoon, non propelled  
    A non propelled pontoon used for working or maintenance functions 
  • Work/Repair Vessel 
    A multi functional vessel for general work and repair operations 
  • Working Copy 
    (Copy of Charter Party - not being signed and may contain unchecked errors 
  • Working Day 
    WORKING DAY shall mean a Day when by local law or practice work is normally carried out. 
  • World Scale 
    First introduced during World War II, and subsequently developed and refined, world scale is a system whereby a tanker can obtain the same net return per day at the same world scale percentage regardless of the voyage actually undertaken. 
  • Worldscale 
    Worldwide Tanker Nominal Freight Scale. Worldscale Association, a shipping industry group, publishes a lengthy schedule of rates for popular tanker voyages. The printed figures, called World scale 100's, reflect application of tanker operating cost assump
  • WP 
    Weather Permitting or Without Prejudice 
  • WPA 
    With particular average 
  • WPD 
    Weather Permitting Day 
  • WR 
    Warehouse Receipt or Without Responsibility 
  • WRD 
    Wide Range Destillate 
  • WRIC 
    Wire Rods In Coils 
  • WRO 
    War risk only 
  • WRTD 
    Without reference to date 
  • WS 
    World scale 
  • WSHTC 
    Within Vessel's Natural Segregation 
  • WSHTC 
    Worldscale Hours Terms and Conditions 
  • WSIM 
    Water Separation Index Modified. See WATER REACTION. 
  • WSNP 
    Weather And Safe Navigation Permitting 
  • WT 
    Wing tank (OCIMF acronym) 
  • WTBA 
    Wording to be agreed 
  • WTF 
    West Terminal Forum 
  • WTI 
    West Texas Intermediate - A type of crude oil which is normally referenced in Western reports on oil prices 
  • WTL 
    Western Truck Lines. 
  • WTO 
    World Trade Organization 
  • WTS 
    Working time saved 
  • WTSBE 
    Working time saved both ends 
    Working time saved both ends 
  • WTY 
  • WVNS 
    Within vessels natural segregation 
  • WW 
    World Wide or Weather working 
    Worldwide and always within Institute Warranty Limits 
  • WWD 
    Weather Working Day 
    Weather working days, Sundays and holidays excluded 
  • WWF 
    Australian Waterside Workers Federation 
  • WWR 
    When, Where, Ready 
  • WWWW 
  • X-Whse 
  • Xylene 
    Xylene, a colorless liquid, is an aromatic hydrocarbon of which there are several forms. Xylenes are used as solvents, as components of aviation fuel, and as raw materials for the manufacture of dyes, fibers and films. Of the different forms of xylenes, p
  • Y/A 
    York/Antwerp (rules) 
  • YAR 
    York-Antwerp Rules 
  • Yard 
    Shipyard at which vessels are built. 
  • Yaw 
    A temporary swing off course by a vessel, usually because of waves, but may be caused by poor steering, currents, or wind. The horizontal angular deviation of a vessel’s longitudinal axis from the desired line of track. The angular, oscillatory motion (ro
  • Yawing 
    Ship Stability: is when the vessel rotates about the vertical (up-down) axis 
  • YB 
    Yellow Book - onboard the ships on management  
  • Yield 
    The quantity andor quality of derivatives a process can make, or actually makes, from a feedstock or raw material. The industry speaks of gasoline yields from CRUDE; ethylene yields from naphtha, VGO yields from long residue, light products yields from ca
  • Yield slate 
    The breakdown of various derivatives from processing a feedstock or raw material. Typical yield slates could list the quantities of various fuels made from a grade of crude in a certain type of refinery, or basic petrochemicals from steam cracking a parti
  • Zulu (Greenwich Mean Time) 
  • Zone Time 
    The local time zone for any longitude, as opposed to and usually expressed as a deviation from Greenwich Mean time (+1, -5, etc.). 
  • ZUTC 
    Zulu (Greenwich Mean Time) 
  • 1/2 SB 
    One or two safe berth(s) 
  • 1/2 SP 
    One or two safe port(s) 
  • 4 X W or WWWW 
  • Benzene Ring 
    6 carbon atoms in the form of a ring structure with a hydrogen atom attached to each carbon and is the basic building block of all aromatic chemicals 
  • Class 2 [Deck] 
    1st Mate, Chief Mate or Chief Officer: Entitles the holder to act as Chief Mate on a ship of any size with unlimited trading or may entitle the holder to act as Master on a ship but with restrictions on size or trading area. 
  • Class 2 [Engineer] 
    2nd Engineer: Entitles the holder to sail as Second Engineer on a ship of any power but may also entitle the holder to act as Chief Engineer on a ship with a restriction on power. 
  • Class 3 [Deck] 
    2nd Mate: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of a navigational watch on a ship of any size with unlimited trading but may also entitle the holder to act as Chief Mate, or possibly Master, on a ship but with restrictions on size or trading are
  • Class 3 [Engineer] 
    3rd Engineer: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of an engineering watch on a ship of any power but may also entitle the holder to act as Second Engineer, or possibly Chief Engineer, on a ship with a restriction on power. 
  • Class 4 [Deck] 
    3rd Mate: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of a navigational watch on any ship. 
  • Class 4 [Engineer] 
    4th Engineer: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of an engineering watch on a ship of any power. 
  • Cubic Foot 
    1,728 cubic inches. A volume contained in a space measuring one foot high, one foot wide and one foot long. 
  • Ethyl hexanol 
    2-Ethyl hexanol (2EH) is an higher aliphatic alcohol.. 2EH is also used as a solvent and has a particular niche use in the formation of lacquers and coatings when slow evaporation is desired