Glossary

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GLOSSARY INDEX

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ABBREVIATION
DEFINITION
  • Absolute Viscosity 
    An observation of liquid's rate of flow under pressure applied to neutralize density's influence. This property, sometimes called dynamic viscosity, converts to kinematical viscosity by division. With density ex-pressed in gramscm, centistokes the units o
  • ACGIH 
    American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. This organization includes professionals in government and education involved in occupational safety and health programs. One important function of this group is the determination and publication
  • Acrylic esters 
    When polymerized, acrylic esters, esters derived from acrylic acid, are the film-forming components of acrylic paints, coatings, textiles, adhesives, plastics and other applications.  
  • Activity 
    The level of catalyst's ability to do its work. The scale descends from fresh (full capacity right from the box or rejuvenator) to spent (coated, poisoned, or other wise neutralized.) 
  • Acute Effects of Overexposure 
    Refers to the adverse effects that normally are evident immediately or shortly after exposure to a hazardous material without implying a degree of severity 
  • Aframax Tanker 
    A vessel of 70,000 to 119,000 DWT capacity. The largest tanker size in the AFRA (average freight rate assessment) tanker rate system. 
  • Agt. 
    Agent: A person authorized to transact business for and in the name of another person or company. Types of agents are: (1) brokers (2) commission merchants (3) resident buyers (4) sales agents (5) manufacturer’s representatives 
  • Alkyl benzene 
    One of the most important organic raw material for the production of synthetic detergents. 
  • Alkylphenol 
    Alkylphenol is produced using phenol as a starting material. It is mainly used as a stabilizer for rubbers and plastics, as a surfactant, as an industrial detergent, and in the mining and textile industries. 
  • American Bureau of Shipping 
    U.S. classification society which certifies seagoing vessels for compliance to standardized rules regarding construction and maintenance. 
  • Anthracene 
    Anthracene is a solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon consisting of three benzene rings derived from coal tar. Anthracene is used in the artificial production of the red dye alizarin. It is also found in some coal tar oils which are used for example as wo
  • Anti–Dumping Duty 
    A tariff imposed to discourage sale of foreign goods, subsidized to sell at low prices detrimental to local manufacturers. 
  • Appraiser’s Stores 
    The warehouse or public stores to which samples of imported goods are taken to be inspected, analyzed, weighed, etc. by examiners or appraisers. 
  • AQ 
    Any Quantity: Usually refers to a rating that applies to an article regardless of size or quantity. 
  • ARAZ 
    Antwerp - Rotterdam - Amsterdam - Zeebrugge range 
  • Aromatics 
    A family of hydrocarbons characterized by a single or multiple ring structure containing unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds. Common aromatics which boil in the gasoline range (benzene, toluene, and xylenes, in particular) have a very high octane rating. Refo
  • ASTM 
    American Society for Testing and Materials. An organization which determines and publishes consensus standards of suitability and quality for a wide variety of materials including petroleum and refined products. ASTM develops and endorses methods of testi
  • Barge lots 
    Quantities of petroleum product accommodated in the sizes of barges in common use in a particular area. This term usually applies to small (less than cargo-size) volumes of product intended for regional distribution. On the US Gulf Coast, for instance, pe
  • BE 
    Benzene or Both ends 
  • Benzene 
    Benzene is the simplest aromatic compound, with a ring of six carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms. It is a colorless liquid occurring naturally in fossil raw materials such as crude oil and coal, produced during processing of petroleum liquids and through
  • Benzene Ring 
    6 carbon atoms in the form of a ring structure with a hydrogen atom attached to each carbon and is the basic building block of all aromatic chemicals 
  • BHF 
    Bulk harmless fertilizers 
  • Biodegradation 
    The transformation of a material resulting from the complex enzymatic action of microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, fungi). It usually leads to disappearance of the parent structure and to the formation of smaller chemical species, some of which are used for
  • Blender 
    someone or some organization which combines various components to produce motor gasoline. The term may accurately apply to refiners for they blend motor fuel from blendstock they produce or purchase. In many cases, however, the word designates gasoline ma
  • Boat 
    A relatively small, usually open craft/vessel a small, often open vessel for traveling on waterAn inland vessel of any size. 
  • Bollard pull 
    The thrust developed at zero ahead speed. Bollard pull is the most commonly used measure of ship-assist tugs performance which have propellers optimized for maximum thrust at close to zero speed. 
  • Bonded Warehouse 
    A warehouse authorized by Customs authorities for storage of goods on which payment of duties is deferred until the goods are removed. 
  • Bottoms 
    Unvaporized material drawn from the lowest point of a fractionation column. 
  • BPA 
    Bisphenol A. An industrial chemical used to make polycarbonate plastic used for structural parts, impact-resistant glazing, street-light globes, household appliance parts, components of electrical/electronic devices, compact discs, automotive applications
  • BR 
    Bulgarian Register of Shipping or Brazil or Builder's risk 
  • Break Bulk 
    – To unload and distribute a portion or all of the contents of a rail car, container, trailer, or ship. – Loose, non–containerized mark and count cargo. – Packaged cargo that is not containerized. 
  • Bright annealing 
    Annealing in inert gas or vacuum to minimize oxidation of the surface 
  • BTX 
    Abbreviation of the aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene and xylene 
  • BTX extraction 
    A solvent recovery process for capturing benzene, toluene, and xylenes from refinery and petrochemical plant process streams (reformate and pyrolysis gasoline.) 
  • BUNDLING 
    This is the assembly of pieces of cargo, secured into one manageable unit. This is a very flexible description, a rule of thumb is to present cargo at a size easily handled by a large (20 ton) fork lift truck 
  • Bureau Veritas 
    A French classification society which certifies seagoing vessels for compliance to standardized rules regarding construction and maintenance. 
  • Butyl rubbers 
    Butyl rubbers are a type of synthetic rubber prepared by polymerization of butylenes. They are a preferred option in the manufacture of automobile tires thanks to their leak-proof qualities. 
  • BZNSS 
    Business 
  • Capesize 
    Capesize vessels are typically above 150,000 long tons deadweight (DWT). Capesize ships are cargo ships originally too large to transit the Suez Canal (i.e., larger than both Panamax and Suezmax vessels). To travel between oceans, such vessels used to hav
  • Capesize Vessel 
    A dry bulk vessel above 80,000dwt or whose beam precludes passage via the Panama Canal and thus forces them to pass around Cape Horn or the Cape of Good Hope. 
  • Caprolactam 
    One of the ingredients that are used to synthesize the most common nylon. Caprolactam is made from phenol. 
  • Cash in Advance (CIA) 
    A method of payment for goods in which the buyer pays the seller in advance of the shipment of goods. Usually employed when the goods, such as specialized machinery, are built to order. 
  • Castor Oik 
    Oil from Ricinus communis produced mainly in India, Brazil and China. Castor oil differs from all other common oils in being rich (~90%) in the hydroxyl acid, ricinoleic. Castor oil is a source of several important oleochemicals including Turkey-red oil,
  • Centigrade degrees (C) 
    Also known as Celsius degrees. A temperature scale according to which water boils at 100 and freezes at 0. Centigrade, or Celsius, degrees convert to Fahrenheit degrees by the following formula: (C x 1.8) + 32=F. 
  • Charter, Time 
    The chartering of a vessel for a fixed period of time with the vessel delivering and re-delivering at agreed dates and at agreed zones or places though usually with an option to the Charterer to extend the period of charter. It is really a contract for t 
  • ChE inhibitor 
    Cholinesterase inhibitor. A substance which produces inhibition of the cholinesterase group of enzymes, that play a vital role in nerve impulse transmission and other biological functions. Also known as anticholinesterase. 
  • Chemical oxygen demand 
    When organic materials are not easily degraded by microorganisms, strong oxidizing agents (e.g., potassium permanganate) are used to enhance oxidation. COD is thus measured instead of BOD (see BOD). COD values will be larger than BOD values. 
  • Chlorobenzene 
    A colorless, liquid organic compound used as a solvent and starting material for the manufacture of other organic compounds, such as phenol. 
  • Chronic Effects of Overexposure 
    The adverse effects that develop slowly over a long period of time or upon repeated prolong exposure to a hazardous material without implying a degree of severity 
  • CIP 
    Carriage and Insurance Paid to (named place of destination) The containerized transport/multimodal equivalent of CIF. Seller pays for carriage and insurance to the named destination point, but risk passes when the goods are handed over to the first carrie
  • Class 1 [Deck] 
    Master or Captain: Entitles the holder to act as Master on a ship of any size, with unlimited trading range. 
  • Class 2 [Deck] 
    1st Mate, Chief Mate or Chief Officer: Entitles the holder to act as Chief Mate on a ship of any size with unlimited trading or may entitle the holder to act as Master on a ship but with restrictions on size or trading area. 
  • Class 3 [Deck] 
    2nd Mate: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of a navigational watch on a ship of any size with unlimited trading but may also entitle the holder to act as Chief Mate, or possibly Master, on a ship but with restrictions on size or trading are
  • Classification Society 
    An organization maintained for the surveying and classing of ships so that insurance underwriters and others may know the quality and condition of the vessels offered for insurance or employment. See also ABS, BV, DNV, LR and NK. 
  • Clearance Limits 
    The size beyond which cars or loads cannot use bridges, tunnels, etc. 
  • Clingage 
    Material which adheres to the surface of tank walls and structures, both horizontal and vertical, within empty and part empty tanks, other than bottom surfaces. 
  • CMO 
    Common Market Organization 
  • Coal tar 
    Coal tar is a principal liquid product resulting from the carbonization of coal, i.e. the heating of coal in the absence of air at temperatures ranging from about 900º to 1,200ºC (1,650º to 2,200ºF). Many commercially important compounds are derived from
  • Cold zone 
    Area where the command post and support functions that are necessary to control the incident are located. This is also referred to as the clean zone or support zone in other documents. (NFPA 472) 
  • Combination carriers 
    Vessels fitted to transport more than one type of cargo. The petroleum industry uses a good-sized fleet of OBO's, ships which transport dry cargo or oil. 
  • Commodity 
    Article shipped. For dangerous and hazardous cargo, the correct commodity identification is critical. 
  • CONCAWE 
    The Oil Companies' European Organization for Environment, Health and Safety 
  • Container Booking 
    Arrangements with a steamship line to transport containerized cargo. 
  • Container Load 
    A load sufficient in size to fill a container either by cubic measurement or by weight. 
  • Container Security Initiative (CSI) 
    A U.S. cargo security program whereby containerized cargoes destined for the United States may be inspected on a selective basis at many foreign ports before loading on a vessel. As of October 2007, there were 51 approved ports. A multinational program, a
  • Container Yard (CY) 
    A materials–handling/storage facility used for completely unitized loads in containers and/or empty containers. Commonly referred to as CY. 
  • Containerizable Cargo 
    Cargo that will fit into a container and result in an economical shipment. 
  • Containerization 
    Stowage of general or special cargoes in a container for transport in the various modes. 
  • Contract 
    A legally binding agreement between two or more persons/organizations to carry out reciprocal ob- ligations or value. 
  • Control zones 
    Designated areas at dangerous goods incidents, based on safety and the degree of hazard. Many terms are used to describe control zones; however, in this guidebook, these zones are defined as the hot, warm, and cold zones. (NFPA 472) 
  • Conventional Tanker 
    Crude tankers used for deep sea transportation of unrefined oil from producing countries to refineries, ranging in size from 55,000 to 500,000 deadweight tonnes. 
  • Convulsant 
    A material which causes seizures. 
  • Corn Oil 
    Corn oil is obtained from the germ of the corn (or maize) cob, the germ being separated as a byproduct from the manufacture of starch from corn. The corn oil is extracted from the germ and, after refining, it has a number of uses such as frying and as a g
  • Crevice corrosion 
    Localized corrosion associated with, and taking place in, or immediately around, a narrow aperture or clearance formed between the metal surface and another surface (metallic or non-metallic) 
  • Crystallization  
    A substance can exist in three states, namely gaseous, liquid and solid states. When a liquid is cooled sufficiently, it solidifies and the process is called crystallisation. Crystallisation is the formation of crystals from a melt or a solution. The proc
  • Cumene 
    Cumene is an aromatic derived from benzene and used in turn to produce polycarbonates, phenolic resins and essential healthcare products such as aspirin and penicillin. 
  • Customs Bonded Warehouse 
    A warehouse authorized by Customs to receive duty–free merchandise. 
  • Cutaneous Hazards 
    Chemicals which affect the skin. Signs and symptoms are defatting the skin, rashes, irritation 
  • Cyclohexane 
    Cyclohexane is an aromatic derived from benzene used as an intermediate to produce nylon. 
  • D&H 
    Dangerous and Hazardous (cargo) 
  • DDC 
    Destination Delivery Charge: A charge, based on container size, that is applied in many tariffs to cargo. This charge is considered accessorial and is added to the base ocean freight. This charge covers crane lifts off the vessel, drayage of the container
  • Deconsolidation Point 
    Place where loose or other non–containerized cargo is ungrouped for delivery. 
  • Deodorization 
    Deodorisation is the removal of those trace components, present in all edible oils, which give rise to odours and flavours. Accomplished by the application of heat, steam and vacuum, deodorisation should be the final stage of treatment before packing or d
  • Destination Control Statements 
    Various statements that the U.S. government requires to be displayed on export shipments. The statements specify the authorized destinations. 
  • Det Norske Veritas 
    A Norwegian classification society which certifies seagoing vessels for compliance to standardized rules regarding construction and maintenance. 
  • Dibasic Acids 
    Refers to acids with two carboxyl groups, of which the most common have the general structure HOOC(CH2)nCOOH. They include (value of n in parenthesis): oxalic* (0), malonic* (1), succinic* (2), glutaric* (3), adipic* (4), suberic* (6), azelaic (7), sebaci
  • Diethylene glycol 
    Diethylene glycol is a colorless liquid used as a solvent and in the manufacture of unsaturated polyester resins, polyurethanes and plasticizers. 
  • Dirty Tanker 
    MR 25-60 Panamax 60-80  Aframax 80-120 Suezmax 120-180  VLCC 180-350  ULCC 350 and up 
  • Drying Oils 
    Oils that have the ability to polymerize or "dry" by oxidation after they have been applied to a surface to form tough, adherent, impervious and abrasive resistant film. Their film forming properties are closely related to their degree of unsaturation. Ty
  • ECPI 
    European Council for Plasticizers and Intermediates, a sector group of Cefic. 
  • Elastomer 
    A polymer that forms a disorganized molecular pile capable of uncoiling and recoiling in response to physical force and its removal. This ability to yield and recover makes a substance rubbery. Industry turns molecules into flexible, strectchable, compres
  • Enviro Return Management 
    System for legal and environment-friendly management of used ozone-depleting refrigerants  
  • EO 
    Ethylene Oxide. A chemical intermediate used in the manufacture of glycol ethers, ethoxylates and ethylene glycol. Ethylene oxide derivatives have a wide range of applications, from detergents and cosmetics to antifreeze; they are also used in the manufac
  • Equalization 
    A monetary allowance to the customer for picking up or delivering at a point other than the destination shown on the bill of lading. This provision is covered by tariff publication. 
  • ESPA 
    European Stabilizers Producers Association, a sector group of Cefic. 
  • ESPH 
    Evaluation of Safety and Pollution Hazards 
  • Ethane 
    A gaseous hydrocarbon, the second most important constituent of natural gas, it also occurs dissolved in petroleum oils and as a by-product of oil refinery operations and of the carbonization of coal. Ethane is a major raw material for the huge ethylene p
  • Ethylbenzene 
    Ethylbenzene is formed by combination of ethylene and benzene, and is then dehydrogenated to styrene for use in the production of plastics and synthetic rubber. For more information click website. 
  • EURATEX 
    European Apparel and Textile Organization 
  • Evaporation Rate 
    The rate at which a product will vaporize when compared to the rate of vaporization of a known material (usually Butyl Acetate with rate designated as 1.0). Evaporation rate can be useful in evaluating the health and fire hazards of a material. Rates are
  • Fahrenheit degrees (F) 
    A temperature scale according to which water boils at 212 and freezes at 32 Fahrenheit degrees convert to Centigrade degrees (C) by the following formula: (F-32)1.8= C. 
  • FCS 
    Fresh of capture and seizure 
  • FCSRCC 
    Free of capture seizure riots and civilcommotions 
  • Fertilizer 
    Substance that adds inorganic or organic plant nutrients to soil and improves its ability to grow crops, trees, or other vegetation. 
  • FERTS 
    Fertilizers 
  • Foreign Trade Zone 
    A free port in a country divorced from Customs authority but under government control. Merchan- dise, except that which is prohibited, may be stored in the zone without being subject to import duty regulations. 
  • Free Port 
    A restricted area at a seaport for the handling of duty–exempted import goods. Also called a Foreign Trade Zone. 
  • Free Trade Zone 
    A port designated by the government of a country for duty–free entry of any non–prohibited goods. Merchandise may be stored, displayed, used for manufacturing, etc., within the zone and re–exported without duties. 
  • Freezing point 
    The temperature where aviation kerosene must remain free of wax crystals. These particles can clog jet engine fuel filters and nozzles. This specification, therefore, indicates the suitability of kerosene for propelling aeroplanes into the cold air at hig
  • gamazymes 
    Bioactive cleaning agents used in galleys, crew quarters and passenger sections on cruise liners 
  • GE 
    Glycol Ether. Manufactured from either propylene oxide or ethylene oxide reacted with an alcohol. They are mainly used as solvents, plasticizers and brake fluids. 
  • Geared Bulk Carriers 
    Typically in the handysize to handymax size range although there are a small number of geared panamax vessels, like all bulkers they feature a series of holds covered by prominent hatch covers. They have cranes, derricks or conveyors that allow them to lo
  • Gearless Carriers 
    Bulkers without cranes or conveyors. These ships depend on shore-based equipment at their ports of call for loading and discharging. They range across all sizes, the larger bulk carriers (VLOCs) can only dock at the largest ports, some of these are design
  • General Purpose Tanker 
    Tanker ranging in size between 10,000-24,999 DWT 
  • GSSL 
    Ports of Genoa, Savona, Spezia or Leghorn 
  • GSSLNCV 
    Ports of Genoa, Savona, Spezia, Leghorn, Naples, Civetta or Vecchia 
  • GZ 
    Ship Stability: Symbol for righting arm; horizontal distance measured between the vertical lines of forces between G and B. GZ is measured horizontally from G to a point of intersection of the upward line of force from B at a point labeled Z. 
  • Hague Rules 
    A multilateral maritime treaty adopted in 1921 (at The Hague, Netherlands). Standardizes liability of an international carrier under the Ocean B/L. Establishes a legal “floor” for B/L. See COGSA 
  • Halon 
    Previously used on ships as an effective fire-extinguishing medium, harmful to the ozone layer in the atmosphere 
  • Handy-sized vessel 
    A tankship suited to tie up at a T2 type pier. The mooring capacity of such berths restricts vessel length (LOA) to a maximum of 560-600 feet. In modern ship designs, this LOA allows a deadweight tonnage slightly exceeding 30,000. Such a tanker defines th
  • Handysize 
    Usually refers to a dry bulk vessel with deadweight of about 15,000–35,000 tons. The most common industry-standard specification handysize bulker is now about 32,000 metric tons of deadweight on a summer draft of about 10 metres (33 ft), and features 5 ca
  • Handysize Tanker 
    A product tanker that ranges in size between 27,000 and 39,999 deadweight tonnes. 
  • Harbor and Ship Assist Tugs 
    Tugboats are designed to be powerful enough to push and pull objects many times their size. Harbor tugs are essential in every port to help maneuver large ships through narrow harbors and to assist them in docking and undocking from confined spaces. Harbo
  • Harmonized System of Codes (HS) 
    An international goods classification system for describing cargo in international trade under a single commodity–coding scheme. Developed under the auspices of the Customs Cooperations Council (CCC), an international Customs organization in Brussels, thi
  • HAZ MAT 
    Hazardous Material 
  • Hazard 
    The hazard associated with a chemical is its intrinsic ability to cause an adverse effect. It should be compared to risk, which is the chance that such effects will occur. Whilst a chemical may have hazardous properties, provided it is handled safely unde
  • Hazardous Chemical 
    Any chemical that is a physical (i.e. -flammable, reactive) or health (i.e. irritant, carcinogen) hazard 
  • HBF 
    Harmless Bulk Fertilizer 
  • Health Hazard 
    A chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees 
  • INCOTERMS 
    The recognized abbreviation for the International Chamber of Commerce Terms of Sale. These terms were last amended, effective July 1, 1990. 
  • Independent surveyors 
    The inspection and testing organizations hired by petroleum companies to determine how much and what quality of oil changed hands in performance on a deal. In the interest of impartiality, buyers and sellers usually share the cost of inspections. 
  • Inland Barge Tow 
    Towboats push barges on the nation's inland waterways loaded with materials and products that are the building blocks of America's economy - coal, grain, petroleum products, petrochemicals, fertilizers, sand, gravel, metal scrap, etc. One tow can be compr
  • INMARSAT 
    International Maritime Satellite (organization): An international telecommunications company founded in 1979, originally as an intergovernmental organization. It operates a fleet of telecommunications satellites 
  • Integrated oil companies 
    Organizations which find, produce, transport, and refine oil, and market oil products. Less complete enterprises concentrate on a part of this sequence. The industry calls its largest integrated companies the majors. 
  • Interesterication  
    A term given to the production of esters by interaction of two esters in the presence of an alkaline or enzymatic catalyst. 
  • Invoice 
    An itemized list of goods shipped to a buyer, stating quantities, prices, shipping charges, etc. 
  • ISO 
    Instead of or International Standard Organization 
  • ISO 14001 
    Provides standards on how to manage a company''s activities in a way that minimizes harm to the environment. 
  • Isomerate 
    The motor gasoline blendstock made by a C5-C6 isomerization unit. 
  • Isomerzation 
    A process which forces one isomer to become another. The most common application in the oil industry involves twisting linear paraffins into branched-chain form. Many refiners turn into isobutane, and a normal pentane hexane stream into an isopentaneisohe
  • Latex (pl. latices) 
    A water emulsion of a synthetic rubber or plastic obtained by polymerization and used especially in coatings, paints and adhesives. Latices include a binder dispersed in the water and form films by fusion of the plastic particles as the water evaporates.
  • LC-50 
    Lethal Concentration 50. This concentration of a hazardous material in air is expected to kill 50% of a group of test animals when given as a single respiratory exposure in a specific time period 
  • LCI 
    Lambert’s Capesize Index 
  • LD-50 
    Lethal Dose 50. The single dose, other than inhalation, that causes death in 50% of an animal population from exposure to a hazardous substance. 
  • Let the Cat Out of the Bag 
    In the Royal Navy the punishment prescribed for most serious crimes was flogging. This was administered by the Bosun's Mate using a whip called a cat o' nine tails. The "cat" was kept in a leather or baize bag. It was considered bad news indeed when the c
  • Letter of Credit (LC) 
    A document, issued by a bank per instructions by a buyer of goods, authorizing the seller to draw a specified sum of money under specified terms, usually the receipt by the bank of certain documents within a given time. 
  • Lloyds’ Registry 
    An organization maintained for the surveying and classing of ships so that insurance underwriters and others may know the quality and condition of the vessels offered for insurance or employment. 
  • LNG Carriers 
    Liquefied Natural Gas Carriers - Specialized ships that carry super-cooled liquefied natural gas. 
  • Localized Corrosion 
    Corrosion preferentially concentrated on discrete sites of the metal surface exposed to the corrosive environment 
  • Locks 
    Tows must navigate through locks in order to get around dams on the rivers. Many locks on the nation's waterways are now over 60 years old and are too small to accommodate the size of the modern tows, forcing those tows to be broken up and taken through t
  • Long Shot 
    In old warships, the muzzle-loading cannon were charged with black powder of uncertain potency that would propel the iron shot an equally uncertain distance with doubtful accuracy. A 24-pounder long gun, for instance, was considered to have a maximum effe
  • LR1 Tanker 
    Long Range 1 (LR1) Tanker - Product tanker ranging in size between 45,000 and 79,999 deadweight tonnes. Main trade routes are Middle East Gulf to the Far East and Europe, or from northwest Europe to the United States. 
  • LR2 Tanker 
    Long Range 2 (LR2) Tanker - Product tanker ranging in size from 80,000 to 159,999 deadweight tonnes. Main trade routes are Middle East Gulf to the Far East and Europe, or from northwest Europe to the United States. The LR2 segment consists of the largest
  • MAK 
    Maximale ArbeitsplatzKonzentrationen (maximal occupational exposure concentrations) 
  • Malaccamax  
    Malaccamax is a naval architecture term for the largest size of ship capable of fitting through the 25 metres (82 ft)-deep Strait of Malacca. 
  • Marpol Category 
    The Pollution Category (X, Y, Z) assigned to each product under Annex II of MARPOL 73/78. OS means the product was evaluated, and found to fall outside the categories X, Y, or Z. I indicates that the product is an Annex 1 product. 
  • MARPOL Pollution Category 
    This refers to the pollution categories designated in the “MARPOL 73/78” regulations: X to Z - Pollution category of the cargo as evaluated by MARPOL. “X” means highest environment impact OS - Pollution category is evaluated, but outside categories X to Z
  • Methaemoglobin generator 
    A substance capable of converting the oxygen carrying molecule (haemoglobin) in the red blood cell to an oxidized form (methaemoglobin), which has a reduced capacity to transport oxygen.  
  • Minesweeper 
    A naval vessel equipped for detecting, destroying, removing, or neutralizing explosive marine mines 
  • Montreal Protocol 
    International agreement which aims to protect the ozone layer. Forms part of the UN Environmental Programme (UNEP)  
  • MPG 
    Monopropylene Glycol. Produced by reacting propylene oxide with water. Monopropylene glycol is widely used for its solvent properties in the pharmaceutical, food, flavor and personal care industries. It is more widely used as an anti-freeze/de-icer, grind
  • Naphthenes 
    Hydrocarbon molecules with a carbon ring structure similar to aromatics. Naphthenes have saturated bonds rather than the unsaturated ones which characterize aromatics. Reformers make aromatics, the high-octane components they intend to produce, most easil
  • National Strategy for Maritime Security 
    In December 2004 the President directed the Secretaries of the Department of Defense and Home- land Security to lead the Federal effort to develop a comprehensive National Strategy for Maritime Security, to better integrate and synchronize the existing De
  • Naval Cooperation and Guidance for Shipping (NCAGS) 
    It is a naval organization with members who are trained to establish and provide advice for safe pas- sage of merchant ships worldwide, during times of peace, tension, crisis and war. NCAGS personnel act as a liaison between military commanders and the ci
  • NCP 
    National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan 
  • Neutral Body 
    An organization established by the members of an ocean conference acts as a self–policing force with broad authority to investigate tariff violations, including authority to scrutinize all documents kept by the carriers and their personnel. Violations are
  • Neutralization  
    The reduction of free fatty acids in a crude oil by the action of an alkali solution is ordinarily termed ""neutralisation"". 
  • NFPA 
    National Fire Protection Association. This group of fire protection personnel established a rating system used on many labels of hazardous materials. This label consists of a diamond divided into four sections representing health, flammability, reactivity
  • NGO 
    Non-Governmental Organization 
  • NIOSH 
    National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. This agency of the public Health Service tests and certifies respiratory and air-sampling devices. It recommends to OSHA exposure limits for hazardous substances. It also investigates incidents and res
  • Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (NK) 
    A Japanese classification society which certifies seagoing vessels for compliance to standardized rules regarding construction and maintenance. 
  • Nomenclature of the Customs Cooperation Council 
    The Customs tariff used by most countries worldwide. It was formerly known as the Brussels Tariff Nomenclature and is the basis of the commodity coding system known as the Harmonized System. 
  • Nylon 
    A synthetic plastic material derived from benzene. Nylon can be used to form fibers, filaments, bristles, or sheets to be manufactured into yarn, fabric, and cordage; and it can be formed into moulded products. Nylon is tough, elastic and strong, and it h
  • OHSAS 18001 
    Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series - Provides standards to help a company control occupational health and safety hazards for staff. 
  • Olive Oil 
    Olive oil is obtained from the flesh of the fruit of the olive tree (""Olea Europaea Sativa""). The cultivation of olives in the countries of the Mediterranean basin goes back several thousand years and it remains today a highly prized edible oil used in
  • OPEC 
    Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Includes Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Venezuela. 
  • Operational tolerance 
    Flexibility in the quantity of a stem, usually expressed as a small percentage of the stern's nominal size. This provision makes it easier to find suitable ships to lift crude and products. 
  • Optimum Cube 
    The highest level of cube utilization that can be achieved when loading cargo into a container. 
  • Ore/oil carrier 
    Ship with separate cargo holds for ore cargoes. When the ship is carrying oil, the ore holds may also be filled with oil, in order to utilize the deadweight capacity to the fullest 
  • ORF 
    Owner's risk of fire/freezing 
  • Orthoxylene 
    Orthoxylene is an isomer of mixed xylene. It is primarily used in plasticizers (primarily in flexible polyvinyl chloride - PVC - material), medicines and dyes. 
  • OSRO 
    Oil Spill Removal Organization 
  • Overwhelm 
    Old English for capsize or founder. 
  • Oxidized Oil 
    Deteriorated oil due to attack by atmospheric oxygen which has occurred either during processing or during subsequent storage and transport. The chemical change is gradual and progressive but the effect on quality can be very great. Commonly assayed by pe
  • Oxidizer 
    A chemical which supplies its own oxygen and which helps other combustible material burn more readily. 
  • Oxidizing agent 
    Substance causing oxidation by accepting electrons 
  • Packing List 
    Itemized list of commodities with marks/numbers but no cost values indicated. 
  • PADAG 
    Please Authorize Delivery Against Guarantee: A request from the consignee to the shipper to allow the carrier or agent to release cargo against a guarantee, either bank or personal. Made when the consignee is unable to produce original bills of lading. 
  • Panamax 
    Medium Range Tanker, maximum size possible to pass through the locks of the Panama Canal- designed for carrying bulk crude oil in tanks. (60,000 dwt - 80,000 dwt approx with 32.2m beam limitation) 
  • Panamax Vessel 
    Ships built to maximize capacity within the Panama Canal lock size limits of 950 feet long, 106 feet wide. Design draft is usually no greater than 40 feet and sails no greater than the 39.5 feet canal limit, with deadweights up to 80,000 tons. 
  • Paper Ramp 
    A technical rail ramp, used for equalization of points not actually served. 
  • Parcel tanker 
    A ship fitted to segregate a large number of products. Some of these vessels, called chemical carriers, can handle more than a dozen materials simultaneously. Most of these ships have tanks made of stainless steel or lined with inert, easily cleaned coati
  • Petrochemical 
    An organic compound that has been derived from petroleum or natural gas. There are almost 200 chemicals that can be so described and they include many simple hydrocarbons (e.g. methane, ethane), aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. benzene, toluene), naphthenes an
  • Photosensitizer 
    A substance which is converted in the skin circulation by light into a derivative capable of causing skin sensitization 
  • Phthalate 
    Phthalates, or phthalate esters, are manufactured by the reaction of phthalic anhydride with one of a variety of alcohols ranging from methanol to tridecanol. They are predominantly used as plasticizers to soften the popular plastic PVC and to a lesser ex
  • Physical Hazard 
    A physical hazard is one in which harm could be caused to humans or wildlife as a consequence of the physical properties of chemical, e.g., stickiness or viscosity 
  • PIH 
    Poison Inhalation Hazard. Term used to describe gases and volatile liquids that are toxic when inhaled. 
  • Pit 
    A corroded hollow in a metal surface, caused by localized corrosion (pitting) 
  • Pitting corrosion 
    Localized corrosion resulting in pits, i.e. cavities extending from the surface into the metal 
  • Plasticize 
    The process of creating a solid crystal structure in a fat or oil product resulting in a smooth appearance and firm consistency. 
  • Plasticizer 
    A plasticizer is a substance which when added to a material, usually a plastic, makes it flexible, resilient and easier to handle. Modern plasticizers are manmade organic chemicals; the majority of which are esters, such as adipates and phthalates. They a
  • Plimsoll Mark 
    A series of horizontal lines, corresponding to the seasons of the year and fresh or saltwater, painted on the outside of a ship marking the level which must remain above the surface of the water for the vessel’s stability. 
  • Polyacrylate 
    A family of thermoplastic engineering resins made by the polymerization of an acrylic compound such as methyl methacrylate. 
  • Polycarbonate resins 
    Polycarbonate resins, derived from bisphenol A, are used for structural parts, impact resistant glazing, street-light bulbs, household appliance parts, components of electrical/electronic devices, automotive applications, reusable bottles, and food and dr
  • Polystyrene 
    A solid plastic made from polymerized styrene and used in a wide variety of everyday applications, from coffee cups through to CD jewel boxes.. 
  • Pro Forma Invoice 
    An invoice provided by a supplier prior to the shipment of merchandise, informing the buyer of the kinds and quantities of goods to be sent, their value, and specifications (weight, size, etc.). 
  • Producers 
    Companies, often state organizations, which own oil wells and the crude which flows from them. This category includes a large number of private enterprises. Integrated oil companies and specialists called independent producers develop much of the world's
  • Propylene glycol ethers 
    Propylene glycol ethers are formed from the base catalyzed reaction of propylene oxide with alcohols like methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol or phenol. For further information please see http://www.ethers-de-glycol.org 
  • Protected Waters 
    an area of sheltered waters presenting no special hazards such as most rivers, harbours and lakes, designated by the Administration for the operation of small vessels and where not so designated means an area not more than 3 miles from a safe haven. 
  • Publishing Agent 
    Person authorized by transportation lines to publish tariffs or rates, rules, and regulations for their account. 
  • Pyrolysis gasoline 
    The aromatics-rich naphtha-range stream produced in sizeable quantities by an ethylene plant when it cracks butane, naphtha, or gasoil. Pygas resembles reformate. It can serve as a high-octane blendstock for motor gasoline or as a feedstock for an aromati
  • Quarantine 
    A restraint placed on an operation to protect the public against a health hazard. A ship may be quarantined so that it cannot leave a protected point. During the quarantine period, the Q flag is hoisted. 
  • R.S.V.P. 
    Repondez, s'il vous plait (Please reply) 
  • RCP 
    Federal Region Oil & Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan 
  • Realization 
    Evaluation based on theoretical (often negotiated) estimates of how much money a refiner or petrochemicals producer can make by processing a feedstock. Many netback deals price oil according to a formula which considers the quantity and spot value of prod
  • Redox Potential 
    A measure of the oxidizing ability of a solution. A solution with a high redox potential has a high oxidizing ability 
  • Refining 
    Processing and manufacturing of petroleum products out of crude oil and other hydrocarbons. Refining begins with simple distillation, and then additional processes are done to minimize the production of heavier/lower value products, such as residual fuel
  • Reformate 
    The product of a catalytic reformer. An aromatics-rich high-octane motor or aviation gasoline blendstock. Many refineries route a part of the reformate they produce through aromatics extraction units to recover the benzene, toluene, and xylenes it contain
  • Reforming 
    The thermal or catalytic conversion of petroleum naphtha into more volatile products of higher octane number. It represents the total effect of numerous simultaneous reactions such as cracking, polymerization, dehydrogenation, and isomerisation. 
  • Refrigerants 
    Used in refrigeration and freezing plants 
  • Reg (EC) 2037/2000 
    EU regulation covering ozone-depleting substances which seeks to protect the ozone layer 
  • Regasification 
    Process that occurs after LNG has been shipped and transferred to a storage tank. It is then warmed to convert it back into natural gas for distribution via pressurized pipeline to residential, commercial and industrial users. 
  • Regional Bulk Sizes 
    Kamsarmax, with a maximum length of 229 meters, the maximum length that can load in the port of Kamsar in the Republic of Guinea. Other terms such as Seawaymax, Setouchmax, Dunkirkmax, and Newcastlemax also appear in regional trade. 
  • Righting Moment 
    Ship Stability: The product of the weight of the vessel(displacement) and the righting arm(GZ) 
  • Risk 
    Risk should be clearly distinguished from hazard. Risk is the chance that a given hazardous effect will occur. The use of fire by humans is an example of optimizing the balance between hazard and risk, as fire, being extremely hazardous, must be used unde
  • Ro/Ro 
    A shortening of the term, “Roll On/Roll Off.” A method of ocean cargo service using a vessel with ramps which allows wheeled vehicles to be loaded and discharged without cranes. Also refers to any specialized vessel designed to carry Ro/Ro cargo. 
  • RSO 
    Recognized Security Organization 
  • Scaling Temperature 
    The temperature, above which steel oxidizes at a high rate 
  • SCNT 
    Suez Canal Net Tonnage 
  • Skyscraper 
    A small triangular sail set above the skysail in order to maximize effect in a light wind. 
  • Slop tanks 
    A tank utilized to store the COW medium and receipt of tank washings. 
  • Small 
    Tankers often used in coastal waters -Size: 10,001 dwt - 19,000 dwt 
  • SME 
    Small and medium-sized enterprise  
  • Smell  
    Tank Cleaning: Minor residues of a smell-producing cargo left in lines, valves and pumps (including pump cofferdams) can contaminate a sensitive cargo. To neutralise the smell of some chemicals (e.g. Acrylate, Nitrobenzene or Pygas) the use of a smell kil
  • SR 
    Stabilizer Room (OCIMF acronym) 
  • SS 
    Suez Laden, Suez Ballast 
  • Stabilization 
    An addition of titanium or niobium, making stainless steels less sensitive to intergranular corrosion 
  • stabilized Crude 
    Crude and condensates come from the ground mixed with gas and light gas liquids. Removal of these volatile materials leaves a stabilized stream--one with a vapor pressure ordinary storage and transportation vessels can safely handle. 
  • Stabilizer 
    A stabilizer is a substance added to another substance to prevent an alteration of its physical state. Stabilizers are added to plastics so as to allow them to have a long and useful life in any application, by keeping their properties stable. 
  • stable 
    The notion of constancy and steadiness has several applications in the oil industry. Frequently it describes crude freed of volatile light ends--stabilized crude. Other times, it refers to blends of compatible components, mixtures which will not spontaneo
  • STCW V Para 2 
    Completed specialized training that is required for officers who have operational responsibility for cargo transfer 
  • Sterilization  
    Sterilisation is the first process carried out at the oil mill. Fresh fruit bunches are loaded into cages as soon as possible after arrival at the mill, and the cages, which run on rails, are loaded into a horizontal cylindrical pressure vessel. The load
  • Styrenic plastics 
    Plastics based on resins made by the polymerization of styrene or co-polymerization of styrene with other unsaturated compounds the styrene being in greatest amount by weight. Styrene plastics are easy to process and offer excellent price/performance rati
  • Suez Net Tonnage Volume 
    100 cubic feet = 1 ton of cargo carrying capacity assigned to a vessel by the Suez Canal Authority, issued on vessel''s first transit of canal. The tonnage is used to calculate fees and tolls. 
  • Suezmax 
    Vessel designed for carrying bulk crude oil in tanks.(120,000 dwt - 200,000 dwt) 
  • Suezmax Tanker 
    A tanker of 120,000 to 199,000dwt. 
  • Superabsorbents 
    Polymers of acrylic acid, superabsorbent material is widely-used in personal care products to absorb fluids. It comes in the form of large particles, about the size of table salt, that are enclosed in the interior of the product, and helps to keep skin he
  • Superintendency 
    Practice of overseeing a project or ship as the authorized representative of a customer. 
  • sweetening 
    Processing to remove sulfur. Hydrodesulfurization, for instance, can produce sweet catfeed. Caustic washing can sweeten sour natural gasolines to make them suitable for motor gasoline blending. 
  • Synergy 
    The combined effects of more than one hazardous material resulting in more damage than the additive effects of each material 
  • Tallow 
    The rendered fat obtained mainly from beef carcass trimmings from the slaughter house. Some sheep fat may be included in commercial tallow, particularly in Australia and New Zealand. Tallow may be of edible or inedible quality. The latter is derived from
  • Tank Barge 
    Tank barges transport liquid cargoes like petroleum, petrochemicals and liquid fertilizers. Tank barges contain one or many tank compartments below deck with regulated temperature and pressure, depending on the cargo. Tank barges have special safety and s
  • TD-LO 
    Toxic Dose Low. The lowest dose of a hazardous substance introduced by means other than inhalation over a given time period that has been reported to produce toxic effects in humans or produced any tumors or adverse reproductive effects in animals or huma
  • TECH 
    Toxic, explosive, corrosive and hazardous (dangerous cargo) 
  • Toluene 
    Gasoline blenders and petrochemicals makers continually compete for possession of this aromatic. Its high octane and low vapor pressure make it an excellent blendstock. The chance to turn it into benzene appeals to the chemical industry. Refineries and st
  • Transpassive state 
    State of the metal polarized to a potential value above the range of a passive state, characterized by a considerable increase of the corrosion currents but no pitting corrosion 
  • Unitization 
    – The consolidation of a quantity of individual items into one large shipping unit for easier handling. – Loading one or more large items of cargo onto a single piece of equipment, such as a pallet. 
  • Validated Export License 
    A document issued by the U.S. government; authorizes the export of commodities for which written authorization is required by law. 
  • Vapor Pressure 
    The pressure generated by gases boiled off a liquid in a closed space. Standardized tests of this property, Reis method (RVP) most popular among them, report the observed pressure of liquid and gas in equilibrium at a particular temperature. 
  • VGO 
    An acronym for vacuum gasoil. Some organizations use the term process gasoil, and the acronym PGO, for this feedstock. 
  • VHF 
    Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. Frequencies immediately below VHF are denoted High frequency (HF), and the next higher frequencies are known as Ultra high frequency (UHF). 
  • VIZ 
    Videlicet (=namely) 
  • Viz. 
    Namely. Used in tariffs to specify commodities. 
  • Warm zone 
    Area where personnel and equipment decontamination and hot zone support take place. It includes control points for the access corridor and thus assists in reducing the spread of contamination. Also referred to as the decontamination, contamination reducti
  • Water Reactive 
    A chemical that reacts with water to release a gas that is either flammable or presents a health hazard.  
  • Wax 
    A mixture of long chain hydrocarbons that crystallize at different temperatures as the overall fluid temperature falls. 
  • Well Stimulation Vessel 
    A vessel primarily equipped to maximize oil production from a well 
  • WHO 
    World Health Organization 
  • Winterization 
    Some crude edible oils, especially those obtained by solvent extraction, contain among their non-oil components traces of wax from the seed coat which tend to give the oil a cloudy appearance. In addition, some liquid oils have a small content of high mel
  • WTO 
    World Trade Organization 
  • Yaw 
    A temporary swing off course by a vessel, usually because of waves, but may be caused by poor steering, currents, or wind. The horizontal angular deviation of a vessel’s longitudinal axis from the desired line of track. The angular, oscillatory motion (ro
  • Zulu (Greenwich Mean Time) 
  • Zone Time 
    The local time zone for any longitude, as opposed to and usually expressed as a deviation from Greenwich Mean time (+1, -5, etc.). 
  • ZUTC 
    Zulu (Greenwich Mean Time) 
  • Benzene Ring 
    6 carbon atoms in the form of a ring structure with a hydrogen atom attached to each carbon and is the basic building block of all aromatic chemicals 
  • Class 2 [Deck] 
    1st Mate, Chief Mate or Chief Officer: Entitles the holder to act as Chief Mate on a ship of any size with unlimited trading or may entitle the holder to act as Master on a ship but with restrictions on size or trading area. 
  • Class 3 [Deck] 
    2nd Mate: Entitles the holder to act as officer in charge of a navigational watch on a ship of any size with unlimited trading but may also entitle the holder to act as Chief Mate, or possibly Master, on a ship but with restrictions on size or trading are
  • Suez Net Tonnage Volume 
    100 cubic feet = 1 ton of cargo carrying capacity assigned to a vessel by the Suez Canal Authority, issued on vessel''s first transit of canal. The tonnage is used to calculate fees and tolls.